Gliders across the Solomon Sea

A collaboration:

         

The at-sea operations could not have been done without the assistance of Solomon Islanders Danny Kennedy of DiveGizo, Chanel Iroi of the Solomon Islands Meteorological Service, and the boat crews of the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI). This assistance is gratefully acknowledged.


This is a web page for the collaborating PIs to view quick-look plots as the missions are underway. These plots are made with raw data that may be corrected later. Please do not copy or distribute. Write to me (address at bottom) if you have any questions. BK

The plots are organized by mission (latest at bottom). Later sections often include plots showing results from earlier missions overlaid.
Jump down to particular missions:


Talk at the UW, 24 Oct 2007 (6.2Mb pdf file)
Poster at the Fall AGU meeting, Dec 2007 (3.3Mb pdf file)

Other relevant pages:


  1. Mission 3, first Solomon Sea transect (SN6 = 078006)
    Launched 18 Aug 2007 from N/O Alis, near Rossel Island, PNG
    Recovered 6 Nov 2007 near Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections   (Sign convention: positive is to the right of the track)
      1. Every-other complete section (also see .pdf)   Denser (pdf)
      2. Crosstrack transport accumulation
      3. Tide filter checking:   Velocity near Rossel    Example (v time series)
      4. Glider and SADCP velocity: Milne Bay   In the eastern Solomon Sea

      5. Crosstrack component of velocity: Absolute   Geostrophic   Reference level current
      6. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic currents

    2. T and S alongtrack
      T section between Shortland and Ranongga
    3. Salinity
      1. Salinity on sigmatheta   
      2. Salinity on sigmatheta 24.5 along track
      3. Mean TRMM rain rate (See more recent analyses under "rainfall" at the bottom of this page)

    4. Quikscat winds during the mission
      1. Mean winds during this period (on-average crosstrack)
      2. Curl east of the Solomon Sea (average over 160°E-160°W):
        1. Total curl
        2. Interannual anomalies: Time-latitude   Mean 10°S-6°N

  2. Mission 4, second Solomon Sea transect (SN18 = 07B018)
    Launched 14 Nov 2007 near Savo Island, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 4 Feb 2007 near Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections   (Sign convention: positive is to the right of the track)
      1. Complete velocity section (both missions combined) (c)  
        1. Milne Bay detail:   (Tide-filtered) (c)  Unfiltered (c)  pdf version for enlargement
        2. Overlay 2004 SADCP vectors (c)  
        3. Overlay CARS int(DH) (0-600m rel 2000m) (c)  
        4. Current speed (colors) and vectors    (Red) (c)  
        5. Crosstrack speed (colors) and vectors (c)  
      2. Velocity details near islands
        1. Rossel Island:
          1. Velocity   Unfiltered   Overlay comparison
          2. Approach to Rossel overlaid on nautical chart
          3. Compare measured and tide-filtered current speeds (detail)
        2. BudiBudi Island
          1. Unfiltered comparison SN6 and SN18 (c)  
          2. Eastward leg from BudiBudi (c)   Unfiltered (c)  
      3. Travel times in 10-day intervals (both missions combined)

      4. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic currents (c)  
      5. Crosstrack transport accumulation (c)  

    2. T and S alongtrack
    3. Salinity
      1. Salinity on sigmatheta   (Overlay temperature)
      2. Salinity in Milne Bay (compare 2 missions):   S(y,z)
        Quantities on isopycnals:   S(y,sigma)   T(y,sigma)   Isopycnal depth(y,sigma)
      3. Salinity on isopycnals
        1. S on 24.5:   With vertical-average velocity (c)   With crosstrack velocity on 24.5
        2. Detail in Milne Bay (c)  
        3. S on 24.5 from CARS
        4. S on 26.75

    4. Checking compass declination (compare original and corrected)
      1. Compass declination for Dec 2007
      2. DR vectors: All   Milne Bay detail
      3. Velocity vectors: All   Milne Bay detail   Eastward leg detail
      4. Crosstrack transport accumulation

  3. Mission 5, third Solomon Sea transect (SN1 = 082001)
    Launched 27 Feb 2008, 5km north of Honiara port, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 18 Jul 2008, near Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Complete velocity section (all three missions combined)
        Summary regional vectors
      2. Honiara-Rossel:  
        2nd and 3rd crossings overlaid:   Unfiltered   Tide-filtered   3rd crossing alone

      3. Velocity details (in time order: most recent is the last one in the list below)
        1. Near Guadalcanal launch   Unfiltered   Tide-filtered
        2. Eastern Solomon Sea:   Unfiltered   Tide-filtered
        3. Detail plots near 12°S,156°E:    Observed   Tide-filtered
          Extended to turn to north:   Observed   Tide-filtered
          Include turn to north:   Observed   Tide-filtered
        4. The detour on the way to Rossel
          1. Vectors to turnaround:   Observed   Tide-filtered
          2. Vectors continuing back south:   Observed   Tide-filtered
          3. Tide-filtered u and v as a function of latitude (Stop dive 522 = Rossel)
        5. Vectors approaching Rossel:   Observed   Tide-filtered
          Right up to Rossel (Jeff did it!):   Observed   Tide-filtered
          Approach to Rossel overlaid on nautical chart
        6. Passing Rossel:   Observed   Tide-filtered
        7. All 3 missions near Rossel
        8. All 3 missions past Rossel
        9. Extended further north

        10. Tidal current examples and details:
          1. Near 12°S,157°E:   u,v components   Along/crosstrack components   Tide-filter remainders
          2. In the turns getting towards Rossel:   in the eastward jet near 12°30S,157°20E (Stop dive 522 = Rossel)

      4. Travel times in 10-day intervals (all 3 missions combined)
        Speed made good

      5. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic currents     Up to Rossel     After Rossel
      6. Crosstrack transport accumulation:
        1. Mission 5, total and ug
        2. Compare missions 4 and 5
      7. Map comparison of crosstrack velocity among the 3 missions:
        Dyn Ht     Absolute velocity     Geostrophic velocity relative to 500m     Reference level velocity    

    2. T and S
      1. Temperature    Salinity    Sigmatheta
      2. Compare missions 4 and 5 outbound from Guadalcanal:   Temperature     Salinity
        (Trackline is similar, but Nov 2007 launch was about 30km further alongtrack. To turn back south, dive 390.)
      3. Map comparisons among 3 missions:  
        SST     SSS     Z10     Z15     Z20     Z10-Z20 thickness     Salinity maximum     Depth of S maximum

  4. Mission 6, fourth Solomon Sea transect (SN6 = 087006)
    Launched 4 Jul 2008, 3km south of Gizo reef, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 15 Oct 2008, near Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Complete velocity section (all four missions combined)
      2. Daily-average vectors for mission6 (Velocity proportional to the Area of vectors): 
        Whole section       Loop near Rossel       Repeat course SW of Gizo
      3. Rossel loop:   Vectors     Inward transport     (Also see daily average vectors above)
      4. Repeat course SW of Gizo:     Vectors     (Also see daily average vectors above)
      5. Azimuthal velocity around Rossel Island, PNG (all 4 missions)

      6. Travel times in 10-day intervals (all 4 missions combined)
        Speed made good

      7. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity (whole mission)
        To dive 200 (Tagula)     Dives 413-519 (Rossel to Gizo)     Dives 1-519 (Gizo-Tagula-Rossel-Gizo)
      8. Crosstrack transport accumulation
        1. Absolute transport
        2. Compare absolute and geostrophic transport

    2. T and S
      1. Temperature    Salinity    Sigmatheta    T-S
      2. Map comparisons among 4 missions:  
        1. SST     SSS     Z10     Z15     Z20     Z25     Z10-Z20 thickness     Salinity maximum     Depth of S maximum
        2. Salinity on isopycnals:   25    26    26.5 (updated regularly)    26.7    
      3. T and S on the repeated track SW of Gizo (approach Gizo, then run back SW 130km and return)
        Leg 1 (N-bound) = 6.4 days. Leg 2 (S-bound) = 8.3 days. Leg 3 (N-bound) = 8.n days)
        1. Temperature     Salinity     Combined    
        2. Salinity maximum:   Smax(y)     Profiles near 9.2°S:   S(z)     T(S)

  5. Mission 7, fifth Solomon Sea transect (SN18 = 08B018)
    Launched 10 Nov 2008, 5km south of Gizo reef, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Complete velocity section (all five missions combined)    
        Along-track average vectors:  
        1. 2-day average vectors    
        2. 40-km average vectors
      2. Details:
        1. The repeat section SW of Gizo:   Vectors     Daily-average vectors     Color vectors by salinity on 24.5
        2. Near Rossel:   All vectors     25-km average vectors (include loops)     20-km average vectors (close to Rossel)

      3. Travel times in 10-day intervals (all 5 missions combined)
        Speed made good

      4. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 7 u_g
        2. Comparison to mission6 on SSW track out of Gizo (on latitude to 12.5°S)
        3. Comparison to mission6 on Gizo-Tagula (on distance to Tagula)
        4. Profiles of the NGCU:   4 sections across the NGCU     Average NGCU speed profiles (and section map)
                NGCU for previous missions:   5 sections     Average NGCU profiles (and section map)
                Mean and RMS NGCU profiles for all 9 sections

      5. Crosstrack transport accumulation
        1. Absolute transport     Overlay geostrophic transport
        2. Compare Gizo-Tagula transport Jul-Aug vs Nov-Dec 08

    2. T and S
      1. Temperature    Salinity    Sigmatheta    T-S
      2. Map comparisons among 4 missions:  
        1. SST     SSS     Z8     Z10     Z15     Z20     Z25     Z10-Z20 thickness     DH rel 500m   (rel 700m)    
          Salinity maximum:   S(max)     Depth of S(max)     Density of S(max)     S(sigmatheta=24.5)     Depth of Sigma=24.5
        2. Details near Gizo:   SST     SSS     Z10     Z15     Z20     Z25     Z10-Z20 thickness     S(max)     Depth of S(max)     S(sigmatheta=24.5)     Depth of Sigma=24.5
      3. T and S on the repeated track SW of Gizo (approach Gizo, then run back SW 130km and return)
        Mission6: Leg 1 (N-bound) = 6.4 days. Leg 2 (S-bound) = 8.3 days. Leg 3 (N-bound) = 8.n days).
        Now add mission7:
        1. Salinity maximum:   S(Sigma=24.5,y)     Smax(y)     Max each profile for mission6     T(S) and max
        2. Profiles near 9.2°S:   S(z)     T(S)
        3. Daily vectors colored by salinity on 24.5 (Same as 5.a.2)
      4. Salinity on the track SSW from Gizo to 12.5°S. Compare missions 6 and 7:
        1. On latitude, to 12.5°S   S(z)    T-S (unfiltered)    T-S (tide-filtered)     T-S difference between missions
        2. On distance, to Tagula:   T-S and difference

  6. Mission 8, sixth Solomon Sea transect (SN1 = 097001)
    Launched 13 July 2009, north of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 1 Nov 2009, near Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:  
        1. 2-day average vectors    
        2. 40-km average vectors     Just latest mission

      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 8 u_g
        2. u_g in sections:   Gizo-Tagula    Tagula-Tagula loop    Rossel-BudiBudi    BudiBudi-near Bougainville
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation
        1. Absolute transport
        2. Vectors colored by accumulated crosstrack transport

    2. T and S
      1. Temperature    Salinity    Sigmatheta    T-S

  7. Mission 9, seventh Solomon Sea transect (SN6 = 097006)
    Launched 13 July 2009, north of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    (Trip to Misima)
    Recovered 31 Oct 2009, near Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Complete velocity section (all 7 missions combined)     (pdf version)
      2. Along-track average vectors:  
        1. 2-day average vectors    
        2. 40-km average vectors     Just latest mission     (Compare the Ekman velocity average over 700m)
        3. Gizo details:  Track south to 12°S:  20-km average vectors     Missions 6-9     (Add N-ward leg)     Very near Gizo
          See other Gizo section details below at Crosstrack current on sigma levels   and   T and S sections on the leg SW from Gizo
        4. Rossel details:   25-km average vectors     Zoom near Rossel     Latest 2 missions only     Extend to Misima

      3. Travel times in 10-day intervals (all 7 missions combined)     (Just missions 8-9)
        Speed made good

      4. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 9 u_g
        2. u_g in sections:   Gizo-Rossel     Rossel-Gizo     Gizo-Pocklington     Final leg Pocklington-Gizo
        3. Absolute crosstrack currents at sigma levels:
          1. 24     25     25.5     26.5     27
          2. Rossel detail:   24    25    25.5    26.5    27
          3. The leg south from Gizo detail:   24    25    25.5    26.5    27
          4. All the crosstrack-on-sigma plots on one page
      5. Crosstrack transport accumulation
        1. Absolute transport     Overlay mission8 (on latitude)

      6. Absolute ug 100-km sections across the NGCU into Rossel-Tagula:  
        1. Missions 8-9:  4 sections across the NGCU     Average NGCU profiles (and map)
                                  Overlay S     On density     Profiles on density
        2. Mission 7:   4 sections across the NGCU   Profiles/map
                              Overlay S     On density     Profiles on density
        3. Earlier missions:  5 sections across the NGCU   Profiles/map
                                      Overlay S     On density     Profiles on density
        4. All 13 sections missions 4-9:  
          1. Section timeline    
          2. Profiles colored by mission:  u(z)     u(sigma)
          3. Profiles colored by season:   u(z)     u(sigma)
          4. Profiles on depth, colored by density     Profiles on density, colored by depth
          5. Profiles colored by salinity:   u(z,S)     u(sigma,S)
          6. Seasonal mean profiles:   u(z)     (u(z), omit odd one))     (u(sigma)
          7. Vertical-offshore sections on one page:   On z     On density
          8. Velocity on density (colored by salinity) (all sections combined)
          9. Compare with the Johnson et al equatorial sections (jump to bottom of page)

    2. T and S
      1. Temperature    Salinity    Sigmatheta    T-S
      2. Map comparisons among 7 missions:  
        1. SST     SSS     Z8     Z10     Z15     Z20     Z25     Z10-Z20 thickness     Z(sigma=27)     DH rel 500m   (rel 700m)    
          Salinity maximum:   S(max)     Depth of S(max)     Density of S(max)     S(sigmatheta=24.5)     S(sigmatheta=26.5)     Depth of Sigma=24.5
        2. S on isopycnals for the last 2 missions:   On sigma 24.5     On sigma 26.5
        3. All the above maps on one scrollable page
        4. Profiling depths
      3. T and S sections on the leg SW from Gizo (missions 6-9) (plotted on latitude, with Gizo to the right)
        1. Temperature
        2. Salinity
        3. Sigmatheta
        4. T-S
      4. A check: T-S profiles on the track south from Gizo:  9°S    10°S    11°S    11.5°S    

    3. Compare dive statistics for the tandem mission

  8. Mission 10, eighth Solomon Sea transect (SN18 = 09B018)
    Launched 7 Nov 2009, west of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 24 Feb 2010, near Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. 40-km average vectors     Latest mission only     Each mission individually, on a single page
        2. Gizo details:  Track south to 12.5°S,155°E:  Missions 6-10
        3. Rossel details:  25-km average vectors     (another version: linecolor)
      2. Vertical sections across the NGCU south of Tagula
        (also see comparisons with earlier missions in section 9.a.7 above)
      3. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 10 ug:  Whole section     Gizo-Tagula-Rossel     Misima-BudiBudi_dive 459     Misima-latest dive
        2. Crosstrack ug on the track south from Gizo (line plots at several depths for missions 6-10)
      4. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance     On latitude

    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S    
      2. A check: T-S profiles on the track south from Gizo:  9°S    10°S    11°S    12°S    
      3. Comparison of missions 6-10 on the track south from Gizo:  Isotherm depths     Isopycnal depths
      4. Map comparisons (stopped plotting overlays since each new one is covering up previous missions)
        1. S on isopycnals, mission 10:   On sigma 24.5     On sigma 26.5
          Note that the color shading levels are different from all previous comparisons:
          S on 24.5 is higher by about 0.1psu and S on 26.5 lower by about 0.05psu than previously seen.
          Crosstrack current on the isopycnal, colored by salinity:   Sigma 24.5     Sigma 26.5
        2. S on isopycnals, compare previous missions:   Values of S     Relative to each mission's mean S
          Mission10:   Salinity(distance,density)       Relative to mission-mean S on each isopycnal

  9. Mission 11, ninth Solomon Sea transect (SN42 = 104042)
    Launched 19 April 2010, west of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 28 Jan 2011, northwest of Manus Island, Papua New Guinea
    Glider steering failed mid-mission. Velocity data is unreliable.

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. 40-km average vectors     Latest mission only
        2. Gizo details: Track south to 12.5°S,155°E, all 6 missions
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 11 ug:  Whole section    
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance    
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page
      2. Tides south of Rossel (examples):  Salinity    Sigmatheta    d(sigma)/dz    Temperature    (u,v)

  10. Mission 12, tenth Solomon Sea transect (SN43 = 104043)
    Launched 19 April 2010, west of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    (Trip to New Britain)
    Recovered 9 Sep 2010, in Vella Gulf, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. 40-km average vectors     Latest mission only     25-km vectors, shaded by distance
        2. Details:  BudiBudi-New Britain-Bougainville
              Zoom near New Britain
              Map showing dive locations over bathymetry at NB coast
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 12 ug:  Whole section    
        2. Bottom panel only, larger     Add sigma contours
        3. Near New Britain details: Dives 151-265     Since leaving New Britain
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance    
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page

  11. Mission 13, eleventh Solomon Sea transect (SN01 = 109001)
    Launched 28 September 2010, southwest of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 24 Jan 2011, near Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. 40-km average vectors     Latest mission only     Zoom     Each mission individually, on a single page
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 13 ug:  Whole section
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance    
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page

  12. Mission 14, twelfth Solomon Sea transect (SN27 = 111027)
    Launched 31 January 2011, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 31 May 2011, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. Zoom     Compare late La Nina missions: 2008 and 2011
          All: 12 colors
        2. Each mission individually, on a single page
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 14 ug:  Whole section
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance    
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page
    3. Other
      1. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis winds and curl in late 2010

  13. Mission 15, 13th Solomon Sea transect (SN18 = 113018)
    Launched 31 March 2011, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 12 July 2011, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. Zoom
        2. Each mission individually, on a single page
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 15 ug:  Whole section
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance    
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page

  14. Mission 16, 14th Solomon Sea transect (SN6 = 117006)
    Launched 10 July 2011, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Failed ... damaged tail. Hit by ship?
    Recovered (rescued) 12 Aug 2011, about 200km SW of Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

  15. Mission 17, 15th Solomon Sea transect (SN43 = 117043)
    Launched 27 July 2011, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 8 Dec 2011, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. Vectors
        2. Each mission individually, on a single page
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 17 ug:  Whole section
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance    
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page

  16. Mission 18, 16th Solomon Sea transect (SN1 = 11A001)
    Launched 12 October 2011, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 13 February 2011, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. Vectors
        2. Each mission individually, on a single page
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 18 ug:  Whole section
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance    
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page

  17. Mission 19, 17th Solomon Sea transect (SN42 = 11C042)
    Launched 07 December 2011, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 19 April 2012, in the channel between Simbo and Ranongga, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. Vectors     (Colored by date)
        2. Each mission individually, on a single page
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 15 ug:  Whole section
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance    
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page

  18. Mission 20, 18th Solomon Sea transect (SN27 = 124027)
    Launched 19 April 2012, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 16 Aug 2012 (Gizo)

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. Vectors     (Colored by date)
        2. Each mission individually, on a single page
        3. Squirts near 10°S, 156°E
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 20 ug:  Whole section
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance    
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page

  19. Mission 21, 19th Solomon Sea transect (SN18 = 125018)
    Launched 31 May 2012, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    (Waited 40 days near Gizo before heading SW)
    Recovered 24 Oct 2012 (Gizo)

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. Vectors colored by date
        2. Each mission individually, on a single page
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 21 ug:  Whole section
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance    
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page

  20. Mission 22, 20th Solomon Sea transect (SN53 = 12A053)
    Launched 10 Oct 2012, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 20 Feb 2013, south of Gizo

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. Vectors colored by date
        2. Each mission individually, on a single page
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 22 ug:  Whole section
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance    
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page

  21. Mission 23, 21st Solomon Sea transect (SN6 = 12C006)
    Launched 3 Dec 2012, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 8 Apr 2013, south of Gizo

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. Vectors colored by date
        2. Each mission individually, on a single page
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 23 ug:  Whole section
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance    
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page

  22. Mission 24, 22nd Solomon Sea transect (SN43 = (135043)
    Launched 14 May 2013, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 1 Sep 2013, south of Gizo

    Complete track map from Scripps (while sn43 is in the water)

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. Vectors colored by date
        2. Each mission individually, on a single page
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 24 ug:  Whole section
        2. Checking for squirts. Unfiltered velocity and SST
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance     Adjust to 700m using ug
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page

  23. Mission 25, 23nd Solomon Sea transect (SN42 = (137042)
    Launched 12 Jul 2013, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Waited near Gizo until 4 Aug 2013 (dive 56) ...
    Recovered near Gizo at dive 487 14 Nov 2013

    Complete track map from Scripps

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. Vectors colored by date
        2. Each mission individually, on a single page
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 25 ug:  Whole section
        2. Checking for squirts. Unfiltered velocity and SST
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance     Adjust to 700m using ug
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page

  24. Mission 26, 24th Solomon Sea transect (SN27 = (139027)
    Launched 29 Sep 2013, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Steering failed after shark hit. Returned to Gizo without getting to PNG.

    Complete track map from Scripps (while sn27 is in the water)

  25. Mission 27, 25nd Solomon Sea transect (SN1 = (13B001)
    Launched 22 Nov 2013, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands
    Recovered 26 Feb 2014, south of Gizo, Solomon Islands

    Complete track map from Scripps (while sn1 is in the water)

    1. Velocity sections
      1. Along-track average vectors:
        1. Vectors colored by date
        2. Each mission individually, on a single page
      2. Absolute crosstrack geostrophic velocity
        1. Mission 25 ug:  Whole section
        2. Checking for squirts. Unfiltered velocity and SST
      3. Crosstrack transport accumulation:   On distance     Adjust to 700m using ug
    2. T and S
      1. Temperature     Salinity     Sigmatheta     T-S     S(sigma)     All on one page



  26. Combined analyses (includes some plots also shown above)

    1. Track maps for all completed missions

    2. Cross-sea transport timeseries (missions 3-14 ... now extended)
      1. Total top-to-bottom
      2. Breakdown W-bound vs E-bound, and Total, Interior, Western boundary
      3. Breakdown by density
        1. Total and common density range     Surface to sigma 26.7
        2. Bar plots: 3 density classes     Add largest common density range
      4. Transport time series through M25 (137042) (v12): 
        1. Full-depth     Last 2 missions to 700m only
        2. Add annual cycle fit and SOI:  v1     v2     Lijiang version
      5. Transport time series through M27 (13B001) (v13):
        1. Raw values:  Full-depth     Include latest missions adjusted to 700m
        2. Overlay smoothed:  Full-depth     Adjust to 700m
        3. Check seasonal cycle fitting methods
        4. Also show fit seasonal cycle:  Full-depth     Adjust to 700m (v13, see J-index below)
        5. Seasonal, interannual and SOI
          Compare seasonal and interannual for full-depth vs 700m adjustment
      6. Some checking (combining GR3 and raw files through 13B001):
        1. Putting GR3 and later raw together     Compare eyeball transports to J-index specification
        2. Monthly interpolations check
        3. Monthly section count (45 sections through 13B001)
        4. Time series smoothed, compare v13 and J-index
        5. Seasonal cycle fit for J-index (see v13 above)
        6. Seaonal fit and interannual anomalies. Compare J-index and v13
        7. Results for J-index:  Glider raw values, seasonal fit and interannual anomalies     Glider interannual transport and SOI
      7. Can surface ug indicate transport?
        1. Scatter of vertical-average vs surface ug:
          Least-squares lines     Variance ellipses     Variance ellipses extended     Show off-plot values     Binned obs counts (better)
        2. Compare transport and sfc ug times depth timeseries: 
          Raw values     Normalized by variance     151-day triangle filter     151-day normalized
          Note these use realtime values (uncorrected)
      8. Another page: comparing Sol Sea transport to Argo Pacific transport

    3. Transport in density classes
      1. Integrated transport across the Solomon Sea:
        1. All 15 coast-to-coast crossings
        2. WBC vs Interior transport: (Include all NGCU crossings)     (westbound missions only)
              Mean WBC, Interior, Total
        3. 16 crossings of the NGCU at Rossel/Tagula
      2. Crosstrack current as a function of density (8 (distance,density) plots)
      3. Crosstrack accumulation in density classes     Overlay integration on z (a check)
      4. Density ranges:
        Shallowest    Deepest    Deepest (demeaned)
        Deepest (overlaid lineplot)    Demeaned    

    4. Crosstrack accumulation plots for all missions

    5. Vertically-averaged vectors:
      1. Overlaid every-3rd vector all missions
      2. 40-km-average vectors for each mission (8 plots)

    6. Repeated sections southward from Gizo to 12.5°S-155°E:  Early version
      GR2:   Mission numbers     For AGU talk 2011

    7. EOFs:
      1. Velocity:
        1. Crosstrack speed on density levels: Percent variance    Vertical structure eigenfunctions
          Spatial patterns: EOF 1    EOF 2    EOF 3    
      2. Salinity:
        1. Salinity on density levels: Percent variance    Vertical structure eigenfunctions
          Spatial patterns: EOF 1    EOF 2    EOF 3   .....   EOF 5    

    8. Absolute ug 100-km sections across the NGCU into Rossel-Tagula/Sudest:
      1. Mission10: 3 sections south of Tagula
      2. Missions 8-9:  4 sections across the NGCU     Average NGCU profiles (and map)
                                Overlay S     On density     Profiles on density
      3. Mission 7:   4 sections across the NGCU   Profiles/map
                            Overlay S     On density     Profiles on density
      4. Missions 4-6:  5 sections across the NGCU   Profiles/map
                                    Overlay S     On density     Profiles on density
      5. All 16 sections missions 4-10:
        1. Section timeline    
        2. Profiles colored by mission:  u(z)     u(sigma)
        3. Profiles colored by season:   u(z)     u(sigma)
        4. Profiles on depth, colored by density     Profiles on density, colored by depth
        5. Profiles colored by salinity:   u(z,S)     u(sigma,S)     and temperature: u(sigma,T)
        6. Seasonal mean profiles:   u(z)     (u(z), omit odd one))     (u(sigma)
        7. Vertical-offshore sections on one page:   On z     On density
        8. Velocity on density (colored by salinity) (all sections combined)
        9. Compare with the Johnson et al equatorial sections (jump to bottom of page)

      6. 37 sections across the NGCU, to July 2013

    9. Westbound vs Eastbound missions
      1. Coast-to-coast mean speed profiles:  Crosstrack     Positive into Solomon Sea     Transport/depth
      2. All-mission means and RMS: Crosstrack     Positive into Solomon Sea
      3. Scatter plots vs transport:  vs Distance     vs number of dives     vs dive number difference
      4. Experiments adjusting the surface drift (mission13)

    10. 16 crossings in front of the channel between Rossel and Tagula/Sudest

    11. Maps of Salinity on isopycnals:   Values of S     Relative to each mission's mean S

    12. GR2,3 work and phi coord:
      1. Maps showing GR3 positions over complete missions: 
        Track lines:   All missions     (another version)     Mission by mission
        Vectors:   All     Color by sign of veq     Color by Nino3.4
      2. Vectors near Rossel
      3. Sampling (SST): phi vs yearday
      4. Veq(phi) colored by mission:  All     Omit mission 104043 (New Britain)     Detail of WBC
      5. Veq(phi) gray dots:  Binned     Gaussian mapping:  Scale=0.01phi     0.02phi
      6. Veq(phi) dots colored by Nino3.4
      7. Veq(phi,z): (These are early, wrong)
        1. On z-levels:   50m    275m    300m    400m    675m    
        2. On sigma levels:   22    23    24    25    26    26.5    26.5 - omit NB    27    
      8. Repeat sections SW of Gizo:   Mission numbers     For AGU talk 2011
      9. Transport timeseries:
        1. Overlay SOI (Values read (carefully) from RD plot)
        2. Transport, Vg, Nino3.4 dots

    13. Fitting a 1cpy harmonic to glider Q (and etc: calculations on phi).
      1. Some early interpolation tests:   Index numbers:  Linear     Boxcar     u at phi=0.2, both ways to do it
      2. Mean W-bound vectors averaged on phi
      3. Harmonics: Mean, Vfrac, Amp, Phase:  Salt    Sigma    Rel ug    Abs ug    q(phi,z)     q(phi,z) improved
        Compare q Davis et al Fig.9
      4. Mean+RMS Q (z-int):  Total     1 cpy     Both
      5. 1 cpy Q contours (phi,t)     (using zaxreplace_avg; better)    2 years
        Various other versions and gridding tests: 
      6. 1 cpy vectors (u,v):  Monthly     Bimonthly
        png versions:  Bimonthly     (smaller)     Detail near Sudest
      7. North region (and some combinations)
        1. Maps and boundaries: Data to date     Colored by mission numbers     Colored by phi     N section boundaries
          Nsection2: extend towards Rossel, cut inner Milne Bay
        2. Mean velocity for various processing choices:  zaxreplace?     zaxreplace_avg     Gaussian-grid
          Nsection2 (tweaked) (png)
        3. Vectors + harmonics:  Early one
        4. Vectors+harmonics both sections:  Simple N     Gaussian-grid     Better     Best?     Nsection2 (tweaked)
        5. q(phi,z) on the N section:  Simple mean     Fitted mean
        6. Q(phi,t) harmonic reconstructions:  1 year     2 years
          Same as above with fewer contours:  1 year     2 years
        7. Mean and RMS of crosstrack ug (both regions):  (phi,z)    (converted to km,z)    Overlay mean contours on RMS (phi,z)
        8. Variance ellipses of vertical-average velocity   Correct variance calculation (binned u,v,squares+product)     Half-RMS ellipses for visibility
      8. Gaussian-grid both the Southern and Northern tracks on phi:   Means and RMS
      9. Calculations of the SPATIAL alongtrack velocity variance:
        1. "Straight-segment" selection for gridded velocity variance:  Wbound only, colored by phi     Both sections showing segments
          Nsection2:  Both sections   Detail near Rossel  SW-NE orientation for northonly
        2. Wbound section variances (phi,z):  Lowpass filters     Highpass filters     Bandpass filters
        3. Northern section variances (phi,z):  Lowpass filters     Highpass filters     Bandpass filters
        4. Nsection2 lowpass for SW-NE only     Compare all 3 Nsection versions for unfiltered
        5. Total variance both sections
        6. Example of large anomalies during a squirt (m14 111027)

      10. A fresh pool near 12.7°S,154.6°E, discovered during above calculations:
        Reference map     S, overlay T     Another version     Sigma     ug, overlay sigma

    14. UH tide gauges (Honiara, Alotau, Lae):
      1. Whole time series
      2. Differences:   Overlap period
        1994 (both)     Honiara-Lae (1994-97)

    15. Miscellaneous useful stuff:

  27. Other relevant analyses
    1. Winds, Ekman transport, and Rossby model (includes plots from all missions)
      1. ERS wind stress, curl, and Island Rule circulation
      2. Anomalies during Aug 07-Feb 08 (S.Pacific):   Tau   Curl
      3. Solomon Sea Quikscat winds and curl:   Mean 99-08     Mean Aug 07-Nov 08     Trans-Pacific mean
        Time series of Curl(tau)/beta*rho along 11°S
      4. Movie of winds and curl (Aug 07-Feb 08) (800Kb gif animation)
      5. TAO buoy equatorial wind/SST/Z20 anomalies
      6. Ekman transport:
        1. Ekman transport for mission4:   Wind vectors   Add Ekman velocity   Velocity components
        2. Winds sampled along the glider tracks (missions 3-9):   Wind vectors     Ekman velocity (transport/700m)
        3. Accumulated crosstrack Ekman transport by mission:   3    4    5    6    7    8    9
        4. Ekman transport south of Tagula (climatology)
      7. A Rossby model solution forced with monthly anomalies of Quikscat winds during Aug 1999-Jun 2008
        1. Movie of solution for Solomon Sea region (390Kb gif animation)
        2. Rossby solution sampled on the times/locations of the glider tracks
        3. Month-by-month Rossby solution (no western boundary)
        4. WBC from Rossby/Godfrey model:   Anomalies     Total     Compare Bluelink transport
        5. Page for Firing Island Rule calculations (Feb 2014)

    2. Figures from the CARS climatology (Ridgway and Dunn 2003)
      1. Sections at 10°S:   T    S    vg    vg west of 180°    

    3. Tidal decompositions
      1. Example: the slow approach to Gizo
      2. Mission3 M2 Temperature:   Amplitude     Phase
      3. Mission3 M2 Salinity:   Amplitude     Phase
      4. Diurnal cycle temperature amplitude
      5. Mission3 M2 isopycnal displacement:   Amplitude     (Detail above 150m)     Phase
      6. M2 tides fit to glider isopycnal displacements (all missions) (Later work)

    4. Rainfall
      (See the GSFC TRMM product description page)
      1. Mean rainfall:  Western Pacific     Solomon Sea:  3B43-v6 product     3A12 product (also shows integrating box)
      2. Time series integrated over box in above (and annual cycles)
      3. Annual cycle timeseries along 7°S

    5. Mean velocity and density from the Johnson et al (2002) CTD/SADCP compilation
      1. On the equator:   u and sigma on z     u and salt on density
      2. On 180°:   u and sigma on z     u and salt on density     u profiles colored by salinity

    6. Examples of velocity when the glider turned sharply

    7. Checking the glider vertical speed (examples from mission8)
      1. Individual dives:   Depth vs time (spaghetti)     (shade)     Vertical speed as a fn of depth
      2. Mean over mission 8:   50m intervals     25m intervals
      3. Examples of effect of non-constant sampling (idealized profiles):   No shear     Linear shear
      4. Mission 8 actual profiles corrected (and difference):   Vertical average crosstrack speed     Transport    Transport accumulation

    8. OSCAR currents
      1. Mean currents over 2002-2008
      2. Gif movie of Solomon Sea current vectors (3.7Mb)
      3. Time series of u:
        1. (y,t) sections:   at 153.5°E, south of Tagula     154.5°E, south of Rossel
        2. Time series at 12.5°S,153.5°E:   Values     Anomalies     Climatology

    9. Surface drifters
      1. Drifter track maps in gif movie format. They will be meaningless watched as a movie. It's just a convenient way to package a series of maps. Download these and click through the maps one at a time.
        1. All 501 drifter tracks in the Solomon Sea (1Mb)
        2. 19 tracks through Vitiaz St (185Kb)
        3. 50 tracks through Solomon St (480Kb)
        4. 20 tracks through Indispensable St (190Kb)
        5. 18 tracks past Rossel Island (176Kb)
        6. 26 tracks ending on the east side of the Solomons (238Kb)

    10. Historical ADCP data
      1. Plot collection
      2. Moana Wave 1993 survey

    11. Squirts
      1. Mission by mission plots focusing on the central Solomon Sea (every dive shown)
      2. Details based on searching the above
      3. Early squirt explorations
      4. Mission by mission SST sections (all missions)     T(z=100m)
      5. Sampling as a function of phi (and SST variation by time of year)
        1. Gray-shade number of samples by month and phi
        2. Add SST:  Annual distribution of sampling, colored by SST     Also show phi by line height     (Add panel for monthly sample count)
        3. GHR SST year by year, with glider sampling overlaid
              (GHRSST annual cycle)     (GHRSST gradient annual cycle)
      6. Later exploration of squirts connected to SST fronts:
        1. Manual exploration of vertical structure of these (a few interesting locations, old version, see next one).
        2. Add GHR SST, and focus on the upper 200m (better, more complete)
      7. 58 sections across the NGCU, to July 2013
        Maps of SST and vectors, and vertical sections of T, S, crosstrack current.
        1. All 59 sections together
        2. 28 sections inbound from S of the Louisiades
        3. 29 sections outbound NE from Rossel
        4. 2 sections approaching and leaving BudiBudi
        5. Mean in/outbound fields:  Crosstrack current     S on sigmatheta
        6. Transport time series in/outbound

    12. Poste Rouge, Toulouse

    Main southwest Pacific page

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    NOAA logo Dr. William S. Kessler
    NOAA / PMEL / OCRD
    7600 Sand Point Way NE
    Seattle WA 98115 USA
    Tel:   206-526-6221
    Fax:  206-526-6744
    E-mail:  william.s.kessler@noaa.gov
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