Anthony G. Greenwald, PhD

SELECTED ARTICLES & CHAPTERS, BY TOPIC

Most of the publications on this page are available as downloads

Implicit Social Cognition (1995-present)
Unconscious Cognition (1989-present)
Student Ratings of Instruction (1995-present)
Attitudes and Social Cognition (1965-present)
The Self (1980-1994)
Research Methodology (1975-present)
Control of Voluntary Attention and Action (1970-1973)
Reward and Punishment in Human Learning (1966-1970)

Click here for a separate page with some unpublished papers          [return to home page]


IMPLICIT SOCIAL COGNITION         Back to Top

Kang, J., Bennett, M. W., Carbado, D. W., Casey, P., Dasgupta, N., Faigman, D. L., Godsil, R. D., Greenwald, A. G. , Levinson, J. D., & Mnookin, J. L. (2012).  Implicit bias in the courtroom. UCLA Law Review, 59, 1124–1186. [PDF - 618KB]

Kawakami, K., Phills, C. E., Greenwald, A. G., Simard, D., Pontiero, J., Brnjas, A., Khan, B., Mills, J., & Dovidio, J. F. (2012). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 562–575.  [PDF - 100KB]

Cvencek, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2012). Balanced identity theory: Evidence for implicit consistency in social cognition. In Gawronski, B., & Strack, F. (Eds.), Cognitive consistency: A unifying concept in social psychology (pp. 157–177). New York: Guilford Press. [PDF - 737KB]

Cvencek, D., Greenwald, A. G., Brown, A., Snowden, R., Gray, N. (in press). Faking of the Implicit Association Test is statistically detectable and partly correctable.  Basic and Applied Social Psychology. [PDF - 324KB]

Cvencek, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Meltzoff, A, N. (2011). Measuring Implicit attitudes of 4-year-old children: The Preschool Implicit Association Test. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109, 187–200. [PDF - 203KB]

Cvencek, D., Meltzoff, A. N., & Greenwald, A. G. (2011). Math–gender stereotypes in elementary-school children.  Child Development, 82, 766–789. [PDF - 342KB]

Leavitt, K., Fong, C. T., & Greenwald, A. G. (2011). Asking about well-being gets you half an answer: Intra-individual processes of implicit and explicit job attitudes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 672–687. [PDF - 123KB]

Sheets, P., Domke, D., & Greenwald, A. G. (2011). God and Country: The partisan psychology of the presidency, religion, and nation. Political Psychology, 32, 459–484.  [PDF - 172KB]

Pinter, B., & Greenwald, A. G. (2011). A comparison of minimal group induction procedures. Group Processes and Interpersonal Relations, 14, 81–98.  [PDF - 575KB]

Cvencek, D., Greenwald, A. G., Brown, A., Snowden, R., Gray, N. (2010). Faking of the Implicit Association Test is statistically detectable and partly correctable.  Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 32, 302–314. [PDF - 373KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Sriram, N. (2010). No measure is perfect, but some measures can be quite useful: Response to two comments on the Brief Implicit Association Test. Experimental Psychology, 57, 238–242. [PDF - 81KB]

Andrews, J. A., Hampson, S. E., Greenwald, A. G., Gordon, J,, & Widdop, C. (2010). Using the Implicit Association Test to assess children’s implicit attitudes toward smoking. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 2387–2406 [PDF - 120KB]

Cvencek, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Meltzoff, A. N. (in press). Balanced identity theory: Evidence for implicit consistency in social cognition. In Gawronski, B., & Strack, F. (Eds.), Cognitive consistency: A unifying concept in social psychology. New York: Guilford Press. [PDF - 342KB]

Sheets, P., Domke, D., & Greenwald, A. G. (in press). God and Country: The partisan psychology of the presidency, religion, and nation. Political Psychology  [PDF - 187KB]

Pinter, B., & Greenwald, A. G. (2010, in press). A comparison of minimal group induction procedures. Group Processes and Interpersonal Relations.  [PDF - 195KB]

Cvencek, D., Meltzoff, A. N., & Greenwald, A. G. (2010, in press). Math–gender stereotypes in elementary-school children.  Child Development. [PDF - 401KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Smith, C. T., Sriram, N., Bar-Anan, Y., & Nosek, B. A. (2009). Race attitude measures predicted vote in the 2008 U. S. Presidential Election. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 9, 241–253.  [PDF - 435KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 17–41. [PDF - 634KB].
Also: Non-technical brief summary of meta-analysis - 105KB. 
Also: summary of articles showing IAT validity in "real-world" samples. 
Also: Archive for above meta-analysis (it's big — 95 MEGAbytes; please check description of contents before deciding to download).  The archive is intended to make the database of the meta-analysis accessible to others who may wish to do further analyses or are considering doing a further meta-analysis that might use the same database.  To download the 95 MB zipfile, click here.

Sriram, N., & Greenwald, A. G. (2009). The Brief Implicit Association Test.  Experimental Psychology, 56, 283–294.  [PDF ].
Also: Supplementary materials [PDF - 323KB] (mainly stimulus words and images) for Sriram & Greenwald Brief IAT article. This is the only source of these materials — they are not in the journal article.

Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Sriram, N., Lindner, N. M., Devos, T., Ayala, A., Bar-Anan, Y., Bergh, R., Cai, H., Gonsalkorale, K., Kesebir, S., Maliszewski, N., Neto, F., Olli, E., Park, J., Schnabel, K., Shiomura, K., Tulbure, B., Wiers, R. W., Somogyi, M., Akrami, N., Ekehammar, B., Vianello, M., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2009). National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 10593–10597. [PDF - 233KB]

Also: zipfile including article reprint along with supplementary materials and analyses [zipfile - 269KB].

Greenwald, A. G., & Nosek, B.A. (2008). Attitudinal dissociation: What does it mean? In Petty, R. E., Fazio, R. H., & Briñol, P. (Eds.), Attitudes: Insights from the new implicit measures (Pp. 65–82). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  [PDF - 792KB]

Schnabel, K. Asendorpf, J. B., & Greenwald, A. G. (2008). Implicit Association Tests: A landmark for the assessment of implicit personality self-concept. In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews and D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Handbook of Personality Theory and Testing (Pp. 508–528). London: Sage.  [PDF - 355KB]

Perkins, A., Forehand, M., Greenwald, A. G., & Maison, D. (2008). The influence of implicit social cognition on consumer behavior: Measuring the non-conscious. In C. Haugtvedt, P. Herr, & F. Kardes (Eds.), Handbook of Consumer Psychology (Pp. 461–475). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  [PDF - 1.0MB]

Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Hansen, J. J., Devos, T., Lindner, N. M., Ranganath, K. A., Smith, C. T., Olson, K. R., Chugh, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. (2007). Pervasiveness and correlates of implicit attitudes and stereotypes. European Review of Social Psychology, 18, 36–88.  [PDF - 562KB]

Yamaguchi, S., Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., Murakami, F., Chen, D., Shiomura, K., Kobayashi, C., Cai, H., & Krendl, A. (2007). Apparent universality of positive implicit self-esteem. Psychological Science, 18, 498–500.  [PDF - 75KB]

Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). The Implicit Association Test at age 7: A methodological and conceptual review (pp. 265–292). In J. A. Bargh (Ed.), Automatic processes in social thinking and behavior. Psychology Press. [PDF - 222KB]

Lane, K. A., Banaji, M. R., Nosek, B. A., & Greenwald, A. G. (2007). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: IV. What we know (so far) (Pp. 59–102).  In B. Wittenbrink & N. S. Schwarz (Eds.). Implicit measures of attitudes: Procedures and controversies. New York: Guilford Press. [PDF - 652KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Krieger, L. H. (2006). Implicit bias: Scientific foundations. California Law Review, 94, 945–967. [PDF[searchable - 1.4MB] [PDF[LexisNexis version - 280KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Rudman, L. A., Nosek, B. A., & Zayas, V. (2006). Why so little faith? A reply to Blanton and Jaccard's (2006) skeptical view of testing pure multiplicative theories. Psychological Review, 113, 170–180. [PDF - 610KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Sriram, N. (2006). Consequential validity of the Implicit Association Test: Comment on the article by Blanton and Jaccard. American Psychologist, 61, 56–61. [PDF - 403KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Klauer, K. C. (2005). Validity of the salience asymmetry interpretation of the IAT: Comment on Rothermund and Wentura (2004) Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134, 420–425. [PDF - 58KB]

Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2005). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: II. Method variables and construct validity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 166–180. [PDF - 160KB]

Pinter, B., & Greenwald, A. G. (2005). Clarifying the role of the "other" category in the self-esteem IAT. Experimental Psychology, 52, 74–79. [PDF - 75KB]

Pinter, B., & Greenwald, A. G. (2004). Understanding implicit partisanship: Enigmatic (but genuine) group identification and attraction. Group Processes and Interpersonal Relations, 7, 283–296. [PDF - 114KB]

Brunel, F. F., Tietje, B. C., & Greenwald, A. G. (2004). Is the Implicit Association Test a valid and valuable measure of implicit consumer social cognition. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14, 385–404. [PDF - 893KB]

Maison, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Bruin, R. H. (2004). Predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test in studies of brands, consumer attitudes, and behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14, 405–415. [PDF - 91KB]

Cai, H., Sriram, N., Greenwald, A. G., & McFarland, S. G. (2004). The Implicit Association Test's D measure can minimize a cognitive skill confound: Comment on McFarland and Crouch (2002). Social Cognition, 22, 673–684. [PDF - 231KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: I. An Improved Scoring Algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197-216. [abstract] [PDF - 287KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Oakes, M. A., & Hoffman, H. (2003). Targets of Discrimination: Effects of Race on Responses to Weapons Holders. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 399-405. [abstract] [PDF - 247KB] [samples of stimuli used in this research]

Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., Rudman, L. A., Farnham, S. D., Nosek, B. A., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. Psychological Review, 109, 3-25. [abstract] [PDF - 649KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Pickrell, J. E., & Farnham, S. D. (2002). Implicit partisanship: Taking sides for no reason. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 367-379. [Abstract] [PDF - 174KB]

Uhlmann, E., Dasgupta, N., Elgueta, A., Greenwald, A. G., & Swanson, J. E. (2002). Subgroup prejudice based on skin color among Hispanics in the United States and Latin America. Social Cognition, 23, 198-226. [PDF - 197KB]

Hummert, M. L., Garstka, T. A., O'Brien, L. T., Greenwald, A. G., Mellott, D. S. (2002). Using the Implicit Association Test to measure age differences in implicit social cognitions. Psychology and Aging, 17, 482-495. [Abstract] [PDF - 198KB]

Rudman, L. A., Greenwald, A. G., & McGhee, D. E. (2001). Implicit self-concept and evaluative implicit gender stereotypes: Self and ingroup share desirable traits. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(9), 1164-1178. [PDF - 121KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Nosek, B. A. (2001). Health of the Implicit Association Test at age 3. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie, 48, 85-93. [abstract] [PDF - 215KB]

Dasgupta, N., & Greenwald, A. G. (2001). On the malleability of automatic attitudes: Combating automatic prejudice with images of admired and disliked individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 800-814. [abstract] [PDF - 457KB]

Swanson, J. E., Rudman, L. A., & Greenwald, A. G. (2001). Using the Implicit Association Test to investigate attitude-behavior consistency for stigmatized behavior. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 207-230. [PDF - 344KB]

Park, L. E., Cook, K. E., & Greenwald, A. G. (2001). Implicit indicators of women's persistence in math, science, and engineering. Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research, 6, 145-152. [PDF - 580KB]

Maison, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Bruin, R. (2001). The Implicit Association Test as a measure of implicit consumer attitudes. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 2, 61-79. [abstract] [PDF - 268KB]

Dasgupta, N., McGhee, D. E., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2000). Automatic preference for White Americans: Eliminating the familiarity explanation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 316-328. [abstract] [PDF - 72KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Farnham, S. D. (2000). Using the Implicit Association Test to measure self-esteem and self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 1022-1038. [abstract] [PDF - 516kB]

Rudman, L. A., Greenwald, A. G., Mellott, D. S., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1999). Measuring the automatic components of prejudice: Flexibility and generality of the Implicit Association Test. Social Cognition, 17, 437-465.  [PDF-1.5MB]

Farnham, S. D., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji (1999). Implicit self-esteem. In D. Abrams & M. Hogg (Eds.), Social identity and social cognition (pp. 230-248). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. [abstract] [PDF-719KB]

Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. K. L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480. [abstract] [PDF-501KB]

Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (1995). Implicit gender stereotyping in judgments of fame. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 181-198. [abstract] [PDF-590KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4-27. [abstract] [PDF-1.1MB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Schuh, E. S. (1994). An ethnic bias in scientific citations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 623-640. [PDF-345KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1990). What cognitive representations underlie attitudes? Bulletin of the Psycholonomic Society, 28, 254-260. [abstract] [PDF - 305KB


UNCONSCIOUS COGNITION         Back to Top

Zayas, V., Greenwald, A. G., & Osterhout, L. (2011). Unintentional covert motor activations predict behavioral effects: Multilevel modeling of trial-level electrophysiological motor activations. Psychophysiology, 48, 208–217. [PDF - 371KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Abrams, R. L., Naccache, L., & Dehaene, S. (2003). Long-term semantic memory versus contextual memory in unconscious number processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 29, 235-247.  [abstract] [PDF - 225KB]

Abrams, R. L., Klinger, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). Subliminal words activate semantic categories (not automated motor responses). Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9, 100-106. [abstract] [PDF - 169KB]

Abrams, R. L., & Greenwald, A. G. (2000). Parts outweigh the whole (word) in unconscious analysis of meaning. Psychological Science, 11, 118-124. [abstract] [PDF - 587KB]

Draine, S. C., & Greenwald, A. G. (1998). Replicable unconscious semantic priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 286-303. Full-text version [abstract] [PDF - 544KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Draine, S. C. (1998). Distinguishing unconscious from conscious cognition — Reasonable assumptions and replicable findings: Reply to Merikle and Reingold (1998) and Dosher (1998). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 320-324. [abstract] [PDF - 159KB]

Klauer, K. C., Greenwald, A. G., & Draine, S. C. (1998). Correcting for measurement error in detecting unconscious cognition: Comment on Draine and Greenwald (1998). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 318-319. [abstract] [PDF - 104KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1997). Self-knowledge and self-deception: Further consideration. In M. S. Myslobodsky (Ed.), The mythomanias: An inquiry into the nature of deception and self-deception (pp. 51-71). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF - 846KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Draine, S. C., & Abrams, R. L. (1996). Three cognitive markers of unconscious semantic activation. Science, 273, 1699-1702. [abstract] [PDF-178KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Klinger, M. R., & Schuh, E. S. (1995). Activation by marginally perceptible ("subliminal") stimuli: Dissociation of unconscious from conscious cognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 124, 22-42. [abstract] [PDF-713KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1992). New Look 3: Reclaiming unconscious cognition. American Psychologist, 47, 766-779. [abstract] [PDF-435KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Spangenberg, E. R., Pratkanis, A. R., & Eskenazi, J. (1991). Double-blind tests of subliminal self-help audiotapes. Psychological Science, 2, 119-122. [abstract] [PDF - 123KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Klinger, M. R., & Liu, T. J. (1989). Unconscious processing of dichoptically masked words. Memory and Cognition, 17, 35-47. [PDF - 949KB]


STUDENT RATINGS OF INSTRUCTION         
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Greenwald, A. G. (1997). Validity concerns and usefulness of student ratings. American Psychologist, 52, 1182-1186. [abstract] [PDF - 166KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Gillmore, G. M. (1997). Grading leniency is a removable contaminant of student ratings. American Psychologist, 52, 1209-1217. [abstract] [PDF - 265KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Gillmore, J. M. (1997). No pain, no gain? The importance of measuring course workload in student ratings of instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 743-751. [abstract] [PDF - 313KB]

 

ATTITUDES AND SOCIAL COGNITION         Back to Top

Greenwald, A. G., & Pettigrew, T. F. (2014).  With malice toward none and charity for some:  Ingroup favoritism enables discrimination.  American Psychologist, 69, 669–684. [PDF - 131KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2015, in press). Statistically small effects of the Implicit Association Test can have societally large effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. [PDF - 507KB]

Greenwald, A. G., (2010). Timothy C. Brock (1935–2009). American Psychologist, 65, 678–678. [PDF - 27KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (2010). Under what conditions does intergroup contact improve intergroup harmony? In M. H. Gonzales, C. Tavris, & J. Aronson (Eds.), The scientist and the humanist: A festschrift in honor of Elliot Aronson (Pp. 267–281). New York: Psychology Press. [PDF - 700KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4-27.

Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (1995). Implicit gender stereotyping in judgments of fame. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 181-198.

Greenwald, A. G. (1989). Why are attitudes important? In A. R. Pratkanis, S. J. Breckler, and A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Attitude structure and function (pp. 1-10). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF - 4.5MB; includes pp. 1-10 and 429-440]

Greenwald, A. G. (1989). Why attitudes are important: Defining attitude and attitude theory 20 years later. In A. R. Pratkanis, S. J. Breckler, and A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Attitude structure and function (pp. 429-440). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF - 4.5MB; includes pp. 1-10 and 429-440]

Pratkanis, A. R., Greenwald, A. G., Leippe, M. R., & Baumgardner, M. H. (1988). In search of reliable persuasion effects: III. The sleeper effect is dead: Long live the sleeper effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 203–218. [PDF - 840KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Carnot, C. G., Beach, R., & Young, B. (1987). Increasing voting behavior by asking people if they expect to vote. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 315-318.

Bellezza, F. S., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1986), Words high and low in pleasantness as rated by male and female college students. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 18, 299-303. [abstract] [PDF-122KB] [Text file of norms for 399 words]

Greenwald, A. G., & Leavitt, C. (1984) Audience involvement in advertising: Four levels. Journal of Consumer Research, 11, 581-592. [abstract] [PDF - 308KB]

Ronis, D. L., Baumgardner, M. H., Leippe, M. R., Cacioppo, J. T., & Greenwald, A. G. (1977). In search of reliable persuasion effects: I. A computer-controlled procedure for studying persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 548-569.

Gillig, P. M., & Greenwald, A. G. (1974). Is it time to lay the "sleeper effect" to rest? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 132-139. [PDF-438KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1969). The open-mindedness of the counterattitudinal role player. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5, 375-388. [abstract] [PDF-1.4MB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1968). Cognitive learning, cognitive response to persuasion, and attitude change. In A. G. Greenwald, T. C. Brock, and T. M. Ostrom (Eds.), Psychological foundations of attitudes (pp. 147-170). New York: Academic Press. [PDF - 302KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Sakumura, J. S. (1967). Attitude and selective learning: Where are the phenomena of yesteryear? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 387-397.  [PDF-458KB]


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         Back to Top

Greenwald, A. G. (2012). There is nothing so theoretical as a good method. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 99–108.  [PDlF - 216KB] [Nobel Prize analysis supplement] [unsolved controversies supplement]

Greenwald, A. G. (2009). What (and where) is the ethical code concerning researcher conflict of interest? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 32–35. [PDF - 74KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (2004). The resting parrot, the dessert stomach, and other perfectly defensible theories. In J. Jost, M. R. Banaji, & D. A. Prentice (Eds.), The yin and yang of social cognition: Perspectives on the social psychology of thought systems (Pp. 275–285). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. [abstract] [PDF - 206KB]

Greenwald, A. G., Gonzalez, R., Guthrie, D. G., & Harris, R. J. (1996). Effect sizes and p-values: What should be reported and what should be replicated? Psychophsysiology, 33, 175-183. [abstract] [PDF-292KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Pratkanis, A. R. (1988). On the use of "theory" and the usefulness of theory. Psychological Review, 95, 575-579.

Bellezza, F. S., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1986), Words high and low in pleasantness as rated by male and female college students. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 18, 299-303. [abstract] [PDF-400KB] [Text file of norms for 399 words]

Greenwald, A. G., Pratkanis, A. R., Leippe, M. R., & Baumgardner, M. H. (1986). Under what conditions does theory obstruct research progress? Psychological Review, 93, 216-229. [abstract] [PDF-479KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Ronis, D. L. (1981). On the conceptual disconfirmation of theories. Pesonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 131-137. [abstract] [PDF-95KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Ronis, D. L. (1978). Twenty years of cognitive dissonance: Case study of the evolution of a theory. Psychological Review, 85, 53-57. [abstract] [PDF-121KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1976). An editorial. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 1-7. [PDF-158KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1976). Within-subjects designs: To use or not to use? Psychological Bulletin, 83, 314-320. [abstract] [PDF-158KB

Greenwald, A. G. (1975). Significance, nonsignificance, and interpretation of an ESP experiment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 11, 180-191.[abstract] [PDF-219KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1975). On the inconclusiveness of "crucial" cognitive tests of dissonance versus self-perception theories. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 11, 490-499. [abstract] [PDF-136KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1975). Consequences of prejudice against the null hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 82, 1-20. [abstract] [PDF-474B]


THE SELF         Back to Top

Spangenberg, E. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (1999). Social influence by requesting self-prophecy. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 8, 61-89. [PDF-695KB]

Farnham, S. D., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji (1999). Implicit self-esteem. In D. Abrams & M. Hogg (Eds.), Social identity and social cognition (pp. 230-248). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. [abstract] [PDF-309KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1997). Self-knowledge and self-deception: Further consideration. In M. S. Myslobodsky (Ed.), The mythomanias: An inquiry into the nature of deception and self-deception (pp. 51-71). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF - 312KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1994). Getting (my) self into social psychology. In G. G. Brannigan & M. R. Merrens (Eds.), The social psychologists (pp. 3-16). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1989). The self as a memory system: Powerful, but ordinary. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 41-54.

Breckler, S. J., & Greenwald, A. G. (1986). Motivational facets of the self. In E. T. Higgins & R. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition (pp. 145-164). New York: Guilford Press. [PDF-421KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Breckler, S. J. (1985). To whom is the self presented? In B. R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life (pp. 126-145). New York: McGraw-Hill. [PDF-411KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Pratkanis, A. R. (1984). The self. In R. S. Wyer & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition (pp. 129-178). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF - 1.1MB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1982). Is anyone in charge? Personalysis vs. the principle of personal unity. In J. Suls (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 1, pp. 151-181). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.  [PDF - 1.3MB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1982). Ego task analysis: A synthesis of research on ego-involvement and self-awareness. In A. H. Hastorf and A. M. Isen (Eds.), Cognitive social psychology (pp. 109-147). New York: Elsevier/North-Holland.

Greenwald, A. G. (1981). Self and memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 15, pp. 201-236). New York: Academic Press. [PDF-1.9MB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1980). The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history. American Psychologist, 35, 603-618. [abstract] [PDF - 436KB]

CONTROL OF VOLUNTARY ATTENTION AND ACTION         Back to Top

Greenwald, A. G. (2005). A reminder about procedures needed to reliably produce perfect timesharing: Comment on Lien, McCann, Ruthruff, and Proctor (2005). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31, 221–225. [PDF - 60KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (2004). On doing two things at once: IV. Necessary and sufficient conditions: A rejoinder to Lien, Proctor, and Ruthruff (2003). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 30, 632–636. [PDF - 33KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (2003). On Doing Two Things at Once: III. Confirmation of Perfect Timesharing When Simultaneous Tasks Are Ideomotor Compatible. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 29, 859-868. [abstract] [PDF - 110KB]

Greenwald, A. G., & Shulman, H. G. (1973). On doing two things at once: II. Elimination of the psychological refractory period effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 101, 70-76. [abstract] [PDF-173KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1972). Evidence of both perceptual filtering and response suppression for rejected messages in selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 94, 58-67. [abstract]

Greenwald, A. G. (1972). On doing two things at once: Timesharing as a function of ideomotor compatibility. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 94, 52-57. [abstract] [PDF-155KB]

Greenwald, A. G. (1970). Sensory feedback mechanisms in performance control: With special reference to the ideomotor mechanism. Psychological Review, 77, 73-99. [abstract] [PDF-613KB]


REWARD AND PUNISHMENT IN HUMAN LEARNING         
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Greenwald, A. G. (1970). Difficulty of associative performance following training with negative instances: A note on punishment effects. Journal of Educational Pyschology, 61, 255-259.

Nuttin, J., & Greenwald, A. G. (1968). Reward and punishment in human learning. New York: Academic Press.

Greenwald, A. G. (1966). Nuttin's neglected critique of the law of effect. Psychological Bulletin, 65, 199-205.

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