Anthony G. Greenwald, PhD


Navigate using the menu under my face (Thanks to Jean Alexander Greenwald for the photo and a great deal else)

last updated: September 25, 2020


  • 25 Sep 2020: Recently published and in press articles (since 2018) can now be found both on my Publications by Date page and my Publications by Topic page.  Biographical information has also been updated.  Apologies for the delay on these new items.  I've been distracted by several things.  Also, I am just retired (at long last) due to need to give priority to a caregiver role.  However, I continue to my scholarly and research work (just not getting paid for it).  I am working especially on remedies for implicit bias, with what I hope to be a significant article in the works.  That and one other article on best research practices for using the IAT are in progress, both with multiple co-authors.  If these have not been made available on this page by December 1, 2020, please email to to request a draft.

  • 25 Sep 2020:  Now that I am retired, I should have more time available for legal expert work, which for several years has mostly been on the role of implicit bias in suits based on race, gender, ethnicity, or age discrimination.  Most of the cases I have worked on involve individual plaintiffs, but I am quite interested in class actions, especially when it is possible to use statistics to expose disparaties.

  • 31 Jan 2018: Articles published in 2016 and 2017 can now be found both on my Publications by Date page and my Publications by Topic page. Some older articles (1965, 1968, and 1972) were also added. Biographical information has also been updated.

  • 1 Dec 2015: Recently published: Cvencek, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2016).  Implicit measures for preschool children confirm self-esteem's role in maintaining a balanced identity.  Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 62, 50–57.[PDF - 673KB]

  • 20 Apr 2015: Link to video of 50-minute talk on implicit bias: "In “Discriminating without Awareness of Discriminating,” Psychology Professor Anthony Greenwald, University of Washington, discusses how intergroup discrimination can occur without prejudicial hostility, conscious intent or awareness of acting in discriminatory fashion. This lecture includes interactive demonstrations that judgments and behaviors operate potently outside of awareness, along with evidence that unconscious processes can routinely sustain intergroup disadvantages in American society."

  • 20 Apr 2015: Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2015). Statistically small effects of the Implicit Association Test can have societally large effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108, 553–561.  [PDF - 453KB]  This is both a comment on a meta-analysis by Oswald et al. in JPSP, 2013, an explanation of how statistical effect sizes translate to societal impact.

  • 11 Dec 2014 (Just published): Nosek, B. A., Bar-Anan, Y., Sriram, N., Axt, J., & Greenwald, A. G. (2014). Understanding and using the Brief Implicit Association Test: Recommended scoring procedures. PLoS ONE 9(12): e110938. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110938. [PDF - 481KB]

  • 18 Oct 2014 (Just published)Greenwald, A. G., & Pettigrew, T. F. (2014).  With malice toward none and charity for some:  Ingroup favoritism enables discrimination.  American Psychologist, 69, 669–684. [PDF - 131KB]

  • 30 May 2014: Several older papers or chapters made downloadable. Ones made downloadable in 2014 appear in green font on the Publications by Date page.

  • 7 Mar 2014: New articles and pdfs of some older articles have been added.
  • 12 Sep 2012: pdf of PowerPoint slides for invited Page–Barbour Lecture at University of Virginia: "The role of race attitudes in the 2012 Presidential election." (953KB).  This lecture summarizes my basis for concluding that Americans' racial attitudes may be the cause of at least a 10% handicap for Barack Obama in the 2012 Presidential election.  That conclusion is based on analyses of an ongoing data collection at Project Implicit. 

  • 2 Jul 2012: New articles, latest is on "implicit bias in the courtroom" (see Publications by Date). 

  • 20 Apr 2011: There are some recent updates to the downloadable listing of Studies Showing Use of the IAT with “Real-World” Subject Populations, which has now grown to 56 published or in press articles.  The listing provides citations and 1-sentence summaries of for each article.  If you know of additional items that should for this collection, please e-mail me (see "contact me" link at left).

  • 1 Aug 2010: Several pdfs of manuscripts added, several in press, some already published, from as far back as 1969 (on pages for publications by date and by topic) — click "Publications" menu at left.

  • Soon to come (hopefully).  As soon as Sriram and I can finish assembling needed material, I will post both (a) desktop computer script (using Inquisit) for administering Brief IAT procedures and (b) SPSS scoring syntax for it.  (For a report on the BIAT, see the downloadable Sriram & Greenwald, 2009 article near the top of the page for Publications by Date).

  • 16 Nov 09: Contract Services for Academic and Commercial Researchers.  In partial response to many requests that I get for advice on setting up studies that include IAT measures, I have placed additional help on that topic on the IAT software page.  The major new item, at the top of that page, is a description of how to use services provided by PROJECT IMPLICIT to conduct web-administered research using not onlY IAT measures, but a wide variety of standard laboratory procedures that involve reaction time measurement and/or questionnaire responding.

  • 5 Jul 09: Three new publications are available, to be found near the top of Publications by date (put pointer over "Publications" at left).  These include the meta-analysis of IAT predictive validity just published in the July 2009 issue of JPSP, and the first report of the Brief IAT (by Sriram & Greenwald, in the August 2009 issue of Experimental Psychology).  Related to the meta-analysis, also available are a non-technical summary of the meta-analysis, intended for those less familiar with meta-analytic method

  • 31 Dec 08: An archive of the meta-analysis of predictive validity of IAT measures is downloadable.  The archive includes full texts (mostly article pdfs) of the 122 reports included in the meta-analysis, and all files needed to reproduce the reported analyses.  Before downloading the archive (which is very large — a 95 MB zip file) please read this brief description of archive contents (11 KB pdf file). The archive itself can be found on my Publications by date page.

    If you have problems accessing any of the material on this site, Please contact me. I would like to make this page broadly accessible, which means not only accommodating diverse browsers, but also accommodating diverse visitors.

    The downloadable material consists of .pdf or .zip files. To read downloaded pdf files you will need Acrobat Reader. To extract from downloaded zip (compressed) files you will need a file-decompression utility such as WinZip (now included in most operating systems).

    I am asked about the Chinese symbol at the left.  It was given to me (as a stamp) by graduate students at East China Normal University in Shanghai, when I visited there in May, 2002.  They translated it as "three clear", referring to clarity in pronunciation, expression, and thought.  They explained that they found those qualities in the presentations I gave (in English) during that visit. (Yes, of course I was pleased!)