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Tomita, H., Hines, K. M., Herron, J. M., Li, A., Baggett, D. W., and Xu, L.* (2021) 7-Dehydrocholesterol-derived oxysterols cause neurogenic defects in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, BioRxiv, DOI: 10.1101/2021.1101.1130.428955. Under Review.


75. Ross, D. H.; Seguin, R. P.; Krinsky, A. M.; Xu, L.* (2022) High-Throughput Measurement and Machine Learning-Based Pre-diction of Collision Cross Sections for Drugs and Drug Metabolites, J. Am. Soc. Mass. Spectrom. 33, 1061–1072.

Inclusion of 3D molecular descriptors allow the training of a machine learning-based prediction model to predict different CCS values for different protomers, conformers, and positional isomers of drugs and drug metabolites.

74. Zhang, R; Polenakovik, H.; Beltran, I. A. B.; Waalkes, A.; Salipante, S. J.; Xu, L.; Werth, B. J., (2022) Emergence of dalbavancin, vancomycin, and daptomycin non-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in a patient treated with dalbavancin: Case report and isolate characterization, Clin. Infect. Dis., In Press. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciac341

73. Lo, M.; Sharir, A.; Paul, M.D.; Torosyan, H.; Agnew, C.; Li, A.; Neben, C; Marangoni, P.; Xu, L.; Raleigh, D. R.; Jura, N.; Klein, O.D. (2022) CNPY4 inhibits the Hedgehog pathway by modulating membrane sterol lipids, Nat. Commun. 13, 2407.

72. Supandy, A.; Mehta, H.; Tran, T.; Miller, W.; Zhang R.; Xu, L.; Arias, C.; Shamoo, Y. (2022) Evolution of Enterococcus faecium to A Combination of Daptomycin and Fosfomycin Reveals Distinct and Diverse Adaptive Strategies, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 66, e0233321.

71. Li A, Hines KM, Ross DH, MacDonald JW, Xu L.* (2022) Temporal Changes in the Brain Lipidome During Neurodevelopment of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome Mice. Analyst, 147, 1611-1621. DOI: 10.1039/D2AN00137C.

70. Ting, S.-Y., LaCourse, K. D., Ledvina, H. E., Zhang, R., Radey, M. C., Kulasekara, H. D., Somavanshi, R., Bertolli, S. K., Gallagher, L. A., Kim, J., Penewit, K. M., Salipante, S. J., Xu, L., Peterson, S. B., and Mougous, J. D. (2022) Discovery of coordinately regulated pathways that provide innate protection against interbacterial antagonism, eLife, 11, e74658.


69. Zhang, R.; Beltran, I. B.; Ashford, N. K.; Penewit, K.; Waalkes, A.; Holmes, E. A.; Hines, K. M.; Salipante, S. J.; Xu, L.;* Werth, B. J.* (2021) Synergy between beta-lactams and lipo-, glyco-, and lipoglycopeptides, is independent of the seesaw effect in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Front. Mol. Biosci. 8, 688357.

Showing correlation between various lipids and time-kill by combination of VAN/DAP/DAL and beta-lactams.

68. Shen, T., Hines, K. M., Ashford, N. K., Werth, B. J.,* and Xu, L.* (2021) Varied Contribution of Phospholipid Shedding From Membrane to Daptomycin Tolerance in Staphylococcus aureus, Front. Mol. Biosci. 8, 526.

67. Hrubec, T. C., Seguin, R. P., Xu, L., Cortopassi, G. A., Datta, S., Hanlon, A. L., Lozano, A. J., McDonald, V. A., Healy, C. A., Anderson, T. C., Musse, N. A., and Williams, R. T. (2021) Altered Toxicological Endpoints in Humans from Common Quaternary Ammonium Compound Disinfectant Exposure, Toxicology Reports., 8, 646-656.

66. Pfeffer, B. A., Xu, L., Fliesler, S. J. (2021) Transcriptomic Changes Associated with Loss of Cell Viability Induced by Oxysterol Treatment of a Retinal Photoreceptor-Derived Cell Line: An In Vitro Model of Smith–Lemli–Opitz Syndrome. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 22, 2339.

65. Ross, D. H.; Xu, L.* (2021) Determination of drugs and drug metabolites by ion mobility-mass spectrometry: a review, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1154, 338270. Doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2021.338270.

64. Daggubati, V.; Hochstetler, J.; Bommireddy, A.; Choudhury, A.; Krup, A.L.; Choksi, P.K.; Tong, P.; Li, A.; Xu, L.; Reiter, J.F.; Raleigh, D. R. (2021) Smoothened-activating lipids drive resistance to CDK4/6 inhibition in Hedgehog-associated medulloblastoma cells and preclinical models. J. Clin. Invest., 131, e141171. doi: 10.1172/JCI141171.

63. Herron, J. M.; Tomita, H.; White, C. C.; Kavanagh, T. J.; Xu, L.*, (2021) Benzalkonium chloride disinfectants induce apoptosis, inhibit proliferation, and activate the integrated stress response in a 3-D in vitro model of neurodevelopment, Chem. Res. Toxicol., 34, 1265.

62. Findakly, S.;  Daggubati, V.;  Garcia, G.;  LaStella, S. A.;  Choudhury, A.;  Tran, C.;  Li, A.;  Tong, P.;  Garcia, J. Q.;  Puri, N.;  Reiter, J. F.;  Xu, L.; Raleigh, D. R., (2021) Sterol and oxysterol synthases near the ciliary base activate the Hedgehog pathway. J. Cell. Biol., 220, e202002026.

(Image credit to Raleigh and team at UCSF)

61. Do, Q.;  Lee, D. D.;  Dinh, A. N.;  Seguin, R. P.;  Zhang, R.; Xu, L.*, (2021) Development and Application of a Peroxyl Radical Clock Approach for Measuring Both Hydrogen-Atom Transfer and Peroxyl Radical Addition Rate Constants. J. Org. Chem. 86, 153–168. PDF.

60. Shen, T., Penewit, K., Waalkes, A., Xu, L., Salipante, S., Nath, A., Werth, B. (2021). Identification of a novel tedizolid resistance mutation in rpoB of MRSA after in vitro serial passage, J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 76, 292–296.


59. Ross, D. H.; Cho, J. H.; Zhang, R.; Hines, K. M.; Xu, L.* (2020) LiPydomics: A Python Package for Comprehensive Prediction of Lipid Collision Cross Sections and Retention Times and Analysis of Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry-Based Lipidomics Data, Anal. Chem., 92, 14967–14975.

58. Abdelhamid, L.;  Cabana-Puig, X.;  Mu, Q.;  Moarefian, M.;  Swartwout, B.;  Eden, K.;  Das, P.;  Seguin, R. P.;  Xu, L.;  Lowen, S.;  Lavani, M.;  Hrubec, T. C.;  Jones, C. N.; Luo, X. M., (2020) Quaternary Ammonium Compound Disinfectants Reduce Lupus-Associated Splenomegaly by Targeting Neutrophil Migration and T-Cell Fate. Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 2738.

57. Werth, B. J.;* Ashford, N.; Waalkes, A.; Penewit, K.; Holmes, E.; Ross, D. H.; Shen, T.; Hines, K. M.; Salipante, S.; Xu, L. (2020) Dalbavancin exposure in in vitro selects for dalbavancin-nonsusceptible and vancomycin-intermediate strains of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. In Press.

Occurrence of various mutations in dalbavancin-selected nonsusceptible strains.

56. Hines, K. M., Alvarado, G., Chen, X., Gatto, C., Pokorny, A., Alonzo, F. III, Wilkinson,* B., Xu, L.* (2020). Lipidomic and Ultrastructural Characterization of Cell Envelope of Staphylococcus aureus Grown in the Presence of Human Serum, mSphere, 5, e00339-20. Selected as Cover Image.

55. Porter, N. A.; Xu, L.; Pratt, D. A. (2020) Reactive Sterol Electrophiles: Mechanisms of Formation and Reactions with Proteins and Amino Acid Nucleophiles. Chemistry, 2, 390-417.

54. Golla, R.;  Mishra, B.;  Dang, X.;  Lakshmaiah Narayana, J.;  Li, A.;  Xu, L.; Wang, G., (2020) Resistome of Staphylococcus aureus in Response to Human Cathelicidin LL-37 and Its Engineered Antimicrobial Peptides. ACS Infectious Diseases, 6, 1866–1881.

53. Ross, D. H.; Cho, J. H.; Xu, L.* (2020) Breaking Down Structural Diversity for Comprehensive Prediction of Ion-Neutral Collision Cross Sections. Anal. Chem., 92, 4548-4557.

52. Hines, K. M.; Shen, T.; Ashford, N. K.; Waalkes, A.; Penewit, K.; Holmes, E. A.; McLean, K.; Salipante, S. J.; Werth, B. J.;* Xu, L.* (2020) Occurrence of cross-resistance and beta-lactam seesaw effect in glycopeptide, lipopeptide, and lipoglycopeptide-resistant MRSA correlates with membrane phosphatidylglycerol levels. J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 75, 1182-1186.

51. Li, A.; Hines, K. M.; Xu, L.* (2020) Lipidomics by HILIC-Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry. Methods in Molecular Biology. 2084, 119-132. Book chapter for Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry – Methods and Protocols.


50. Seguin, R. P.; Herron, J. M.; Dempsey, J. L.; Xu, L.* (2019) Metabolism of Benzalkonium Chlorides by Human Hepatic Cytochromes P450. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 32, 2466-2478.

49. Ross, D. H.; Seguin, R. P.; Xu, L.* (2019) Characterization of the Impact of Drug Metabolism on the Gas-Phase Structures of Drugs Using Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 91, 14498-14507.

48. Fleurie, A.; Zoued, A.; Alvarez, L.; Hines, K. M.; Cava, F.; Xu, L., Davis, B. M.; Waldor, M. K. (2019) A Vibrio cholerae BolA-like protein is required for proper cell shape and cell envelope integrity. mBio, 10, e00790-19.

47. Herron, J. M.; Hines, K. M.; Tomita, H.; Seguin, R. P.; Cui, J. Y.; Xu, L.* (2019) Multi-omics investigation reveals benzalkonium chloride disinfectants alter sterol and lipid homeostasis in the mouse neonatal brain. Tox. Sci., 171, 32–45. Selected as Cover Image.

46. Hines, K. M., and Xu, L.* (2019) Lipidomic consequences of phospholipid synthesis defects in Escherichia coli revealed by HILIC-ion mobility-mass spectrometry, Chem. Phys. Lipids, 219, 15-22.


45. Weber, E. J., Lidberg, K. A., Wang, L., Bammler, T. K., MacDonald, J. W., Li, M. J., Redhair, M., Atkins, W. M., Tran, C., Hines, K. M., Herron, J., Xu, L., Monteiro, M. B., Ramm, S., Vaidya, V., Vaara, M., Vaara, T., Himmelfarb, J., and Kelly, E. J. (2018) Human kidney on a chip assessment of polymyxin antibiotic nephrotoxicity, JCI Insight, 3, e123673.

44. Fliesler, S. J.; Xu, L.* (2018) Oxysterols and Retinal Degeneration in a Rat Model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: Implications for an Improved Therapeutic Intervention. Molecules, 23, 2720.

43. Raleigh, D. R.; Sever, N.; Choksi, P. K.; Sigg, M. A.; Hines, K. M.; et al., Xu, L.; Beachy, P.A.; Reiter, J. F. (2018). Cilia-Associated Oxysterols Activate Smoothened. Molecular Cell, 72(2), 316–327.e5. Also check out the Cover Art of the issue illustrating findings in this paper.

42. Herron, J.; Hines, K. M.; and Xu, L.* (2018) Assessment of Altered Cholesterol Homeostasis by Xenobiotics Using Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Curr Protoc Toxicol., 78, e65.

41. Finno, C. J.; Estell, K. E.; Winfield, L.; Katzman, S.; Bordbari, M. H.; Burns, E. N.; Miller, A. D.; Puschner, B.; Tran, C. K.; Xu, L. (2018) Lipid peroxidation biomarkers for evaluating oxidative stress in equine neuroaxonal dystrophy, J Vet Intern Med, 32, 1740-1747.

40. Finno, C. J., Bordbari, M. H., Gianino, G., Ming-Whitfield, B., Burns, E., Merkel, J., Britton, M., Durbin-Johnson, B., Sloma, E. A., McMackin, M., Cortopassi, G., Rivas, V., Barro, M., Tran, C. K., Gennity, I., Habib, H., Xu, L., Puschner, B., and Miller, A. D. (2018) An innate immune response and altered nuclear receptor activation defines the spinal cord transcriptome during alpha-tocopherol deficiency in Ttpa-null mice, Free Radical Biol. Med. 120, 289-302

39. Fliesler, S. J.*; Peachey, N. S.; Herron, J.; Hines, K. M.; Weinstock, N. I.; Ramachandra Rao, S.; and Xu, L.* (2018) Prevention of Retinal Degeneration in a Rat Model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome, Sci. Rep., 8, 1286.


38. Hines, K. M.; Waalkes, A.; Penewit, K.; Holmes, E. A.; Salipante, S. J.; Werth, B. J.; Xu, L.* (2017) Characterization of the Mechanisms of Daptomycin Resistance Among Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogens by Multi-Dimensional Lipidomics. mSphere, 2, e00492-17.

37. Hines, K. M.; Ross, D. H.; Davidson, K. L.; Bush, M. F.; Xu, L.* (2017) Large-Scale Structural Characterization of Drug and Drug-Like Compounds by High-Throughput Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry. Anal. Chem. 89, 9023-9030. PDF.

36. Aliwarga, T.; Raccor, B. S.; Lemaitre, R. N.; Sotoodehnia, N.; Gharib, S. A.; Xu, L.; Totah, R. A. (2017) Enzymatic and free radical formation of cis– and trans– epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in vitro and in vivo. Free Radical Biol. Med. 112, 131-140.

35. Hines, K. M., Herron, J., Xu, L.* (2017) Assessment of Altered Lipid Homeostasis by HILIC-Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry-Based Lipidomics. J. Lipid Res. 58, 809-819.

34. Lamberson, C. R., Muchalski, H., McDuffee, K. B., Tallman, K. A., Xu, L., & Porter, N. A. (2017) Propagation rate constants for the peroxidation of sterols on the biosynthetic pathway to cholesterol. Chem. Phys. Lipids. 207 (Part B), 51-58.


33. Finno, C. J., Bordbari, M. H., Valberg, S. J., Lee, D., Herron, J., Hines, K., Monsour, T., Scott, E., Bannasch, D., Mickelson, J., Xu, L. (2016) Transcriptome profiling of equine vitamin E deficient neuroaxonal dystrophy identifies upregulation of liver X receptor target genes. Free Radical Biol. Med., 101, 261–271.

32. Hines, K. M., May, J. C., McLean, J. A., Xu, L.* (2016) Evaluation of Collision Cross Section Calibrants for Structural Analysis of Lipids by Traveling Wave Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry, Anal. Chem. 88, 7329–7336. PDF.

CCS Cal_TOC_new

31. Sever, N., Mann, R. K., Xu, L., Snell, W. J., Hernandez-Lara, C. I., Porter, N. A., Beachy, P. A. (2016) A novel mode of Smoothened inhibition by endogenous B-ring oxysterols in Hedgehog signaling, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 113, 5904-5909.

30. Herron, J., Reese, R., Tallman, K. A., Narayanaswamy, R., Porter, N. A., Xu, L.* (2016) Identification of Environmental Quaternary Ammonium Compounds as Direct Inhibitors of Cholesterol Biosynthesis, Toxicol. Sci. 151, 261-270.


29. Pfeffer, B. A., Xu, L., Porter, N. A., Rao, S. R., and Fliesler, S. J. (2016) Differential cytotoxic effects of 7-dehydrocholesterol-derived oxysterols on cultured retina-derived cells: Dependence on sterol structure, cell type, and density, Exp. Eye Res. 145, 297-316.

28. Korade, Z., Kim, H. Y., Tallman, K. A., Liu, W., Koczok, K., Balogh, I., Xu, L., Mirnics, K., and Porter, N. A. (2016) The Effect of Small Molecules on Sterol Homeostasis: Measuring 7-Dehydrocholesterol in Dhcr7-Deficient Neuro2a Cells and Human Fibroblasts, J. Med. Chem. 59, 1102-1115.

27. Griffiths, W. J., Abdel-Khalik, J., Crick, P. J., Ogundare, M., Shackleton, C. H., Tuschl, K., Kwok, M. K., Bigger, B. W., Morris, A. A., Honda, A., Xu, L., Porter, N. A., Bjorkhem, I., Clayton, P. T., Wang, Y. (2016). Sterols and oxysterols in plasma from Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome patients. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 169, 77-87.


26.  Xu, L., Kliman, M., Forsythe, J. G., Korade, Z., Hmelo, A. B., Porter, N. A., and McLean, J. A. (2015) Profiling and imaging ion mobility-mass spectrometry analysis of cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol in cells via sputtered silver MALDI, J. Am. Soc. Mass. Spectrom. 26, 924-933.

25. Muchalski, H., Levonyak, A. J., Xu, L., Ingold, K. U., Porter, N. A. (2015) Competition H(D) kinetic isotope effects in the autoxidation of hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 137, 94-97.

24. Xu, L.,* Porter, N. A.* (2015) Free Radical Oxidation of Cholesterol and Its Precursors: Implications in Cholesterol Biosynthesis Disorders, Free Radical Res., 49, 835-849. PDF.

Prior to 2015

23. Muchalski, H., Xu, L., Porter, N. A. (2014) Tunneling in Tocopherol-Mediated Peroxidation of 7-Dehydrocholesterol, Org. Biomol. Chem., 13, 1249-1253.

22. Goyal, S., Xiao, Y., Porter, N. A., Xu, L.,* Guengerich, F. P.* (2014) Oxidation of 7-Dehydrocholesterol and Desmosterol by Human Cytochrome P450 46A1 J. Lipid Res. 55, 1933-1943.

21. Xu, L.,* Porter, N. A. (2014) Reactivities and Products of Free Radical Oxidation of Cholestadienols, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 5443−5450.

20. Lamberson, C. R., Xu, L., Muchalski, H., Montenegro-Burke, J. R., Shmanai, V. V., Bekish, A. V., McLean, J. A., Clarke, C. F., Shchepinov, M. S., Porter, N. A. (2014) Unusual Kinetic Isotope Effects of Deuterium Reinforced Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Tocopherol Mediated Free Radical Chain Oxidations, (2014) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 838-841.

19. Liu, W., Xu, L., Lamberson, C. R., Haas, D., Korade, Z., Porter, N. A. (2014) A Highly Sensitive Method for Analysis of 7-Dehydrocholesterol for the Study of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS), J. Lipid Res. 55, 329-337.

18. Korade, Z., Xu, L.,# Harrison, F. E., Ahsen, R., Hart, S. E., Folkes, O. M., Mirnics, K., and Porter, N. A. (2014) Antioxidant supplementation ameliorates molecular deficits in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS), Biol. Psychiatry, 75, 215-222.

17. Xu, L.,* Korade, Z., Rosado, D. A., Mirnics, K., Porter, N. A.* (2013) Metabolism of oxysterols derived from nonenzymatic oxidation of 7-dehydrocholesterol in cells, J. Lipid Res. 54, 1135-1143.

16. Liu, W., Xu, L., Lamberson, C. R., Merkens L. S., Steiner, R. D., Elias, E. R., Haas, D., Porter, N. A. (2013) Assays of Plasma Dehydrocholesterol Esters and Oxysterols from Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome Patients, J. Lipid Res. 54, 244-253.

15. Korade, Z., Xu, L.,# Mirnics, K., Porter, N. A. (2013) Lipid biomarkers of oxidative stress in a genetic mouse model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 36, 113-122.

14. Hill, S., Lamberson, C. R., Xu, L., To, R., Tsui, H. S., Shmanai, V. V., Bekish, A. V., Awad, A. M., Marbois, B. N., Cantor, C. R., Porter, N. A., Clarke, C. F., Shchepinov, M. S. (2012) Small Amounts of Isotope-reinforced Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Suppress Lipid Autoxidation, Free Radicals Biol. Med. 53, 893-906.

13. Xu, L., Sheflin, L. G., Porter, N. A., and Fliesler, S. J. (2012) 7-Dehydrocholesterol-derived oxysterols and retinal degeneration in a rat model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Mol. Cell Biol. Lipids 1821, 877-883.

12. Xu, L., Mirnics, K., Bowman, A. B., Liu, W., Da, J., Porter, N. A., and Korade, Z. (2012) DHCEO accumulation is a critical mediator of pathophysiology in a Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome model, Neurobiol. Dis. 45, 923-929.

11. Yin, H., Xu, L., and Porter, N. A. (2011) Free Radical Lipid Peroxidation: Mechanisms and Analysis, Chem. Rev. 111, 5944-5972.

10. Xu, L., Liu, W., Sheflin, L. G., Fliesler, S. J., and Porter, N. A. (2011) Novel oxysterols observed in tissues and fluids of AY9944-treated rats – a model for Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome, J. Lipid Res. 52, 1810-1820.

9. Shinkyo, R., Xu, L., Tallman, K. A., Cheng, Q., Porter, N. A., and Guengerich, F. P. (2011) Conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to 7-ketocholesterol is catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 7A1 and occurs by direct oxidation without an epoxide intermediate, J. Biol. Chem. 286, 33021-33028.

8. Xu, L., Korade, Z., Rosado, D. A., Liu, W., Lamberson, C. R., and Porter, N. A. (2011) An oxysterol biomarker for 7-dehydrocholesterol oxidation in cell/mouse models for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, J. Lipid Res. 52, 1222-1233.

7. Korade, Z., Xu, L.,# Shelton, R., and Porter, N. A. (2010) Biological activities of 7-dehydrocholesterol-derived oxysterols: implications for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, J. Lipid Res. 51, 3259-3269.

6. Xu, L., Korade, Z., and Porter, N. A. (2010) Oxysterols from free radical chain oxidation of 7-dehydrocholesterol: product and mechanistic studies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 2222-2232.

5. Vanover, E., Huang, Y., Xu, L., Newcomb, M., and Zhang, R. (2010) Photocatalytic aerobic oxidation by a bis-porphyrin-ruthenium(IV) mu-oxo dimer: observation of a putative porphyrin-ruthenium(V)-oxo intermediate, Org. Lett. 12, 2246-2249.

4. Xu, L., Davis, T. A., and Porter, N. A. (2009) Rate Constants for Peroxidation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Sterols in Solution and in Liposomes, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 13037-13044.

3. Xu, L., Jin, J., Lal, M., Daublain, P., and Newcomb, M. (2007) Compatible injection and detection systems for studying the kinetics of excess electron transfer, Org Lett. 9, 1837-1840.

2. Xu, L., and Newcomb, M. (2005) Acid-, base-, and lewis-acid-catalyzed heterolysis of methoxide from an alpha-hydroxy-beta-methoxy radical: models for reactions catalyzed by coenzyme B12-dependent diol dehydratase, J. Org. Chem. 70, 9296-9303.

1. Miranda, N., Xu, L., and Newcomb, M. (2004) Lewis acid catalysis in heterolysis reactions of glycol ether radicals mimicking diol dehydratase-catalyzed reactions, Org. Lett. 6, 4511-4514.