Bibliography of Literature Relevant to Our Future Sustainability

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VI.     Synthesis of Existential Risks and the Potential for Societal Collapse

Bounce me down to the bibliography citations

What’s Here

This bibliography is concerned with disturbing environmental and social trends, along with the potential to make things better and the risks if we don’t.  In this section, the referenced articles look at the big picture, synthesizing the various problems and trends and projecting our near future likely outcomes.  If you want to get maximally freaked out, this is your go-to section of the bibliography.

Many citations here are of articles from journals that are listed in italics, meaning they have gone through a peer review process. These are collected in the second subsection of this page, along with links to books and meatier reports sponsored by government agencies and NGOs. The third subsection features essays from blogs, news magazine analyses, op eds, and other think pieces. The first subsection offers links to web sites that feature their own collections of resources on existential risks and the potential for societal collapse.  Regardless of subsection, the citations lead to analyses of what the future holds, though few are modeling or statistics-heavy studies.  Instead, these are articles/books/videos/essays/reports where authors are sharing their evaluation based on a synthesis of many studies and their gut feelings about our state of affairs and what they portend.  Accordingly, these articles should be considered as speculative.

There are > 300 articles in this section written by even more authors.  What is striking is the similarity of the take home messages in the lot, regardless of publication venue or author background. There is a growing, dark consensus here in the second decade of the 21st century. An ever-increasing segment of the climate scientists, environmental scientists, social scientists, science beat journalists, etc. have looked squarely upon what we have wrought here in the Anthropocene, in large part via their own review of the literature represented in the first 4 sections of this bibliography, and have concluded that our growth-at-all-costs capitalistic society will not be sustained.  It should be concerning that so many people, with their reputations on the line, are writing about the likelihood of societal collapse in this century.

But hey, maybe these authors have it all wrong.  Theirs is still, seemingly, a minority view.  Maybe they are wrong because their views reflect a vast conspiracy in the scientific community to usher in a leftist autocracy, as some on the right would have you believe.  Maybe they are wrong because they foolishly have insufficient faith in the clever power of free markets, laissez faire politics, plutocracy, and technological innovation to overcome any resource limits, climate instability, or massive population shifts.  Maybe they are wrong because climate change and the elimination of the planet’s diversity just isn’t a concern.

The previous paragraph is more than a little facetious. I dismiss these arguments as the products of motivated reasoning.1, 2, 3  Section III of this bibliography contains links to many articles that dismantle these arguments in a variety of ways, including the simple application of facts. But it is certainly fair to question just how justified are the gloomier prognostications of the articles cited below. After all, every generation has its doomsayers and yet we have been experiencing more or less continual economic growth, technological development, and intertwining globalization for centuries. 

It is also fair to wonder about the degree to which the authors represented in this section may be biased by their own motivated reasoning as well. What might motivate a rational person to conclude that society as we know it is destined to collapse, aside from troubling data and trends?  Why is there an apparent surge in apocalyptic thinking among people concerned with the environment and social justice?4, 5, 6  To some extent, this could come from an epidemic of despair over the failure of attempts to significantly reform our socio-economic system.7, 8  Or perhaps characterizing our challenge as potentially apocalyptic enables activists to better sell the urgency of their cause and position themselves as the heroic protagonist.9, 10

There is also an apparent romantic (or perhaps just exhausted) yearning within the environmental community for a more decentralized, pastoral, and communal lifestyle, which may well end up being the best-case scenario for fortunate regions on the other side of significant economic and political collapse. There are many advocates of eco-communalism as the way forward within the sustainability community.5, 11 

There may also be something more subconscious influencing some doomsayers.  If you reach the conclusion that we are embedded in a system that is horrifically damaging, unjust, beyond democratic control, and inherently pathological, you just might find some hidden comfort in a narrative where it is destined to fall in relatively short order. In this narrative, you no longer have any responsibility to do anything to fix a doomed and irredeemable system. It’s going to happen and you can bide your time while continuing to participate in a system you can simultaneously disavow.12  This is essentially the fatalistic take of Jonathan Franzen in his 9/8/19 essay in The New Yorker magazine that received so much pushback during the week I wrote this preface.13  

None of this is to say, however, that the assessments projecting possible societal collapse within this century are easily dismissed, regardless of any motivated reasoning that may lurk in the hearts of the authors. Sometimes the data does support a conclusion that echoes your preconceptions.  Civilizations do collapse and there is little reason to think that ours is immune to the stresses that have taken out so many previous grand societies. Meanwhile, we are facing an additional, unique set of serious challenges on a horrifying time table as detailed in sections I, II, III and IV.  Collapsed is not an inappropriate description right now for the status of countries like Yemen and Venezuela and it certainly seems like the world is becoming more unstable.14, 15, 16 Ultimately, however, it is up to you – the judicious reader – to decide whether the conclusions of the articles in this section are justified or not. 

Many people have been performing this exact evaluation and section VII of this bibliography (Activisim, Eco-anxiety and the Psychology of Confronting the “Traumacene) shares articles relating the impacts this process is having on those who feel that our future prospects are grim indeed. As is apparent via the articles of section VII, there is a groundswell of environmental anxiety, grief, and alarm to the extent that children are protesting in the streets,17, 18 women are swearing off having children,19, 20 the trending climate activism group is called Extinction Rebellion, and the psychiatric community is grappling with a whole new kind of PTSD. 21, 22 

If you are looking for some solace, you can see how the collapse outcome isn’t explicitly included in most of the scenario analyses of the articles shared in section V, though it is a potential trajectory in the Great Transitions analysis. Also, section XII (Hopeful Resources – On Hope, Activism, and Examples of Positive Change) contains many resources meant to alleviate the despair and paralysis from feeling that a dystopian future is in the cards.  For example, there are links in that section to many groups one could support in their fight against a darker future, along with tales of success and the power of hope.  In that vein, section VIII (Conservation, Restoration, Mitigation,  Adaptation à Resilience) shares articles on many varied efforts, both occurring and proposed, to foster resilience and thus shore up society in some recognizable form.  Section XI (Sustainability Manifestos), on the other hand, provides links to numerous proposals for more transformative, just, and sustainable reformations of culture and socio-economics that we can implement to either avoid outright collapse or use as guides in the aftermath of non-apocalyptic forms of collapse.  And yes, there are movements afoot to prepare for and soften any imminent collapse.23, 24, 25, 26

I have written all of the above to prepare you - to inoculate you - prior to reading the articles cited below.  They aren’t likely to sit well unless you are craving some confirmation of your own preconceived dystopian fears.  Professors and teachers of all levels may want to start with Jem Bendell’s landmark paper as he is writing specifically to his fellow academics and he has followed it up by establishing a community (grown to >10,000 participants in just 6 months) to discuss how best to adapt to collapse.27, 28


If reading these articles are making you despair, take a break and deflect with a laugh. Still too dark? Ok, try this one. Not making you feel better? Go full absurd here.







Peer Review Articles, Books, and More Scholarly Resources


Journalism and Think Pieces




A. Collections


?? (2021). Collapse. [Links to many books of relevance to Collapse, nicely categorized.]


Alliance of World Scientists (2021). Alliance of World Scientists (AWS) Social Media Toolkit. [A series of very short blurbs highlighting different troubling statistics and trends.]


Anna, J (2021). Collapse? L’Archipel Du Vivant.


The Anthropocene Dashboard. [“We are gathering important metrics of the global geophysical changes that characterize the Anthropocene and putting them in one place.”]


Bendell, J (2019b). Compendium of Research Reports on Climate Chaos and Impacts. Institute for Leadership and Sustainability, July 7.


ClimateClock.World (2021). The Climate Clock.


Effondrement & Renaissance (2021). Global Collapse, How? [Collection of articles and videos on the subject, most in French.]


Hatcher, B (2019). Resource Links and Lexicon for Ecovillage and Intentional Community Design.


Millennium Alliance for Humanity and the Biosphere (2019). Responding to the Human Predicament.  Reducing the Threat of a Shattering Collapse of Civilization.  [An impressive collection of articles with frequent additions.]


The Next System Project (2019). The Index of Systemic Trends.


Peak Prosperity (2014). The Crash Course. [Breaks it down into a series of 26 videos.]


Portail de Collapsologie (2021a). Better Understanding the Risks of Societal and Ecological Collapses. [Links to many, many books and articles.]


Portail de Collapsologie (2021b). Science Database.


Post Carbon Institute (2010). The Post Carbon Reader: Managing the 21st Century's Sustainability Crises. [30 essays by “some of the most provocative thinkers on the key issues shaping our new century, from renewable energy and urban agriculture to social justice and community resilience.”]


Post Carbon Institute and Anthropocene Actions (2020).  The Great Unraveling. [A series of video interviews and a videotaped event with a presentation and a panel discussion.]


Post Doom (2021). Resources.




B.  Peer Review Articles, Books, and More Scholarly Resources


Ahmed, N (2017). Failing States, Collapsing Systems: BioPhysical Triggers of Political Violence. Springer International Pub. or


Alexander, S (2015). Voluntary Simplification as an Alternative to Collapse, in Prosperous Descent. Simplicity Institute Publishing.


American Association for the Advancement of Science (2014). What We Know: The Realities, Risks and Response to Climate Change.


Angus, I (2012). The Spectre of 21st Century Barbarism. Climate & Capitalism, Aug. 20.


Arias-Maldonado, M (2019). Humanity as a Political Subject in the Anthropocene: From Planetary Subjectivity to Global Sovereignty. Kosmos Conference, Humboldt Universität Berlin.


Atwoli, L et al., (2021). Call for Emergency Action to Limit Global Temperature Increases, Restore Biodiversity, and Protect Health. The Lancet, Sept. 4.


Bardi, U, Falsini, S and Perissi, I (2019). Toward a General Theory of Societal Collapse: A Biophysical Examination of Tainter’s Model of the Diminishing Returns of Complexity. BioPhysical Economics and Resource Quality, 4(3).


Barnosky, A and 16 co-authors (2014). Scientific Consensus on Maintaining Humanity's Life Support Systems in the 21st Century: Information for Policy Makers. Stanford University.  


Barnosky, A, Ehrlich, P and Hadly, E (2016). Avoiding Collapse: Grand Challenges for Science and Society to Solve by 2050. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 4.


Barnosky, et al., (2012). Approaching a State Shift in Earth’s Biosphere. Nature, 486: 52-58.


Barnosky, et al., (2013). Maintaining Humanity’s Life Support Systems in the 21st Century. Consensus for Action, Stanford University.


Barnosky, A et al., (2014). Introducing the Scientific Consensus on Maintaining Humanity’s Life Support Systems in the 21st Century: Information for Policy Makers. The Anthropocene Review, 1(1). or's_Life_Support_Systems_in_the_21st_Century_Information_for_Policy_Makers


Battistoni, A (2014). Kata and/or Streiphen?: Climate Change and the Politics of Catastrophe, in Kellen, A and Lebovic, N (eds.), Catastrophes: A History and Theory of an Operative Concept. De Gruyter Oldenbourg.


Baum, S (2015). The Far Future Argument for Confronting Catastrophic Threats to Humanity: Practical Significance and Alternatives. Futures, 72.


Baum, S (2018). Resilience to Global Catastrophe, in Trump, B, Florin, M and Linkov, I (Eds.). IRGC Resource Guide on Resilience (Vol. 2): Domains of Resilience for Complex Interconnected Systems. EPFL International Risk Governance Center.


Baum, S and Barrett, A (2018). Global Catastrophes: The Most Extreme Risks, in Bier, V (ed.) Risk in Extreme Environments: Preparing, Avoiding, Mitigating, and Managing. New York: Routledge, pages 174-184.


Baum, S, Ekenstedt, T, Häggström, O, Hanson, R, Kuhlemann, K, Maas, M, Miller, J, Salmela, M, Sandberg, A, Sotala, K, Torres, P, Turchin, A and Yampolskiy, R (2019). Long-Term Trajectories of Human Civilization. Foresight, 21(1).


Baum, S and Tonn, B (eds.) (2015). Confronting Future Catastrophic Threats to Humanity [Special issue]. Futures, 72. [Leads to several related articles]


Beard, S (2017). Climate Change and the Worst-Case Scenario. Institute for Public Policy Research.


Bendell, J (2018).  Deep Adaptation: Navigating Climate Tragedy.  Institute for Leadership and Sustainability Occasional Paper 2.


Bendell, J et al., (2020). International Scholars Warning on Societal Disruption and Collapse. Initiative for Leadership and Sustainability, University of Cumbria.


Benner, A, Rothe, D, Ullstrom, S and Stripple, J (2019). Violent Climate Imaginaries: Science-Fiction-Politics. Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy, Research Report #001.


Bernado, J (2010). Global Crisis and the Uncertain Future, in Pires I, Gibert, M and Hens, L. (eds) Studies in Human Ecology. Belgian-Vietnamese Cooperation. Pdf 


Besley, T and Peters, M (2019). Life and Death in the Anthropocene: Educating for Survival Amid Climate and Ecosystem Changes and Potential Civilisation Collapse. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 52(13).


Beuret, N and Brown, G (2017). The Walking Dead: The Anthropocene as a Ruined Earth. Science as Culture, 26. or


Biggs, D, Biggs, R, Dakos, B, Scholes, R and Schoon, M (2011). Are We Entering an Era of Concatenated Global Crises? Ecology and Society, 16(2).


Binghampton University (2021). Resilience, Not Collapse: What the Easter Island Myth Gets Wrong., July 13.


Blanton, R, Feinman, G, Kowalewski, S and Fargher, L (2020). Moral Collapse and State Failure: A View From the Past. Frontiers in Political Science,


Boggs, C (2016). Human Niche Construction and the Anthropocene, in Emmett, R and Lekan, T (eds.) Whose Anthropocene: Revisiting Dipesh Chakrabartys “Four Theses.” RCC, Transformations in Environment and Society Perspectives.


Bohmelt, T (2017). Employing the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways to Predict CO2 Emissions. Environmental Science & Policy, 75. [“None of the five SSP scenarios is linked to emission patterns that would suggest achieving the 2 °C goal is realistic.’]


Bologna, M and Aquino, G (2020). Deforestation and World Population Sustainability: A Quantitative Analysis. Scientific Reports, 10(7631).


Bonneuil, C and Fressoz, J (2016). The Shock of the Anthropocene: The Earth, History and Us. Verso, London.


Bostrom, N (2002). Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazard. Journal of Evolution and Technology, 9(1).


Bostrom, N (2013). Existential Risk Prevention as Global Priority. Global Policy, 4(1). [See Figure 6. Academic Prioritization, with dung beetle papers dwarfing those on human extinction.]


Bostrom, N (2019). The Vulnerable World Hypothesis. Global Policy, 10(4).


Bostrom, N and Cirkovic, M (2008). Introduction, in Bostrom, N and Cirkovic, M [eds.] Global Catastrophic Risks. Oxford University Press.


Bradford, J (2019). The Future is Rural: Food System Adaptations to the Great Simplification. Post Carbon Institute.


Bradshaw, C et al., (2021). Underestimating the Challenges of Avoiding a Ghastly Future. Frontiers in Conservation Science, .


Brito, L and Smith, M (2012). State of the Planet Declaration. Planet Under Pressure Conference: New Knowledge Towards Solutions.


Brons, L (2018). Stages of the Anthropocene. F=ma, Dec. 8. [Includes a thorough takedown of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) used in climate modeling of alternative futures.]


Brons, L (2019a). No Time for Utopia. F=ma, Feb. 19.


Brons, L (2019b). On the Fragility of Civilization. F=ma, March 19.


Brons, L (2019c). A Theory of Disaster-Driven Societal Collapse and How to Prevent It. F=ma, Sept. 26. [More of a scholarly research paper, with an interesting foreward.”]


Brosig, M, Frawley, P, Hill, A, Jahn, M,Mrsicek, M, Paris, A, Rose, M, Shambaljamts, A and Thomas, N (2019). Implications of Climate Change for the U.S. Army. U.S. Army War College.


Brown, J et al., (2011). Energetic Limits to Economic Growth. Bioscience, 61(1).


Bruno, J (2019). Global Environmental Challenges: Scientific, Philosophic and Social Implications, in Bueno, D, Casanovas, J, Garces, M and Vilalta, J (eds.), Higher Education in World 7 - Humanities and Higher Education: Synergies between Science, Technology and Humanities. Global University Network for Innovation. or


Burger, J and 10 co-authors (2012). The Macroecology of Sustainability. PLoS Biology, 10(6):


Butler, C (2016). Sounding the Alarm: Health in the Anthropocene. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(7).


Butler, C (2017). Limits to Growth, Planetary Boundaries, and Planetary Health. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 25: 59-65.


Butler, C (2018). Climate Change, Health and Existential Risks to Civilization: A Comprehensive Review (1989–2013). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(10).


Butzer, K (2012). Collapse, Environment, and Society. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(10). [Includes useful graphic of a model for what can lead to collapse or stabilization and reconstruction.]


Buxton, N and Hayes, B (eds.) (2015). The Secure and the Dispossessed - How the Military and Corporations are Shaping a Climate-Changed World. The Transnational Institute. Publishers site: Full text for free: [“examines the military and corporations' strategies in the context of climate change to secure wealth for those who have it while further dispossessing those who will be most affected by climate change.”]


Campbell, K, Gulledge, J, McNeill, J, Podesta, J, Ogden, P, Fuerth, L, Woolsey, RJ, Lennon, A, Smith, J, Weitz, R and Mix, D (2007). The Age of Consequences: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change. Center for Strategic and International Studies.


Capellan-Perez, I, Mediavilla, M, de Castro, C, Carpintero, O and Miguel, L (2015). More Growth? An Unfeasible Option to Overcome Critical Energy Constraints and Climate Change. Sustainability Science, 10.


Catton, W (1982). Overshoot: The Ecological Basis of Revolutionary Change. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. [Note the date of publication.]


Centre for the Study of Existential Risk (2020). Our Research.


Centre for the Study of Existential Risk (2020). Extreme Risks and the Global Environment. University of Cambridge.  [Web site leading to many articles.]


Clark, H (2020). A Future for the World’s Children? A WHO-UNICEF-Lancet Commission. The Lancet Commissions, 395(10224).


Coates, G (2013). Sustainable Urbanism: Creating Resilient Communities in the Age of Peak Oil and Climate Destabilization, in Wallimann, I (ed.), Environmental Policy is Social Policy – Social Policy is EnvironmentalPolicy: Toward Sustainability Policy. Springer Science+Business Media, NY. [Chapter in a book.]


Collins, A, Florin, M and Sachs, R (2021). Risk Governance and the Low-carbon Transition. EPFL International Risk Governance Center.


The Commission for the Human Future (2020). Surviving and Thriving in the 21st Century.


Connor, R, Talafre, J, Hasan, E and Abolina, E (2015a). Unsustainable Growth, in The United Nations World Water Development Report 2015: Water for a Sustainable World. World Water Assessment Programme, UNESCO. Pp. 1-14. 


Costanza, R, Graumlich, L, Steffen, W, Crumley, C, Dearing, J, Hibbard, K, Leemans, R, Redman, C and Schimel, D (2007). Sustainability or Collapse: What Can We Learn from Integrating the History of Humans and the Rest of Nature? AMBIO:A Journal of the Human Environment, 36(7).[522:SOCWCW]2.0.CO;2


Cotton-Barratt, O, Daniel, M and Sandberg, A (2020). Defence in Depth Against Human Extinction: Prevention, Response, Resilience, and Why They All Matter. Global Policy, 11(3).


Crownshaw, T et al., (2019). Over the Horizon: Exploring the Conditions of a Post-growth World. The Anthropocene Review, 6(1-2).


Cumming, G and Peterson, G (2017). Unifying Research on Social–Ecological Resilience and Collapse. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 32(9). [Thorough overview.]


Curtis, F (2009). Peak Globalization: Climate Change, Oil Depletion and Global Trade. Ecological Economics, 69(2): 427-434.


Dalio, R (2020). The Changing World Order. [Online book looking at the patterns associated with the rise and fall of Empires, with an emphasis on the ongoing decline of the USA.]


DARA and the Climate Vulnerable Forum (2012). Climate Vulnerability Monitor 2nd Edition: A Guide to the Cold Calculus of a Hot Planet. Fundación DARA Internacional.


Degroot, D et al. (2021). Towards a Rigorous Understanding of Societal Responses to Climate Change. Nature, 591.


Diamond, J (2003). Why Do Societies Collapse? TED. or [19 minute video]


Diamond, J (2005).  Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. Viking Penguin.


Domazet, M (2014). We Need to Change. Ideas of Growth and Development in a Time of Crisis of Fossil Energy and Capitalism. Etnoloska Tribina, 37(44).


Dunbar, R, Zebrowski, C and Olsson, P (2020). Is Humanity Doomed Because We Can’t Plan for the Long Term? Three Experts Discuss. The Conversation, Aug. 5.


Duncan, R (1991). The Life-Expectancy of Industrial Civilization. Systems Dynamics.


Duterme, R and Servigne, P (2016). The Coming Collapse. Committee for the Abolition of Illegitimate Debt. [Interview with authors of “Collapse, What Does it Mean?” and “How Everything Could Collapse” respectively]


Dyke, J, Watson, R and Knorr, W (2021). Climate Scientists: Concept of Net Zero is a Dangerous Trap. The Conversation, April 22.


Ehrlich, P and Ehrlich, A (2013). Can a Collapse of Global Civilization be Avoided? Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 280(1754).


Ehrlich, P and Ehrlich, A (2016). Population, Resources, and the Faith-Based Economy: the Situation in 2016. BioPhysical Economics and Resource Quality, 1(3).


Elkins, P and Zenghelis, D (2021). The Costs and Benefits of Environmental Sustainability. Sustainability Science, 16.


European Commision (2021). Overview of Natural and Man-made Disaster Risks the European Union May Face.


Fanning, A, O’Neill, D, Hickel, J and Roux, N (2021). The Social Shortfall and Ecological Overshoot of Nations. Nature Sustainability, .


Farquhar, S, Halstead, J, Cotton-Barratt, O, Schubert, S, Belfield, H, and Snyder-Beattie, A (2017). Existential Risk: Diplomacy and Governance. Global Priorities Project.


Femia, F and Werrel, C (2017). Climate Change, the Erosion of State Sovereignty, and World Order, in Werrell, C and Femia, F, (eds) Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene. The Center for Climate and Security.


Filho, W, Wolf, F, Salvia, A, Beynaghi, A, Shulla, K, Kovaleva, M and Vasconcelos, C (2020). Heading Towards an Unsustainable World: Some of the Implications of Not Achieving the SDGs. Discover Sustainability, 1(2).


Foa, R and Mounk, Y (2017). The Signs of Deconsolidation. Journal of Democracy, 28(1): 5-15.


Fragile States Index (2020). Measuring Fragility: Risk and Vulnerability in 178 Countries.


Franco, E (2020). Global Risk Report 2020. World Economic Forum.


Friedemann, A (2021). Life After Fossil Fuels: A Reality Check on Alternative Energy. Springer. [A book that is, alas, not free. But you can read abstracts and access the bibliography of each chapter.]


Future Earth (2020). Our Future on Earth.


Future of Humanity Institute (n.d.). Existential Risk FAQ: Threats to Humanity’s Future. University of Oxford.


Gaub, F (2019). Global Trends to 2030: Challenges and Choices for Europe. European Strategy and Policy Analysis System.


Ge, M, Lebling, K, Levin, K and Friedrich, J (2019). Tracking Progress of the 2020 Climate Turning Point. World Resources Institute.


German Advisory Council on Global Change (2011). World in Transition: A Social Contract for Sustainability. [420 page long report.]


Gesturing Toward Decolonial Futures (2020a). The (Shit) Storm Categories.


Gesturing Toward Decolonial Futures (2020b). Preparing for the End of the World as We Know It. Open Democracy, Aug 24.


Gilding, P (2012). The Earth is Full. TED talk. [Clear and concise overview]


Gilkson, A (2020). While We Fixate on Coronavirus, Earth is Hurtling Towards a Catastrophe Worse than the Dinosaur Extinction. The Conversation, April 2.


Gillings, M and Hagan-Lawson, E (2014). The Cost of Living in the Anthropocene. Earth Perspectives, 1(2). [Good overview of our challenges]


Gills, B and Morgan, J (2019). Global Climate Emergency: After COP24, Climate Science, Urgency, and the Threat to Humanity. Globalizations, 17(6). [Good one]


Global Challenges Foundation (2017). Global Catastrophic Risk 2017.


Global Challenges Foundation (2018). Global Catastrophic Risk 2018.


Goldstone, J (2017). Demographic Structural Theory: 25 Years On. Cliodynamics, 8(2). [Review of Demographic Structural Theory in explaining politics, history, and long-term economic trends.]


Goldstone, J, Bates, R, Epstein, D, Gurr, T, Lustik, M, Marshall, M, Ulfelder, J and Woodward, M (2010). A Global Model for Forecasting Political Instability. American Journal of Political Science, 54(1). or


Gowdy, J (2020). Our Hunter-gatherer Future: Climate Change, Agriculture and Uncivilization. Futures, 115.


Greer, J (2005). How Civilizations Fall: A Theory of Catabolic Collapse. Ecoshock.


Greer, J (2012). Progress vs. Apocalypse: The Stories We Tell Ourselves, in Butler, T, Lerch, D and Wuerthner, G (eds.), The Energy Reader: Overdevelopment and the Delusion of Endless Growth. Watershed Media and Post Carbon Institute.


Hafedorn, G et al., (2019). The Concerns of the Young Protesters are Justified: A Statement By Scientists for Future Concerning the Protests for More Climate Protection. GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 28(2). [Includes a useful list of 24 facts that concisely outline the trends and crisis of this century.]


Hagens, N (2020). Economics for the Future – Beyond the Superorganism. Ecological Economics, 169.


Halal, W and Marien, M (2011). Global MegaCrisis: Four Scenarios, Two Perspectives. The Futurist, May-June.


Haldon, J, Eisenberg, M, Mordechai, L, Izdebski, A and White, S (2020). Lessons from the Past, Policies for the Future: Resilience and Sustainability in Past Crises. Environment Systems and Decisions, 40.


Halstead, J (2019). Safeguarding the Future Executive Summary. Founder’s Pledge, Jan. 1.


Hanson, J and 17 co-authors (2013). Assessing ‘‘Dangerous Climate Change’’: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature. PLOS One, 8(12): e81648.


Hanson, R (2008). Catastrophe, Social Collapse, and Human Extinction, in Bostrom, N. and Ćirković, M.M. (eds.), Global Catastrophic Risks. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Harrington, C (2016). The Ends of the World: International Relations and the Anthropocene. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 44(3).


Hausknost, D (2019). The Environmental State and the Glass Ceiling of Transformation. Environmental Politics, 29(1). [A cogent and devastating critique of the feasibility of a sustainability transition.]


Heinberg, R (2021). Power: Limits and Prospects for Human Survival. Post Carbon Institute. [book]


Heinberg, R and Fridley, D (2016). Our Renewable Future. Post Carbon Institute.  [An online book that provides a thorough overview of the potential and challenges of transitioning to renewable energy sources].


Herrington, G (2020). Update to Limits to Growth: Comparing the Wolrd3 Model with Empirical Data. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2020.


Hoegh-Guldberg, O et al., (2019). The Human Imperative of Stabilizing Global Climate Change at 1.5°C. Science, 365(6459).


Homer-Dixon, T, Walker, B, Biggs, R, Crépin, A, Folke, C, Lambin, E, Peterson, G, Rockström, J, Scheffer, M, W. Steffen, and Troell, M (2015). Synchronous Failure: The Emerging Causal Architecture of Global Crisis. Ecology and Society, 20(3).


Hoornweg, D, Hosseini, M, Kennedy, C and Behdadi, A (2016). An Urban Approach to Planetary Boundaries. Ambio, 45:567–580.


The Institute for Economics & Peace (2020). Ecological Threat Register 2020: Understanding Ecological Threats, Resilience and Peace.


Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (2018). Global Report on Internal Displacement 2018.


Jones, A, Natalini, D and Phadtare, I (2019). Environmental Stress is Already Causing Death – This Chaos Map Shows Where. The Conversation, Oct. 24.


Jones, A and Steffen, W (2019). Our Climate is Like Reckless Banking Before the Crash – It’s Time to Talk About Near-term Collapse. The Conversation, Dec. 6.


Kareiva, P and Carranza, V (2018). Existential Risk Due to Ecosystem Collapse: Nature Strikes Back. Futures, 102.


Kareiva, P, Watts, S, McDonald, R and Boucher, T (2007). Domesticated Nature: Shaping Landscapes and Ecosystems for Human Welfare. Science, 316(5833). [Controversial in its call for continued domestication of landscapes.]


Keen, S (2020). The Appallingly Bad Neoclassical Economics of Climate Change. Globalizations, 18(7).


Kellen, A and Lebovic, N (eds.) (2014). Catastrophes: A History and Theory of an Operative Concept. De Gruyter Oldenbourg. [Book]


Keys, P, Galaz, V, Dyer, M, Matthews, N, Folke, C, Nystrom, M and Cornell, S (2019). Anthropocene Risk. Nature Sustainability, 2.


King, N and Jones, A (2021). An Analysis of the Potential for the Formation of ‘Nodes of Persisting Complexity’. Sustainability, 13(15).


Korowicz, D (2010). Tipping Point: Near-Term Systemic Implications of a Peak in Global Oil Production. The Foundation for the Economics of Sustainability.


Kousky, C, Rostapshova, O, Toman, M and Zeckhauser, R (2009). Responding to Threats of Climate Change Mega-Catastrophes. HKS Faculty Policy Research Working Paper RWP10-008, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.


Larkin, A, Kuriakose, J, Sharmina, M and Anderson, K (2018). What if Negative Emission Technologies Fail at Scale? Implications of the Paris Agreement for Big Emitting Nations. Climate Policy, 18.


Laybourn-Langton, L, Rankin, L and Baxter, D (2019). This is a Crisis: Facing Up to the Age of Environmental Breakdown. Institute for Public Policy Research.


Lenferna, A (2018). Equitably Ending the Fossil Fuel Era: Climate Justice, Capital, and the Carbon Budget. University of Washington Department of Philosophy. [PhD dissertation, thorough analysis.]


Lenton, T, Caldeira, K and Szathmary, E (2003). What Does History Teach Us About the Major Transitions and Role of Disturbances in The Evolution of Life and of the Earth System? in Schellnhuber, H, Crutzen, P, Clark, W, Claussen, M and Held, H (eds.), Earth System Analysis for Sustainability. The MIT Press.


Lenton, T, et al., (2008). Tipping Elements in the Earth’s Climate System. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 105(6): 1786-1793.


Lerch, D (2017). The Community Resilience Reader: Essential Resources for an Era of Upheaval. Post Carbon Institute.


Lidicker, W (2020). A Scientist’s Warning to Humanity on Human Population Growth. Global Ecology and Conservation, 24.


Lipschutz, R (2018). Eco-utopia or Eco-catastrophe? Imagining California as an Ecological Utopia. Elementa Science of the Anthropocene. 6:65.


Liu, H, Lauta, K and Maas, M (2018). Governing Boring Apocalypses: A New Typology of Existential Vulnerabilities and Exposures for Existential Risk Research. Futures, 102.


Liu, H, Lauta, K and Maas, M (2020). Apocalypse Now? Initial Lessons from the Covid-19 Pandemic for the Governance of Existential and Global Catastrophic Risks. Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, 11(2).


Lovelock, J (2006b). The Revenge of Gaia: Why the Earth is Fighting Back – and How we Can Still Save Humanity. Penguin Books.


Lucas T and Horton, R (2019). The 21st-century Great Food Transformation. The Lancet, 393(10170). 


Lyon, C et al., (2021). Our Climate Projections for 2500 Show an Earth that is Alien to Humans. The Conversation, Sept. 26.


Mace, G (2012). The Limits to Sustainability Science: Ecological Constraints or Endless Innovation? PLoS Biology, 10(6):


Maher, T and Baum, S (2013). Adaptation To and Recovery from Global Catastrophe. Sustainability, 5(4).


Malik, N (2020). Uncovering Transitions in Paleoclimate Time Series and the Climate Driven Demise of an Ancient Civilization. Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 30.


Mann, M (2014). Earth Will Cross the Danger Threshold in 2036. Scientific American, April 1.


Marques, L (2020). Capitalism and Environmental Collapse. Springer. [A book available for download.]


Martin, JL, Maris, V and Simberloff, D (2016). The Need to Respect Nature and its Limits Challenges Society and Conservation Science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(22).


Martine, G and Diniz Alves, J (2019). Disarray in Global Governance and Climate Change Chaos.  Revista Brasileira De Estudos De População, 36.


Matheny, J (2007). Reducing the Risk of Human Extinction. Risk Analysis, 27(5).


McChrystal, K (2019). How Have We Come to This: Climate Change and The Future of Planet Earth. Hidden Springs Press. [A book available for download.]


McPherson, G (2020). Rapid Loss of Habitat for Homo Sapiens. Academia Letters.


Menker, S (2017). A Global Food Crisis May Be Less than a Decade Away. TED.


Meynen, N (2021). Turning Point: The Pandemic as an Opportunity for Change. European Environmental Bureau.


Middleton, G (2012). Nothing Lasts Forever: Environmental Discourses on the Collapse of Past Societies. Journal of Archaeological Research, 20(3).


Mitchell, A and Chaudhury, A (2020). Worlding Beyond ‘the’ ‘End’ of ‘the World’: White Apocalyptic Visions and BIPOC Futurisms. International Relations, 34(3).


Moore, J ed. (2016). Anthropocene or Capitalocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism. PM Press. [Can download chapters from for free.]


Moore, J (2016). The Rise of Cheap Nature, in Anthropocene or Capitalocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism. PM Press.


Mora, C et al., (2018). Broad Threat to Humanity from Cumulative Climate Hazards Intensified by Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Nature Climate Change, 8: 1062–1071.


Moriarty, P and Honnery, D (2014). The Earth We are Creating. AIMS Energy, 2(2).


Moriarty, P and Honnery, D (2015). Future Cities in a Warming World. Futures, 66. [Predicts that “peak urbanism will occur over the next few decades.”]


Moriarty, P and Honnery, D (2017). Three Futures: Nightmare, Diversion, Vision. World Futures, 74(2).


Morgan, D (2009). World on Fire: Two Scenarios of the Destruction of Human Civilization and Possible Extinction of the Human Race. Futures, 41(10).


Morgan, T (2013). Perfect Storm: Energy, Finance and the End of Growth. Tullet Prebon.


Mosello, B, Foong, A, Konig, C, Wolfmaier, S and Wright, E (2020). Spreading Disease, Spreading Conflict? COVID-19, Climate Change and Security Risks. The Climate Security Expert Network.


Motesharrei, S, Rivas, J and Kalnay, E (2014). Human and Nature Dynamics (HANDY): Modeling Inequality and Use of Resources in the Collapse or Sustainability of Societies. Ecological Economics, 101: 90-102.


Motesharrei, S and 19 co-authors (2016). Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems. National Science Review, 3: 470–494.


Murphy, T (2021). Quantitative Framing of Our Predicament: Physics Say Systemic Transformation is Needed. Association for Environmental Studies and Sciences annual conference, session C3. [Succinct video showing how it is impossible to support continual economic (and other) growth.]


Murphy, T (2021). Energy and Human Ambitions on a Finite Planet. Open Educational Resources, University of California San Diego.


Murphy, T, Murphy, D, Love, T, LeHew, M and McCall, B (2021). Modernity is Incompatible with Planetary Limits: Developing a PLAN for the Future. Energy Research & Social Science, 81.


The National Intelligence Council (2021). Global Trends 2040: A More Contested World.


Nekola, J et al., (2013). The Malthusian–Darwinian Dynamic and the Trajectory of Civilization. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 28(3).


Nolan, C and 41 co-authors (2018). Past and Future Global Transformation of Terrestrial Ecosystems Under Climate Change. Science, 361(6405):


O’Brien, K (2013). What’s the Problem? Putting Global Environmental Change into Perspective, in United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Social Science Report 2013: Changing Global Environments.


Oreskes, N and Conway, E (2013). The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View from the Future. Daedalus, 142(1): 40-58.


Orlov, D (2013). The Five Stages of Collapse. New Society Publishers.


Orr, D (2009). Down to the Wire: Confronting Climate Collapse. Oxford Univ. Press.


Paltsev, S, Schlosser, A, Chen, H, Gao, X, Gurgel, A, Jacoby, H, Morris, J, Prinn, R, Sokolov, A and Strzepek, K (2021). 2021 Global Change Outlook.  MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change.


Pamlin, D and Armstrong, S (2015).  Global Challenges: 12 Risks that Threaten Human Civilisation. Global Challenges Foundation.


Parker, B (2017). Climate Change Observations. Climate Change Data Center, Aug. 23.  [A 15 point breakdown of why “we are likely on a path for an eventual temperature increase of at least 4°C, which would be catastrophic for our civilization.”]


Penny, D and Beach, T (2021). Historical Socioecological Transformations in the Global Tropics as an Anthropocene Analogue. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(40).


Petranek, S (2002). 10 Ways the World Could End. TED2002.


Pimentel, D, Whitecraft, M, Scott, Z, Zhao, L, Satkiewicz, P, Scott, T, Phillips, J, Szimak, D, Singh, G, Gonzalez, D and Moe, T (2010). Will Limited Land, Water, and Energy Control Human Population Numbers in the Future? Human Ecology, 38(5).


Pinzani, A (2018). The New Millenarianism. On the End of the World and of Capitalism as We Know Them. Civitas - Revista De Ciências Sociais, 18(3).


Quilley, S (2011). Entropy, the Anthroposphere and the Ecology of Civilization: An Essay on the Problem of 'Liberalism in One Village' in the Long View. The Sociological Review, 59(1).


Quilley, S (2013). De-Growth Is Not a Liberal Agenda: Relocalisation and the Limits to Low Energy Cosmopolitanism. Environmental Values, 22.


Raia, P et al., (2020). Past Extinctions of Homo Species Coincided with Increased Vulnerability to Climatic Change. One Earth, 3.


Ramanthan, V et al., (2016). Chapter 1. Bending the Curve: Ten Scalable Solutions for Carbon Neutrality and Climate Stability. Collabra: Psychology, 2(1).


Randers, J (2008). Global Collapse – Fact or Fiction?  Futures, 40: 853-864.


Randle, M and Eckersley, (2015). Public Perceptions of Future Threats to Humanity and Different Societal Responses: A Cross-national Study. Futures, 72.


Raudsepp-Hearne, C, et al., (2010).  Untangling the Environmentalist’s Paradox: Why Is Human Well-being Increasing as Ecosystem Services Degrade? Bioscience 60(8): 576-589.


Read, R (2018b).  This Civilisation is Finished: So What is to be Done? IFLAS Occasional Paper 3, University of Cumbria.


Rees, M (2005). Is this Our Final Century? TEDGlobal 2005. [Video lecture.]


Rees, M (2014). Existential Risks. Sustainable Humanity, Sustainable Nature: Our Responsibility. Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Extra Series 41.


Rees, M (2014). Can We Prevent the End of the World? TED talk.


Rees, W (2017). Chapter 6. The Roots of Our Crises: Does Human Nature Drive Us Toward Collapse?, in Lerch, D (ed.), The Community Resilience Reader: Essential Resources for an Era of Upheaval. Post Carbon Institute.


Rees, W (2017). Going Down? Human Nature, Growth and (Un)sustainability, in Victor, P and Dolter, B (eds.) Handbook on Growth and Sustainability. Edward Elger Publishing.


Rees, W (2019). End Game: The Economy as Eco-catastrophe and What Needs to Change. Real-World Economics Review, 87.


Rees, W (2020a). Megacities at Risk: The Climate–energy Conundrum, in Labbé, D and Sorenson, A (Eds.) Handbook of Megacities and Megacity-Regions. Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, UK.


Rees, W (2020b). The Fractal Biology of Plague and the Future of Civilization. The Journal of Population and Sustainability, 5(1).


Renner, M (2013). Climate Change and Displacements, in Assadourian, E and Prugh, T (eds.), State of the World 2013: Is Sustainability Still Possible? Worldwatch Institute.


Rigaud, K, Kanta, de Sherbinin, A, Jones, B, Bergmann, J, Clement, V, Ober, K, Schewe, J, Adamo, S, McCusker, B, Heuser, S, and Midgley, A (2018). Groundswell: Preparing for Internal Climate Migration. The World Bank.


Ripple, W, Wolf, C, Galetti, M, Newsome, T, Alamgir, M, Crist, E, Mahmoud, M, Laurance, W (2017). World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice. Bioscience, 67(12).


Ripple, W, Wolf, C and Newson, T (2019). World Scientists’ Warning of a Climate Emergency. Bioscience Magazine,70(1).  or


Ripple, W et al., (2021). World Scientists’ Warning of a Climate Emergency 2021. BioScience, 71(9). or


Robinson, K (2013). Is It Too Late?, in Assadourian, E and Prugh, T eds., State of the World 2013: Is Sustainability Still Possible? Worldwatch Institute.


Rockstrom, J (2020). 10 Years to Transform the Future of Humanity – or Destabilize the Planet. Countdown, TED.


Rockstrom, J, Schellnhuber, H, Hoskin B, Ramanathan, V, Schlosser, P, Brasseur, G, Gaffney, O, Nobre, C, Meinshausen, M, Rogelj, J, and Lucht, W (2016). The World's Biggest Gamble. Earth’s Future, 4(10).


Sagan, D (2020). Gaia Versus the Anthropocene: Untimely Thoughts on the Current Eco-Catastrophe. Ecocene, 1(1).


Sandberg, O (2020). Climate Disruption, Political Stability, and Collective Imagination. Radical Philosophy Review, 23(2).


Savulescu, J and Persson, I (2012). Moral Enhancement. Philosophy Now, 91.


Schade, C and Pimentel, D (2010). Population Crash: Prospects for Famine in the Twenty-first Century. Environment Development and Sustainability, 12(2).


Scheffer, M (2016). Anticipating Societal Collapse; Hints from the Stone Age. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(39).


Schuemer-Cross, T and Taylor, B (2009). The Right to Survive: Oxfam International. The Humanitarian Challenge for the Twenty-first Century.


Science and Security Board (2019). 2021 Doomsday Clock Statement - This is Your COVID Wake-up Call: It is 100 Seconds to Midnight. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.


Scranton, R (2019). Lessons from a Genocide Can Prepare Humanity for Climate Apocalypse. MIT Technology Review, April 24.


Sears, N (2020). Existential Security: Towards a Security Framework for the Survival of Humanity. Global Policy, 11(2).


Seibert, M and Rees, W (2021). Through the Eye of a Needle: An Eco-Heterodox Perspective on the Renewable Energy Transition. Energies, 14(15). [Devastating]


Sennholz-Weinhardt, Meynen, N and Wiese, K (2020). Towards a Wellbeing Economy that Serves People and Nature. Oxfam Deutshland and the European Environmental Bureau. [A comprehensive report.]


Servigne, P and Stevens, R (2020). How Everything Can Collapse: A Manual for our Times. Polity Press. [Available as an E-book]


Servigne, P, Stevens, R and Chapelle, G (2021). Another End of the World is Possible: Living the Collapse (and Not Merely Surviving It). Polity.


Shepherd, A, Mitchell, T, Lewis, K, Lenhardt, A, Jones, L, Scott, L and Muir-Wood, R (2013). The Geography of Poverty, Disasters and Climate Extremes in 2030. Overseas Development Institute.


Smil, V (2016). Examining Energy Transitions: A Dozen Insights Based on Performance. Energy Research & Social Science, 22.


Smith, J, Lyons, G and Sauer-Thompson, G (1998). Civilization's Wake: Ecology, Economics and the Roots of Environmental Destruction and Neglect. Population and Environment, 19.


Smith, S (2019). How to Enjoy the End of the World. Talk at Virgina Tech for the Greens, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


Snyder-Beattie, A, Ord, T and Bonsall, M (2019). An Upper Bound for the Background Rate of Human Extinction. Scientific Reports, 9(11054).


Speth, JG (2008).  The Bridge at the Edge of the World. Yale Univ. Press.  Pp: 17-45.


Spinney, L (2012). Human Cycles: History as Science. Nature, 488.!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/488024a.pdf


Spinney, L (2018). End of Days: Is Western Civilisation on the Brink of Collapse? New Scientist, Jan. 17. [A quick overview of the primary scholars on this question.]


Spratt, D and Dunlop, I (2017). What Lies Beneath: The Scientific Understatement of Climate Risk. Breakthrough – National Centre for Climate Restoration.

Spratt, D and Dunlop, I (2019). Existential Climate-related Security risk: A Scenario Approach. Breakthrough – National Centre for Climate Restoration.

Stafford, et al., (2010). Now is the Time for Action: Transitions and Tipping Points in Complex Environmental Systems.  Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 52(1): 38-45.

Stafford Smith, M, Horrocks, L, Harvey, A and Hamilton, C (2011). Rethinking Adaptation for a 4°C World. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 369(1934).


Steffen, W (2010). The Anthropocene. TEDX Canberra, YouTube.


Steffen, W, et al., (2015). Planetary Boundaries: Guiding Human Development on a Changing Planet. Science, 347(6223).

Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene.

Stubblefield, C (2018). Managing the Planet: The Anthropocene, Good Stewardship, and the Empty Promise of a Solution to Ecological Crisis. Societies, 8(2).


Tainter, J (1996). Complexity, Problem Solving, and Sustainable Society, in Getting Down to Earth: Practical Applications of Ecological Economics. Island Press.


Taylor, B (2020). Apocalypse Then, Now — and Future? Ecocene, 1(1).


Taylor, K (2017). Sunset for the American Dream. International Journal of Social Economics, 44(12).


Taylor, K (2020). The Passing of Western Civilization. Futures, 122. [A key reading that takes the broad, historical view.]


Tenza, A, Pérez, I, Martínez-Fernández, J and Giménez, A (2017). Understanding the Decline and Resilience Loss of a Long-lived Social-ecological System: Insights from System Dynamics. Ecology and Society, 22(2).


Torres, P (2019). Facing Disaster: The Great Challenges Framework. Foresight, 21(1).


Tortell, P (2020). Earth 2020: Science, Society, and Sustainability in the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,117(16).


Turchin, P (2010). Political Instability May be a Contributor in the Coming Decade. Nature, 463.


Turchin, P (2012). Dynamics of Political Instability in the United States, 1780–2010. Journal of Peace Research, 49(4).


Turchin, P (2020). The Impending Crisis. Peter


Turner, G (2014). Is Global Collapse Imminent? An Updated Comparison of the Limits to Growth with Historical Data. Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, Research Paper No. 4.


Tverberg, G (2012). Oil Supply Limits and the Continuing Financial Crisis. Energy, 37(1).


Tverberg, G (2019). The Climate Change Story is Half True. Our Finite World, April 30. [On the more proximal likelihood of economic collapse compared to climate collapse]


United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (2017). Global Land Outlook.


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2013). Part 3 – The Consequences of Global Environmental Change for Society, in World Social Science Report 2013: Changing Global Environments.  [With many brief articles on this topic.]


United Nations Environment Programme (2018). Global Environmental Outlook 5.


United Nations Environment Programme (2019a). What is the Outlook for Humanity? [flash type presentation]


United Nations Environment Programme (2019b). Global Environment Outlook 6.


United Nations Environment Programme (2021). Making Peace with Nature: A Scientific Blueprint to Tackle the Climate, Biodiversity and Pollution Emergencies. [Large report and a short compelling video.]


University of Sydney (2021). Climate Change Warning from Collapsed Ancient Cities., Sept. 28.


Vorosmarty, C, McIntyre, P, Gessner, M, Dudgeon, D, Prusevich, A, Green, P, Glidden, S, Bunn, S, Sullivan, C, Reidy, C, Liermann, C, and Davies, P (2010). Global Threats to Human Water Security and River Biodiversity. Nature, 467: 555-561.


Vox, L (2017). Existential Threats: American Apocalyptic Beliefs in the Technological Era. University of Pennsylvania Press.


Washington, H, Lowe, I and Kopnina, H (2020). Why Do Society and Academia Ignore the ‘Scientists Warning to Humanity’ on population? Journal of Futures Studies, 25(1).


Watts, N, et al., (2018). The 2018 Report of the Lancet Countdown on Health and Climate Change: Shaping the Health of Nations for Centuries to Come. The Lancet, 392 (10163): 2479-2514.


Weidmann, T, Lenzen, M, KeyBer, L and Steinberg, J (2020). Scientists’ Warning on Affluence. Nature Communications, 11(3107).


Weiss, H and Bradley, R (2001). What Drives Societal Collapse? Science, 291. [Examples of climate-driven collapse.]


Werrell, C and Femia, F (2017). Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene. The Center for Climate and Security.


Woetzel, J, Pinner, D, Samandari, H, Engel, H, Krishnan, M, Boland, B and Powis, C (2020). Climate Risk and Response: Physical Hazards and Socioeconomic Impacts. McKinsey Global Institute.


World Economic Forum (2019). The Global Risks Report 2019.


World Economic Forum (2021). The Global Risks Report 2021.


Xu, C, Kohler, T, Lenton, T, Svenning, J and Scheffer, M (2020). Future of the Human Climate Niche. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(21).




C.  Journalism and Think Pieces


Ahmed, N (2014a). Scientists Vindicate 'Limits to Growth' – Urge Investment in 'Circular Economy'. The Guardian, June 4.


Ahmed, N (2014b). Nasa-funded Study: Industrial Civilisation Headed for 'Irreversible Collapse'? The Guardian, March 14.


Ahmed, N (2019a). Scientists Warn the UN of Capitalism’s Imminent Demise., May 2.


Ahmed, N (2019b). U.S. Military Could Collapse Within 20 Years Due to Climate Change, Report Commissioned By Pentagon Says. Vice, Oct. 24.


Ahmed, N (2019c). The Collapse of Civilization May Have Already Begun. Vice, Nov. 22.


Ahmed, N (2020a). West’s ‘Dust Bowl’ Future now ‘Locked In’, as World Risks Imminent Food Crisis. Resilience, Jan. 6.


Ahmed, N (2020b). Theoretical Physicists Say 90% Chance of Societal Collapse Within Several Decades. Vice, July 28.


Ahmed, N (2021). MIT Predicted in 1972 That Society Will Collapse This Century. New Research Shows We’re on Schedule. Vice, July 14.


Ahmed, N and Miller, A (2020). Our Naked Emperors Catch Coronavirus: Nafeez Ahmed on Global System Breakdown. Crazy Town podcast, April. Post Carbon Institute.


Andersen, R (2012). We're Underestimating the Risk of Human Extinction. The Atlantic, March 6.


Assadourian, E (2020a). Living with Collapse. Medium, Oct. 29.


Assadourian, E (2020b). America’s Democracy in an Era of Collapse. Medium, Nov. 10.


Beard, S, Holt, L and Upchurch, P (2019). Dinosaurs were Wiped Out by a Catastrophic Failure of Earth’s Natural Systems – the Same Could Happen to Us. Newsweek, March 29.


Bendell, J (2019a). Notes on Hunger and Collapse. Wordpress, March 28.


Bendell, J (2020a). Climate Science and Collapse – Warnings Lost in the Wind. Jem, June 15.


Bendell, J (2020b). Debating the Pros and Cons of Deep Adaptation? Start Here with a New Edition of Original Paper. Jem, July 27.


Bendell, J (2020c). If Guys with Guns are Talking About Collapse, Why Can’t We? Jem, Nov. 11.


Blasco, J (2016). The Last Generation. ACCIONA.


Bokat-Lindell, S (2021). Climate Disaster Is the New Normal. Can We Save Ourselves? The New York Times, Sept. 7.


Bordoff, J (2022). Green Upheaval: The New Geopolitics of Energy. Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb.


Borenstein, S (2021). UN: Huge Changes in Society Needed to Keep Nature, Earth OK. ABC News, Feb. 18.


Brannen, P (2017). Burning Fossil Fuels Almost Ended All Life on Earth. The Atlantic, July.


Brewer, J (2018a). Why I No Longer Attempt to Build a Rigorous Science of Social Change. Center for Applied Cultural Evolution.


Brewer, J (2018b). Cultural Scaffolding for Post Collapse. Center for Applied Cultural Evolution.


Brons, L (2019a). The Lesser Dystopia. F=ma, April 19.


Brons, L (2019b). The 2020s and Beyond. F=ma, Oct. 9.


Brooks, D (2022). The Dark Century. The New York Times, Feb. 17.


Carter, P (2019). Dr. Peter Carter: Summarising the Lack of "Climate Emergency" at #COP25. YouTube, Dec. 10.


Cave, D, Bubola, E and Sang-Hun, C (2021). Long Slide Looms for World Population, With Sweeping Ramifications. The New York Times, May 24.


Cell Press (2020). Climate Change Likely Drove Early Human Species to Extinction, Modeling Study Suggests. Phys.Org, Oct. 15.


Cole, A (2019). Climate Change is Genocide., Aug. 25.


Collins, C (2018). Meet Catabolic Capitalism: Globalization’s Gruesome Twin. Uneven Earth, Nov. 1.


Cribb, J (2014). Human Extinction: It is Possible? The Sydney Morning Herald, April 2.


Cuaron, A (2007). The Possibility of Hope. Bonus Feature Documentary on Children of Men DVD. Universal Studios.


Dasgupta, R (2018).  The Demise of the Nation State.  The Guardian, April 5.


Dauncey, G (2019). Ok Doomer. Resilience, Nov. 26.


Davis, W (2020). The Unraveling of America. Rolling Stone, Aug. 6.


Diamond, J and Wallace-Wells, D (2019).  Jared Diamond: There’s a 49 Percent Chance the World as We Know it Will End by 2050. New York Magazine.


Dowd, M (2020). Collapse 101: The Inevitable Fruit of Progress. YouTube, July 24.


Dunn, R (2022). Natural History, Not Technology, Will Dictate Our Destiny. Wired, Jan. 6.


Dvorsky, G (2012). 9 Ways Humanity Could Bring About Its Own Destruction. Gizmodo, Dec. 12.


Dyke, J (2019). Climate Change: ‘We’ve Created a Civilisation Hell Bent on Destroying Itself – I’m Terrified’, Writes Earth Scientist. The Conversation, May 24.


Dyke, J, Watson, R and Knorr, W (2021). Climate Scientists: Concept of Net Zero is a Dangerous Trap. The Conversation, April 22.


Edwards, L (2010). Humans Will Be Extinct in 100 Years Says Eminent Scientist., June 23.


Ehrenreich, B (2020). How Do You Know When Society Is About to Fall Apart? The New York Times, Nov. 4.


Ehrenreich, B (2021). We’re Hurtling Toward Global Suicide: Why We Must Do Everything Differently to Ensure the Planet’s Survival. The New Republic, March 18. [Thorough and readable overview of the real challenge we face and our utterly inadequate response.]


Engelhardt, T (2019). The Collective Asteroid of Human History. Tikkun, Sept. 17.


Fallows, J (2019). The End of the Roman Empire Wasn’t That Bad: Maybe the End of the American One Won’t be Either. The Atlantic, Oct.  


Feffer, J (2021). Climate Change and the Limits of Economic Growth. Resilience, Nov. 4.


Felton, J (2019). Claim that Human Civilization Could End in 30 years is Speculative, Not Supported with Evidence. Climate Feedback, June 4.


Figueres, C and Rivett-Carnac, T (2021a). What if We Did Everything Right? This is What the World Could Look Like in 2050. World Economic Forum, March 11. [2 scenarios, one awful and one hopeful.]


Figueres, C and Rivett-Carnac, T (2021b). What the World Will Look Like in 2050 If We Don’t Cut Carbon Emissions in Half. Time, April 22. [Very bleak, easy read.]


Foss, N (2015). The Boundaries and Future of Solution Space. The Automatic Earth, Aug. 20.


Foster, J (2017). Towards Deep Hope: Climate Tragedy, Realism and Policy. Green House Think Tank.


The Foundation for the Economics of Sustainability (2019). Avoiding Tyranny.  [A transcript of a revealing exchange between an ecological economist and a mainstream economist. They quickly reach an impasse where the mainstream economist won’t acknowledge the pathologies of our interlinked energy and financial systems and the ecological economist squirms when accused of supporting a kind of governance best characterized as an “ecological tyranny.”]


Franzen, J (2019). What If We Stopped Pretending? The New Yorker, Sept. 8. [Easy to read, but fatalist]


Friedemann, A (2006). Peak Resources and the Preservation of Knowledge. Energy Skeptic, Jan. 6.


Gee, H (2021). Humans Are Doomed to Go Extinct. Scientific American, Nov. 30.


Gelspan, R (2007). It’s Too Late to Stop Climate Change, Argues Ross Gelbspan — So What Do We Do Now? Grist, Dec. 11.


Gergis, J (2020). The Great Unravelling: 'I Never Thought I’d Live to See the Horror of Planetary Collapse'. The Guardian, Oct. 14.


Giangrande, N (2020). Is Deep Adaptation Good Science? The Ecologist, July 29.


Goldstone, J and Turchin, P (2020). Welcome To The ‘Turbulent Twenties’. Noema, Sept. 10.


Goodell, J (2021). Our Summer from Hell. Rolling Stone, Sept. 3.


Greenfield, P and Watts, J (2020). JP Morgan Economists Warn Climate Crisis is Threat to Human Race. The Guardian, Feb. 21.


Greer, J (2011). The Onset of Catabolic Collapse. Resilience, Jan. 20.


Greer, J (2014). Bright Were the Halls Then. Resilience.Org, July 10.


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Hagens, N and White, D (2017). GDP, Jobs, and Fossil Largesse. Resilience, Nov. 30.


Hallam, R (2019). Common Sense for the 21st Century: Only Nonviolent Rebellion Can Now Stop Climate Breakdown and Social Collapse. Roger Hallam.Com.


Halpern D (2018). Sperm Count Zero. GQ Magazine, Sept. 4.


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Harari, Y (2018). We Need a Post-liberal Order Now. The Economist, Sept. 26.


Haque, A (2019a). The Age of Collapse. Resilience.Org, Aug. 7.


Haque, U (2019b). How Capitalism Torched the Planet by Imploding into Fascism. Eudamonia & Co, Sept. 21.


Haque, U (2020a). If Life Feels Bleak, It’s Because Our Civilization is Beginning to Collapse. Eudaimonia and Co., July 3.


Haque, A (2020b). America is Having the Mother of All Social Collapses. Eudaimonia, July 24.


Haywood, A (2021). The Fat Lady Has Just Sung. Medium, Nov. 3. [“The US military is planning on a greater than 1.5 degrees Celsius rise in global temperatures and chaos, by 2030.”]


Hedges, C (2013). The Myth of Human Progress and the Collapse of Complex Societies. Truth Dig, Oct. 13.


Hedges, C (2019a). Sermon at Christ Church Cathedral, Victoria B.C. YouTube, Jan. 20.


Hedges, C (2019b). The World to Come. Truthdig, Jan. 29.


Hedges, C (2019c). The Coming Collapse. Common Dreams, May 21.


Hedges, C and Paikin, S (2018). The Collapse of the American Empire? The Agenda, Sept. 12. YouTube.


Heinberg, R (2014). Two Realities. Resilience.Org, July, 22.


Heinberg, R (2017). Are We Doomed? Let’s Have a Talk.


Heinberg, R (2018a). Ted Nordhaus Is Wrong: We Are Exceeding Earth’s Carrying Capacity. UnDark, July 26.


Heinberg, R (2018b). The Big Picture. Resilience.Org.


Heinberg, R (2019). The House is on Fire. Resilience.Org, Feb. 28.


Heinberg, R (2020). Doom or Denial: Is There Another Path? Resilience, July 24.


Heinberg, R (2021a). The Most Colossal Planning Failure in Human History. Post Carbon Institute, May 19.


Heinberg, R (2021b). The Only Long-Range Solution to Climate Change. Resilience, Sept. 14.


Heinberg, R (2021c). The End of Growth: Ten Years After. Post Carbon Institute, Dec. 7.


Heinberg, R (2022). Social Cohesion Is Vital, and We’re Losing It. Common Dreams, Jan. 13.


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Holmgren, D (2013). Crash on Demand: Welcome to the Brown Tech Future. Simplicity Institute Report 13c.


Homer-Dixon, T (2020). Coronavirus Will Change the World. It Might Also Lead to a Better Future. The Globe and Mail, Mar. 6.


Hotz, R (2021). Action on Climate Change Is Urged by Medical Journals in Unprecedented Plea. The Wall Street Journal, Sept. 6.


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Jamail, D (2019). We Are Destroying Our Life Support System. Truthout, Jan. 28.


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Jimenez, J (2022). Why the UN Must Rely More on Indigenous Wisdom and Less on Fossil Fuels. Resilience, May 23.


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Kaminski, A (2021). Review: Life After Fossil Fuels by Alice Friedemann. Resilience, June 23.


Kaplan, R (1994). The Coming Anarchy. The Atlantic, Feb.


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Kemp, L (2019a). Are We on the Road to Civilisation Collapse? BBC Future, Feb. 18.


Kemp, L (2019b). Civilisational Collapse has a Bright Past – But a Dark Future. Aeon, May 21.


Ketcham, C and Gibbs, J (2021). Op-Ed: Collapseologists are Warning Humanity that Business-as-usual Will Make the Earth Uninhabitable. Los Angeles Times, Jan. 31.


Kilian, C (2018). If We Can’t Stop Hothouse Earth, We’d Better Learn to Live on It. The Tyee, Aug. 15.


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Kingsnorth, P (2011). Confessions of a Recovering Environmentalist. Orion Magazine.


Kingsnorth, P (2012). Dark Ecology. Orion Magazine.


Kingsnorth, P (2019). Life Versus the Machine. Orion, March.


Knorr, W et al., (2020). After Coronavirus, Focus on the Climate Emergency. The Guardian, May 10.


Kolbert, E (2020). Three Scenarios for the Future of Climate Change. The New Yorker, Oct. 5.


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Kurmanaev, A (2019). Venezuela’s Collapse Is the Worst Outside of War in Decades, Economists Say. NY Times, May 17.


Lent, J (2017a). How Civilizations Collapse. Jeremy


Lent, J (2017b). What Will It Really Take to Avoid Collapse? Patterns of Meaning, Dec. 12.


Lent, J (2019a). What Will You Say to Your Grandchildren? Patterns of Meaning, April 4. [A critique of Jem Bendell’s Deep Adaptation paper]


Lent, J (2019b). Our Actions Create the Future: A Response to Jem Bendell. Patterns of Meaning, April 11.


Lent, J (2019c). As Society Unravels, the Future Is Up for Grabs. Patterns of Meaning, Sept. 12.


Lenzo, W (2021). There are No Stable Prices in a Burning World. 3+ C Global Warming, Quora, Feb. 25. [Quick take on the fragility of the infrastructure of civilization and poor response of governance.]


Leslie, J (2022). Old Climate Clues Shed New Light on History. Wired, Jan. 15. [Linking social turmoil to volcanic eruptions and prolonged droughts.]


Levitz, D (2021). We’ll Innovate Our Way Out of the Climate Crisis or Die Trying. New York Magazine, May 17.


Loeb, A (2021). How Much Time Does Humanity Have Left? Scientific American, May 12.


Lovelock, J (2006a). The Earth is About to Catch a Morbid Fever that May Last as Long as 100,000 Years. Independent, Jan. 16.


Lustgarten, A (2020). How Russia Wins the Climate Crisis. Pulitzer Center.


Lyon, C et al., (2021). Our Climate Projections for 2500 Show an Earth that is Alien to Humans. The Conversation, Sept. 26.


Martensen, C (2019). Collapse is Already Here. It’s a Process, Not an Event. Peak Prosperity, March 10.


Marvel, K (2019). Lost Cities and Climate Change. Scientific American, July 29.


Maslin, M (2021). Climate Change: How Bad Could the Future be if We Do Nothing? The Conversation, May 6.


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McKibben, B (2019). Hello from the Year 2050. We Avoided the Worst of Climate Change — But Everything Is Different. Time, Sept. 12.


Meyer, R (2019a). Are We Living Through Climate Change’s Worst-Case Scenario? The Atlantic, Jan. 15.


Meyer, R (2019b). How Climate Change Could Trigger the Next Global Financial Crisis. The Atlantic, Aug. 1.


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Mudede, C (2020). The Greatest Threat to the Human Race Is Not Climate Denialism But Climate Optimism. The Stranger, Feb. 20. [Shares a frank assessment from mycologist Nicholas Money and a podcast of an interview.]


Munsch, M (2018). As the Climate Clock Strikes Midnight it’s Time to Look to the Morning. Bright Green, July 22.


Munsch, M (2018). Quitting Your Job in the Anthropocene. Noteworthy – The Journal Blog, Nov. 9.


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Murphy, T (2018). Why Worry About Collapse? Do the Math, May, 18.


Murphy, T (2022). Human Exceptionalism. Resilience, Feb. 18.


Neale, J (2019). Social Collapse and Climate Breakdown. Ecologist, May 8.


New Scientist (2018). Apocalypse Not Now But the Fate of Civilisation is In Our Hands. [Very short introduction to the topic.]


Nicholas, T, Hall, G and Schmidt, C (2020). The Faulty Science, Doomism, and Flawed Conclusions of Deep Adaptation. Open Democracy, July 14.


Nelson, R (2020). Lethal Modernity. Forum contribution: After the Pandemic: Which Future? Great Transition Initiative.


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Orlov, D (2005). How Russians Survived the Collapse of the Soviet Union. Energy Skeptic. [A fascinating and troubling long essay considering how America will fare during collapse compared to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Broken up into three parts.]


Oxford Climate Society (2020). The Existential Risk of Climate Change. Oxford Climate Society Online Events, June 16. [Video of panel discussion with David Wallace Wells, Zeke Hausfather, Luke Kemp and Kate Guy]


Papillon (2020). The End of the World Is Nigh. Or Is It? Medium, May 4.


PF Pictures (2014). Disruption. [A disturbing video that provides a compelling overview of how we are driving climate change and our difficulties in addressing it.]


Pielke, R (2019). Net-Zero Carbon Dioxide Emissions By 2050 Requires A New Nuclear Power Plant Every Day. Forbes, Sept. 30. [Underscores the difficulty of meeting required targets.]


Piper, K (2020). The Doomsday Clock is Now at “100 Seconds to Midnight.” Here’s What that Means. Vox, Jan. 23.


Plumer, B (2014). Two Degrees: The World Set a Simple Goal for Climate Change. We're Likely to Miss It. Vox, April 22.


Polgreen, L (2019). The Collapse of the Information Ecosystem Poses Profound Risks for Humanity. The Guardian, Nov. 19.


Pollard, D (2019). Why Economic Collapse Will Precede Climate Collapse. How To Save the World, Sept. 8.


Pollard, D (2021). What is Exponential Decay? How To Save the World, May 25.


Polychroniou, C (2021). Is Humanity's Return to Barbarism Unavoidable? Common Dreams, Aug. 6.


Poodwaddle (2019). Earth Clock. [Provides a disturbing continuous tracking of statistics of environmental degradation. Accuracy uncertain.]


Purtill, C (2020). How Close is Humanity to the Edge? The New Yorker, Nov. 21.


Quinn, D (1996). The Boiling Frog, in The Story of B. New York, NY: Bantam Books. Pp. 258-275. pdf


Raskin, P (2014). A Great Transition? Where We Stand. Great Transition Initiative, Oct.


Raskin, P (2021). Interrogating the Anthropocene: Truth and Fallacy. Great Transition Initiative. [Worthwhile take on the big picture]


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Read, R (2020). This Civilisation Is Finished: So What Is To Be Done? Shed A Light. The Climate Cinema YouTube Channel. [Video of a talk.]


Real News Network (2018). Michael Mann: We Are Even Closer To Climate Disaster Than IPCC Predicts. [video]


Rees,M (2019). Prospects for Humanity. The Long Now Foundation. [video of talk]


Rees, W (2019). Yes, the Climate Crisis May Wipe out Six Billion People. The Tyee, Sept. 18.


Rees, W (2019). Don’t Call Me a Pessimist on Climate Change. I Am a Realist. The Tyee, Nov. 11.


Rees, W (2019). Memo from a Climate Crisis Realist: The Choice before Us. The Tyee, Nov. 12.


Rees, W (2022). War and Sustainability: Dispelling the Renewable Energy Illusion. Sustainable Consumption Research and Action Initiative.


Reid, R (2019). In the Not-so-distant Future, “Synbio” Could Lead to Global Catastrophe—Maybe. Ars Technica, June 18.


Rezl, M (2020). Let’s Talk Collapse. [Thorough overview]


Ridley, M (2020). Against Environmental Pessimism. Property and Environment Research Center, 39(1). [Techno-optimism ”free market environmentalism” rebuttal to many environmental tropes. Poorly supported.]


Roberts, D (2011). The Brutal Logic of Climate Change. Grist, Dec. 6.


Roberts, D (2015). The Awful Truth About Climate Change No One Wants to Admit. Vox, May15.


Roberts, D (2019). This is an Emergency, Damn It. Vox, Feb. 23.


Romm, J (2017). We Aren’t Doomed by Climate Change. Right Now we are Choosing to be Doomed. Resilience, July 12.


Rosenberg, P (2020). What Lies Ahead: After the Damage of the Trump Era, Can America Avoid Disaster? Salon, Nov. 22. [Insightful interview with historian Jack Goldstone.]


Sacks, A (2009). The Fallacy of Climate Activism. Grist, Aug. 24.


Samarajiva, I (2020). I Lived Through Collapse. America Is Already There. Medium, Sept. 25.


Sandberg, A (2019). Will Climate Change Cause Humans to Go Extinct? The Conversation, May 29.


Seaton, L (2020). Painting Nationalism Green? New Left Review,


Servigne, P, Stevens, R, Chapelle, G and Rodary, D (2020). Deep Adaptation Opens Up a Necessary Conversation About the Breakdown of Civilization. Open Democracy, Aug. 3.


Shaw, M, Bendell, J, Ingram, C, Jamail, D and Rushworth, S (2020). Living in the Time of Dying: Facing the Truth About Climate Change.


Shellenburger, M (2020). On Behalf of Environmentalists, I Apologize For The Climate Scare. Environmental Progress, June 29. [Warning – climate change denialism article.  It was posted on Forbes, then they quickly deleted it. It is included here as it provides an opportunity for critique and rebuttal.]


Shenkman, R (2019). The Shocking Paper Predicting the End of Democracy. Politico, Sept. 8.


Simon, E (2018). Capitalism’s Final Solution Is Nothing Less than Complete Ecological Collapse. History News Network, Oct. 9.


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Sobel, A (2021). Climate Scientist: This is a Dystopian Moment. CNN, Sept. 2.


Spitzer, S (2019). An Open Letter to Those Who Haven’t Faced Climate Change. Respond to Climate Change, May 13. [A solid overview.]


Steffen, A (2017a). The Last Decade and You. The Nearly Now, June 5.


Steffen, A (2017b). The Real Politics of the Planetary Crisis. The Nearly Now, Dec. 8.


Steffen, A (2017c). The Truly Big Picture. The Nearly Now, Dec. 26.


Steffen, A (2020). I’m a Climate Futurist. Here’s What’s Next. Medium, Jan. 27.


Stichele, M (2020). Asia’s Dystopian Future? Why Banks Need to Put Sustainable Finance Clearly in their Sights. Fair Finance Asia.


Sutoris, P (2022). Our Environmental Crisis Requires Political Fixes, Not Technological Ones. Scientific American, Feb. 7.


Tharoor, I (2021). The World in 2030 May Be Worse than in 2020. The Washington Post, Jan. 3.


Thunberg, G (2019). You Did Not Act in Time': Greta Thunberg's Full Speech to MPs. The Guardian, April 23.


Tishmack, J (2021). The Era of Cheap Living is Over. Reslience, Nov. 10.


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Tverberg, G (2021). Is it Possible that the World is Approaching End Times? Our Finite World, Dec. 3.


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Wallace-Wells, D (2018). UN Says Climate Genocide is Coming. It’s Actually Worse than That. New York Magazine, October 10.


Wallace-Wells, D (2019). The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming. Tim Duggan Books.


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Walsh, B (2021). 1 Big Thing: The Global Future is Looking Dark and Stormy. Axios, April 10.


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Weiskel, T (2020). A Chapter In an Ongoing Crisis. Forum (Round 1) on After the Pandemic: Which Future? Great Transition, July.


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