Bibliography of Literature Relevant to Our Future Sustainability

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I.     Climate Change Impact Observations and Projections (published after 2004)

 Bounce me down to the list of bibliography subsections   

 Bounce me down to Web Resources for Learning the Fundamentals on Climate Change                

What’s Here

This section of the bibliography is broken up into 19 subsections, each focused on climate change impacts that have already been observed or are projected to have some likelihood of occurring.

The bulk of the citations below are journal articles that have gone through the peer review process, which is indicated when the publication is italicized.  Government-sponsored reports are also well represented.  Scattered throughout you will find reports from NGOs, useful web sites, interactive maps, review articles from news magazines, and a few videos. Some citations appear in more than one subsection.

If your goal is to get the big picture of what has already transpired along with our biggest concerns looking forward, then you should start by browsing subsection M – Overviews and Advances in the Science.  Seventeen of the other subsections provide links to resources concerned with climate change impacts on specific elements of our socio-economic, biological, and earth systems. One section collects articles on the impacts to a region - the Pacific Northwest - as that is of particular interest to my students and regional colleagues.

There is plenty of overlap to be found in the articles of any one subsection, but reviewing multiple sources gives you a sense of where there is consensus or disagreement among many different researchers, along with regional variability in climate change impacts, and the advancement of understanding over time.

It is a daunting task to get decently informed on the findings of climate science. There are well over 1000 citations in this section of the bibliography, and this is a small sampling of an enormous literature. You will note that I have limited this section to resources published after 2004, with most since 2018.  This makes the bibliography more manageable but it also acknowledges how our understanding of climate impacts and the sophistication of our climate models have advanced over time.  You can access the older literature by working through the bibliographies of the resources provided here as well the extensive bibliography of Spencer Weart’s online textbook.

If you want to get caught up on the most recent climate science news, you could check out the following website:, or the collection of articles on Climate Change Impacts published in the journal Nature Climate Change.

Aside from the time required to review even a handful of the articles in this section, it takes a concerted effort to synthesize the findings across articles in different subsections and to make some evaluation of what they collectively imply for our future.  The scope is so big… and so too is the uncertainty!  Well, do not despair because others have done the work for you.  You can cut to the chase by bouncing to section V (Future Scenarios Analyses) and, especially, section VI (Synthesis of Existential Risks and the Potential for Societal Collapse).

I don’t think it will be a spoiler to state that the impacts detailed in any one of these climate change impact subsections are troubling.  Taken collectively, the overall assessment of how climate change will continue to alter our biosphere and our prospects is… grim.  Meanwhile, this “grim” assessment, which can result from taking seriously any handful of the articles in this section, is likely based on an underestimation of the threat and pace of change given how the conclusions and language of the vast majority of climate science publications have been influenced by a preference for “conservative projections and scholarly reticence.” 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7  No scientist, including your humble curator, wants to be perceived as alarmist.8  But the gloves are starting to come off 9, 10 as the onslaught of bad news and projections overwhelms a science culture geared to caution and detachment.

If learning about these inconvenient truths - in a way that gets past a compartmentalized, intellectual appreciation - is getting you down, you may want to scan the articles in section VII (Eco-anxiety and the Psychology of Confronting the “Traumacene”) to get a sense of how others are coping.  If you want to learn about why we have gotten into this self-made mess and why we are having such difficulty in extricating ourselves from it, then you should do a deep dive into section III -The Cultural How and Why? Ideologies, Ethics, Economics, and Politics of (Un)Sustainability. 

Many of the articles in section III also provide assessments of what is required to foster a better future.  In fact, many articles within all sections of this bibliography do this.  The good news is that we have a decent handle on our threats, challenges, barriers, and limitations.  We also have many actionable (though often contradictory) ideas on what we need to do to avoid the worst outcomes and co-create a more just, happy, and verdant world.  Sections VIII – XII of this bibliography focus on these actionable ideas.


What’s Not Here

This bibliography, and particularly this section, assumes some basic understanding and acceptance of climate science.  There isn’t a separate section devoted to references on the fundamentals of climate science as it is beyond the scope of this bibliography.  However, what follows is a list of articles and web sites you can access to get up to speed on greenhouse gas emissions, the greenhouse effect, measuring and modeling climate variables, etc.

Web Resources for Learning the Fundamentals on Climate Change

-    Earth Science Communications Team (2020). Evidence. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [Also sections on Causes, Effects, Scientific Consensus, and Vital Signs]

-    NASA (2020). For Educators.

-    NOAA (2020). Teaching Climate.

-    UNESCO (2011). Climate Change Starter’s Guidebook: An Issues Guide for Education Planners and Practitioners.  

-    U.S. Global Change Research Program (2017). Fourth National Climate Assessment, Vol. 1.

-     Climate Change Data Center (2020). Global Warming/Climate Change - Facts and Images.

-    UN CC: Learn (2020). The Scientific Fundamentals of Climate Change - Interactive Version.

-    Natural Resources Defense Council (2016). Global Warming 101.

-    Center for Strategic and International Studies (2021). Climate Basics. [Leads to multiple primers.]

-    Center for Foreign Relations (2022). What Is Climate Change?

-    Bruine de Bruin, W (2021). A Quick Guide to Climate Change Jargon – What Experts Mean by Adaptation, Carbon Neutral and 6 Other Key Terms. The Conversation, Oct. 26.

-    Tisher, S (2021). Climate Chronology. [Interactive timeline.]

-    Weart, S (2021). The Discovery of Global Warming. Center for History of Physics. [Online textbook]

-    American Association for the Advancement of Science (2020). Consensus Sense. What We Know Initiative. [Short video framing what we know and should do with regard to Climate Change.]

-           NASA (2020). Scientific Consensus: Earth's Climate is Warming.

-    Our Climate Future (2020). Our Climate Our Future. [Visually engaging video oriented to young people that provides an introduction to climate change.]

-          Schmidt, G (2014). The Emergent Patterns of Climate Change. Ted. [Short video about the nature and application of climate models.]

-    Roberts, D (2020). What’s Causing Climate Change, In 10 Charts. Vox, Sept. 11.

-    Trenberth, K (2021). Climate Change is Relentless: Seemingly Small Shifts have Big Consequences. The Conversation, Aug. 17.

-    Gillis, J (2017). Short Answers to Hard Questions About Climate Change. The New York Times, July 6.

-    Chamberlin, S (2008). The Climate Science Translation Guide. Dark Optimism, Sept. 3.

-    Dee, S (2021). Scientists Understood Physics of Climate Change in the 1800s – Thanks to a Woman Named Eunice Foote. The Conversation, July 22.

-    SciShow (2013). A History of Earth’s Climate. [Fast talking video]

-    Skeptical Science (2020).

Another related set of readings you won’t find via this bibliography are resources that could be considered in denial of climate science.  I am not going to waste anyone’s time providing fuel to a false debate.  There is, however, plenty of room for legitimate debate in terms of what we can and should do about the various threats we face.  A wide range of thinking on this can be found in sections III, V, VIII and XI.  Section III also includes many articles that analyze the sources11, motivations, errors, and ramifications of climate change denialism.





Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food Supply

Map of climate risk interconnections. From Yokohata, T et al., (2019).


Biodiversity Loss, Habitat Degradation, and Species Shifts


Conflict, Security, Displacement, and Migrations


Deforestation and Wildfire


Drought and Desertification


Economics and Politics (much more in section III)


Glacial Lake Outburst Floods


Human Health and Disease


Ice Loss




Ocean Acidification


Other Impacts


Overviews and Advances in the Science (more in section V)


Pacific Northwest Specific


Permafrost, Hydrates, and Methane


Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding


Tropical Cyclones


Water Supplies and Systems


Weather Extremes and Geographic Shifts




        A. Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food Supply


Ahmed, N (2020). West’s ‘Dust Bowl’ Future now ‘Locked In’, as World Risks Imminent Food Crisis. Resilience, Jan. 6.


Alava, J (2019). Climate Change and Overfishing Boost Toxic Mercury Levels in Fish. The Conversation, Nov. 7.


American Geophysical Union (2022). Climate Change Has Likely Begun to Suffocate the World's Fisheries., Feb. 1.


Barange, M, Bahri, T, Beveridge, M, Cochrane, K, Funge-Smith, S and Poulain, F, eds. (2018). Impacts of Climate Change on Fisheries and Aquaculture: Synthesis of Current Knowledge, Adaptation and Mitigation Options. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 627. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.


Battisti, D and Naylor, R (2009). Historical Warnings of Future Food Insecurity with Unprecedented Seasonal Heat. Science, 323(5911): 240-244.


Bélanger, J and Pilling, D, [eds.] (2019). The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture.  FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Assessments.


Bendell, J (2019a). Notes on Hunger and Collapse. Jem, March 28.


Berwyn, B (2019). Global Warming Is Hitting Ocean Species Hardest, Including Fish Relied on for Food. Inside Climate News, April 24.


Betts, R et al., (2018). Changes in Climate Extremes, Freshwater Availability and Vulnerability to Food Insecurity Projected at 1.5°C and 2°C Global Warming with a Higher-resolution Global Climate Model. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 376.


Binns, C, Lee, M, Maycock, B, Torheim, L, Nanishi, K and Duong, D (2021). Climate Change, Food Supply, and Dietary Guidelines. Annual Review of Public Health, 42.


Blanc, E, Caron, J, Fant, C and Monier, E (2017). Is Current Irrigation Sustainable in the United States? An Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Water Resources and Irrigated Crop Yields. Earth’s Future, 5(8).


Brown, M, and 21 co-authors, (2015). Climate Change, Global Food Security and the U.S. Food System. U.S. Global Change Research Program.


Challinor, A, Watson, J, Lobell, D, Howden, S, Smith, D and Chhetri, N (2014). A Meta-analysis of Crop Yield Under Climate Change and Adaptation. Nature Climate Change, 4.


Climate One (2019). The Fate of Food. [Transcript and videos of a panel discussion on the subject]


Crowther, T and 49 co-authors (2016). Quantifying Global Soil Carbon Losses in Response to Warming.  Nature, 540: 104-108.


Dawson, T, Perryman, A and Osborne, T (2016). Modelling Impacts of Climate Change on Global food Security. Climatic Change, 134.


Dean, J (2020). Climate Change is Altering the Taste of our Beer. The Takeout, Aug. 20.


Der Esch, S, ten Brink, B, Stehfest, E, Bakkenes, M, Sewell, A, Bouwman, A, Meijer, J, Westhoek, H and van den Berg, M (2017). Exploring Future Changes in Land Use and Land Condition and the Impacts on Food, Water, Climate Change and Biodiversity. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency.


Deutsch, C, Tewksbury, K, Tigchelaar, M, Battisti, D, Merrill, S, Huey, R and Naylor, R (2018). Increase in Crop Losses to Insect Pests in a Warming Climate. Science, 361(6405): 916-919.


Döring, T, Rosslenbroich, D, Giese, C, Athmann, M, Watson,  C, Vágó, I, Kátai, J, Tállai, M and Bruns,C (2020). Disease Suppressive Soils Vary in Resilience to Stress. Applied Soil Ecology, 149. [Increased heat and drought make life easy for the pathogenic fungus Pythium ultimum in agricultural soils. The fungus causes almost total crop failure in peas.]


Ericksen P, Thornton P, Notenbaert A, Cramer L, Jones, P and Herrero, M (2011). Mapping Hotspots of Climate Change and Food Insecurity in the Global Tropics. CCAFS Report no. 5. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark.


Etim, N, Offiong, E and Ukpanah, U (2013). Farm Animals: Culprits and Victims of Global Warming and Climate Change. American Journal of Advanced Agricultural Research, 1(1).


Flavelle, C (2019). Climate Change Threatens the World’s Food Supply, United Nations Warns. The New York Times, Aug. 8.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2011). Food Wastage Footprint & Climate Change.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2015). Climate Change and Food Systems: Global Assessments and Implications for Food Security and Trade. Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2019a). The State of the World’s Aquatic Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Assessments.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2019b). The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture. Bélanger, J and Pilling, D (eds.). FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Assessments.


FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (2018). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World: Building Climate Resilience for Food Security and Nutrition. UN Food and Agriculture Organization.


Free, C, Thorson, J, Pinsky, M, Oken, K, Wiedenmann, J, and Jensen, O (2019). Impacts of Historical Warming on Marine Fisheries Production. Science, 363(6430): 979-983.


Funes, Y (2020). A Second Dust Bowl Could Threaten Global Food Security. Gizmodo, March 20.


Gaupp, F, Hall, J, Hochrainer-Stigler, S and Dadson, S (2019). Changing Risks of Simultaneous Global Breadbasket Failure. Nature Climate Change, 540.


Gaupp, F, Hall, J, Mitchell, D and Dadson, S (2019). Increasing Risks of Multiple Breadbasket Failure Under 1.5 and 2°C Global Warming. Agricultural Systems, 175.


Ghaedi, M (2021). Pandemic, Climate Change and Conflict Fuel Sharp Rise in Global Hunger. DW, Oct. 14.


Glotter, M and Elliot, J (2017). Simulating US Agriculture in a Modern Dust Bowl Drought. Nature Plants, 3.


Grafton, R, Williams, J and Jiang, Q (2017). Possible Pathways and Tensions in the Food and Water Nexus. Earth’s Future, 5(5).


Gustina, G (2021). Without ‘Transformative Adaptation’ Climate Change May Threaten the Survival of Millions of Small Scale Farmers. Inside Climate News June 23.


Hanjra, M and Qureshi, M (2010). Global Water Crisis and Future Food Security in an Era of Climate Change. Food Policy, 35(5). 


Harvey, F (2019). A Fifth of UK Fresh Food Imports from Areas at Risk of Climate Chaos, MPs Warn. The Guardian, Sept. 17.


Harvey, F (2021). Third of Global Food Production at Risk from Climate Crisis. The Guardian, May 14.


Harwatt, H, Ripple, W, Chaudhary, A, Betts, M and Hayek, M (2019). Scientists Call for Renewed Paris Pledges to Transform Agriculture. The Lancet Planetary Health, Dec. 11.


Hasegawa, T, Fujimori, S, Takahashi, K and Masui, T (2015). Scenarios for the Risk of Hunger in the Twenty-first Century Using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways. Environmental Research Letters, 10(1).


High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (2012). Food Security and Climate Change. Committee on World Food Security, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.


Ho, S (2020). 5 Foods You Eat Everyday Could Disappear Because Of Climate Change, From Coffee To Potatoes. Green Queen, Feb. 14.


Huang, Z, Hejazi, M, Tang, Q, Vernon, C, Liu, Y, Chen, M, and Calvin, K (2019). Global Agricultural Green and Blue Water Consumption Under Future Climate and Land Use Changes. Journal of Hydrology, 574: 242-256.


International Center for Tropical Agriculture (2019). Dramatic Rainfall Changes for Key Crops Predicted Even with Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions. ScienceDaily, March 11.


Jagermeyr, J et al., (2021). Climate Impacts on Global Agriculture Emerge Earlier in New Generation of Climate and Crop Models. Nature Food, .


John Hopkins Center for a Livable Future (2020). Food Systems & Climate.  [A web site leading to research, reports and other resources on this topic.]


Journal of Plant Pathology (2011). Special Issue: Climate Change and Plant Diseases.


Kornhuber, K et al., (2019). Amplified Rossby Waves Enhance Risk of Concurrent Heatwaves in Major Breadbasket Regions. Nature Climate Change, 10.


Leahy, S (2019). Billions Face Food, Water Shortages Over Next 30 Years as Nature Fails. National Geographic, Oct. 10.


Lesk, C, Rowhani, P and Ramankutty, N (2016). Influence of Extreme Weather Disasters on Global Crop Production. Nature, 529.


Lobell, D and Gourdji, S (2012). The Influence of Climate Change on Global Crop Productivity. Plant Physiology, 160(4). 


Luck, J, Spackman, M, Freeman, A, Trebicki, P, Griffiths, W, Finlay, K and Chakraborty, S (2011). Climate Change and Diseases of Food Crops. Plant Pathology, 60(1).


Lunt, T, Jones, A, Mulhern, W, Lezaks, D and Jahn, M (2016). Vulnerabilities to Agricultural Production Shocks: An Extreme, Plausible Scenario for Assessment of Risk for the Insurance Sector. Climate Risk Management, 13.


Mbow, C, Rosenzweig, C, Barioni, L, Benton, T, Herrero, M, Krishnapillai, M, Liwenga, E, Pradhan, P, Rivera-Ferre, M, Sapkota, T, Tubiello, F and Xu, Y (2019). Chapter 5: Food Security, in Climate Change and Land. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.


McQuate, S (2019). Warmer Temperatures Will Increase Arsenic Levels in Rice, Study Shows. UW News, Dec. 4.


Mehrabi, Z (2020). Food System Collapse. Nature Climate Change, 10.


Meza, I, Siebert, S, Döll, P, Kusche, J, Herbert, C, Rezaei, E, Nouri, H, Gerdener, H, Popat, E, Frischen, J, Naumann, G, Vogt, J, Walz, Y, Sebesvari, Z and Hagenlocher, M (2020). Global-scale Drought Risk Assessment for Agricultural Systems. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 20(2).


Monier, E, Xu, L and Snyder, R (2016). Uncertainty in Future Agro-climate Projections in the United States and Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation. Environmental Research Letters, 11(5). 


Mooney, C and Muyskens, J (2019). Dangerous New Hot Zones are Spreading Around the World. The Washington Post, Sept. 11.  [Great maps, photos, with a focus on the impact of an ocean hot spot on clams in Uruguay.]


Muller, C, Elliott, J, Chryssanthacopoulos, J, Deryng, D, Folberth, C, Pugh, T and Schmid, E (2015). Implications of Climate Mitigation for Future Agricultural Production. Environmental Research Letters, 10(12).


NBC Nightly News (2021). Climate Change Shrinking Seafood Availability. [video]

Ortiz-Bobea, A, Wang, H, Carrillo, C and Ault, T (2019). Unpacking the Climatic Drivers of US Agricultural Yields. Environmental Research Letters, 14(6).


Parletta, N (2020). Soil Pathogens Rise as Temperatures Do. Cosmos, May 13.


Plagányi, É (2019). Climate Change Impacts on Fisheries. Science, 363(6430): 930-931.


Planetary Health Alliance (2019). Bibliography: Changing Food Systems. 


Reilly, J (2021). The Health and Climate Consequences of the American Food System Cost Three Times as Much as the Food Itself. The Washington Post, July 16.


Sage, C (2009). The Sustainability and Security of the Global Food System: The Challenges of Peak Oil, Climate Change & Freshwater Depletion. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Food Science & Technology, 9.


Schauberger, B, et al., (2017). Consistent Negative Response of US Crops to High Temperatures in Observations and Crop Models. Nature Communications, 8(13931). 

Shindell, D (2016). Crop Yield Changes Induced by Emissions of Individual Climatealtering Pollutants. Earth’s Future, 4(8).


Smale, D and 17 co-authors (2019). Marine Heatwaves Threaten Global Biodiversity and the Provision of Ecosystem Services. Nature Climate Change, 9(4).


Springermann, M et al., (2016). Global and Regional Health Effects of Future Food Production Under Climate Change: A Modelling Study. The Lancet, 387(10031): 1937-1946.


Srivastav, A, Dhyani, R, Ranjan, M, Madav, S and Sillanpaa, M (2021). Climate-resilient Strategies for Sustainable Management of Water Resources and Agriculture. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28.


Stockle, C, Nelson, R, Higgins, S,. Brunner, J, Grove, G, Boydston, R, Whiting, M and Kruger, C (2010). Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Eastern Washington Agriculture. Climatic Change, 102.


Tirado, M, et al., (2010). Climate Change and Food Safety: A Review. Food Research International, 43: 1745-1765.


Trnka, M et al., (2019). Mitigation Efforts Will Not Fully Alleviate the Increase in Water Scarcity Occurrence Probability in Wheat-producing Areas. Science Advances, 5(9).


Turral, H, Burke, J and Faures, JM (2011). Climate Change, Water and Food Security. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.


Tzachor, A (2020). Famine Dynamics: The Self-undermining Structures of the Global Food System. Global Relations Forum Young Academics Program, Analysis Paper Series No. 8.


Uddling, J, Broberg, C, Feng, Z and Pleijel, H (2018). Crop Quality Under Rising Atmospheric CO2. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 45.


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2013). Wake Up Before It Is Too Late: Make Agriculture Truly Sustainable Now for Food Security in a Changing Climate. Trade and Environment Review 2013.


United Nations Environment Programme (2016d). Poisoned Chalice: Toxin Accumulation in Crops in the Era of Climate Change, in UNEP Frontiers 2016 Report: Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern.


Van Meijl, H et al., (2018). Comparing Impacts of Climate Change and Mitigation on Global Agriculture by 2050. Environmental Research Letters, 13(6).


Vineyards Integrated Smart Climate Application (2021). Scientific Publications and Deliverables.


Vogel, E, et al. (2019). The Effects of Climate Extremes on Global Agricultural Yields. Environmental Research Letters, 14(5).


Walsh, M, Backlund, P, Buja, L, DeGaetano, A, Melnick, R, Prokopy, L, Takle, E, Todey, D, and Ziska, L (2020). Climate Indicators for Agriculture. US Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1953.


Wiebe, K et al., (2015). Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture in 2050 Under a Range of Plausible Socioeconomic and Emissions Scenarios. Environmental Research Letters, 10(8).


Willet, W and 36 co-authors (2019). Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems. The Lancet, 393(10170): 447-92.


Wilson, S (2022). As it Enters a Third Year, California’s Drought is Strangling the Farming Industry. The Washington Post, March 22.


Win, T and O’Brien, C (2020). Hungry for Change: Faulty Food Systems Laid Bare by COVID-19 and Climate Crises. Thomson Reuters Foundation, Dec. 27.


World Food Programme (2018). What a 2°C and a 4°C Warmer World Could Mean for Global Food Insecurity. [Basically a big infographic comparing the impacts of temperature elevation on food security]


World Health Organization (2018b). Food Safety, Climate Change and the Role of WHO.


Xie, W, Xong, W, Pan, J, Ali, T, Cui, Q, Guan, D, Meng, J, Mueller, N, Lin, E and Davis, S (2018). Decreases in Global Beer Supply Due to Extreme Drought and Heat. Nature Plants, 4: 964-973.


Zhao, C and 28 co-authors (2017). Temperature Increase Reduces Global Yields of Major Crops in Four Independent Estimates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(35): 9326-9331.


Zhu, C, Kobayashi, K, Loladze, I, Zhu, J, Jiang, Q, Xu, Xi, Liu, G, Senewee, S, Ebi, K, Drewnowski, A, Fukagawa,N and Ziska, L (2018). Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Levels this Century will Alter the Protein, Micronutrients, and Vitamin Content of Rice Grains with Potential Health Consequences for the Poorest Rice-dependent Countries. Science Advances, 4(5).



        B.  Biodiversity Loss, Habitat Degradation, and Species Shifts [back to subsections]


Agostini, S, Harvey, B, Wada, S, Kon, K, Milazzo, M Inaba, K and Hall-Spencer, J (2018). Ocean Acidification Drives Community Shifts Towards Simplified Non-calcified Habitats in a Subtropical−temperate Transition Zone. Scientific Reports, 8(11354).


Alizad, K, Hagen, S, Morris, J, Medeiros, S, Bilskie, M and Weishampel, J (2016). Coastal Wetland Response to Sealevel Rise in a Fluvial Estuarine System. Earth’s Future, 4(11).


Amesbury, M, Roland, T, Royles, J, Hodgson, D, Convey, P, Griffiths, H, and Charman, D (2017). Widespread Biological Response to Rapid Warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. Current Biology, 27(11): 1616-1622.


Asad, H and Carpenter, D (2018). Effects of Climate Change on the Spread of Zika Virus: A Public Health Threat. Reviews on Environmental Health, 33(1): 31-42.


Bangor University (2021). Catastrophic Consequences for Oceans When Climate Change and Plastic Pollution Crises Combine. Phys.Org, Sept. 28.


Bednarsek, N et al., (2020). Exoskeleton Dissolution with Mechanoreceptor Damage in Larval Dungeness Crab Related to Severity of Present-day Ocean Acidification Vertical Gradients. Science of the Total Environment, 716.


Beheregaray, L, Sandoval Castillo, J and Gates, K (2020). Which Species Will Win and Lose in a Warmer Climate? It Depends Where They Evolved. The Conversation, July 9.


Berwyn, B (2019). Global Warming Is Hitting Ocean Species Hardest, Including Fish Relied on for Food. Inside Climate News, April 24.


Birkhead, T (2020). Latest Research Shows How Climate Change Is Killing off Bird Species by the Millions. The National Interest, March 7.


Braverman, I (2017). Bleached! Managing Coral Catastrophe. Futures, 92: 12-28.


Bryndum-Bucholz, A, Tittensor, D, Blanchard, J, Cheung, W, Coll, M, Galbraith, E, Jennings, S, Maury, O and Lotze, H (2018). Twentyfirstcentury Climate Change Impacts on Marine Animal Biomass and Ecosystem Structure Across Ocean Basins. Global Change Biology, 25(2).


Carvalho, B and Nobre, C (2020). We’re Turning the Amazon Into a Savannah. New York Times, Oct. 2.


Cavicchioli, R et al., (2019). Scientists' Warning to Humanity: Microorganisms and Climate Change. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 17: 569-586.


Chu, J (2019). Breaching a “Carbon Threshold” Could Lead to Mass Extinction. MIT News Office, July 8.


Climate Central (2019). In Hot Water: Warming Waters are Stressing Fish and the Fishing Industry.


Coates, D (2010). Freshwater and Climate Change: Dealing with Too Much and Too Little. Biodiversity and Climate Change Issue Paper No. 3. United Nations Environment Programme.


The Conscious Challenge (2019). Climate & Extinction, in Ecological Footprint Bible.


Convention on Biological Diversity (2020). Climate Change and Biodiversity. [With links to resources]


Dahlke, F, Wohlrab, S, Butzin, M and Portner, H (2020). Thermal Bottlenecks in the Life Cycle Define Climate Vulnerability of Fish. Science, 369(6499).


Der Esch, S, ten Brink, B, Stehfest, E, Bakkenes, M, Sewell, A, Bouwman, A, Meijer, J, Westhoek, H and van den Berg, M (2017). Exploring Future Changes in Land Use and Land Condition and the Impacts on Food, Water, Climate Change and Biodiversity. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency.


Dietzel, A, Bode, M, Connolly, S and Hughes, R (2020). Long-term Shifts in the Colony Size Structure of Coral Populations Along the Great Barrier Reef. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 287.


Dropulich, S (2021). Declining Male Fertility Increases Climate Change Vulnerability., April 20.


Dunne, D (2020). Tropical Forests Losing Ability to Absorb CO2, Study Says. Carbon Brief, Jan. 27.


Duong, T (2020). Fatal Skin Disease in Dolphins Linked to the Climate Crisis. EcoWatch, Dec. 24.


Dutkiewicz, S, Morris, J, Follows, M, Scott, J, Levitan, O, Dyhrman, S and Frank, I (2015). Impact of Ocean Acidification on the Structure of Future Phytoplankton Communities. Nature Climate Change, 5.


Dzieza, J (2015). Climate Change Could Mean Massive Ocean Dead Zones. Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia, NOAA.


EarthTime (2018a). Coral Bleaching. (interactive maps)


Eyre, B, Cryonak, T, Drupp, P, De Carlo, E, Sachs, J and Andersson, A (2018).  Coral Reefs Will Transition to Net Dissolving Before End of Century. Science, 359(6378): 908-911.


FAO (2019a). The State of the World’s Aquatic Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Assessments.


FAO (2019b). The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture. Bélanger, J and Pilling, D (eds.). FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Assessments.


Franca, F et al., (2020). Climatic and Local Stressor Interactions Threaten Tropical Forests and Coral Reefs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 37(1794).


Frieler, K, Meinshausen, M, Golly, A, Mengel, M, Lebek, K, Donner, SD and Hoegh-Guldberg, O (2012). Limiting Global Warming to 2°C is Unlikely to Save Most Coral Reefs. Nature Climate Change, 3.


Friggens, M, Bagne, K, Finch, D, Falk, D, Triepke, J and Lynch, A (2013). Review and Recommendations for Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment Approaches with Examples from the Southwest. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-309. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.


Funes, Y (2019). Deforestation and Climate Change Could Split the Amazon Rainforest in Two, Study Finds. Gizmodo, June 25.


Gatti, L et al., (2021). Amazonia as a Carbon Source Linked to Deforestation and Climate Change. Nature, 595.


Germanos, A (2020). 'Alarming': Tropical Forests in Shift from Carbon Sponge to Carbon Source. Common Dreams, March 4.


Gomes, V, Vieira, I, Salomao, R and Steege, H (2019). Amazonian Tree Species Threatened by Deforestation and Climate Change. Nature Climate Change, 9: 547-553.


Gonzalez, P, Nelson, R, Lenihan, J and Drapek, R (2010). Global Patterns in the Vulnerability of Ecosystems to Vegetation Shifts Due to Climate Change. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 19(6).


Griffith, A and Gobler, C (2019). Harmful Algal Blooms: A Climate Change Co-stressor in Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. Harmful Algae, 91.


Grimm, N et al., (2013). The Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystem Structure and Function. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11(9). [Fairly concise overview focused on the U.S.]


Gustin, G (2020). Think Covid-19 Disrupted the Food Chain? Wait and See What Climate Change Will Do. Inside Climate News, July 7.


Harrison, S (2020). Plant Community Diversity Will Decline More than Increase Under Climatic Warming. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 37(1794).


Henson, S, Beaulieu, C, Ilyina, T, John J, Long, M, Seferian, R, Tjiputra, J and Sarmiento, J (2017). Rapid Emergence of Climate Change in Environmental Drivers of Marine Ecosystems. Nature Communications, 8(14682).


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Hoffman, S, Irl, S and Beierkuhnlein, C (2019). Predicted Climate Shifts Within Terrestrial Protected Areas Worldwide. Nature Communications, 10.


Hubau, W et al., (2020). Asynchronous Carbon Sink Saturation in African and Amazonian Tropical Forests. Nature, 579.


International Panel on Climate Change (2019). Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate.


Jia, G, Shevliakova, E, Artaxo, P, De Noblet-Ducoudré, N, Houghton, R, House, J, Kitajima, K, Lennard, C, Popp, A, Sirin, A, Sukumar, R and Verchot, L (2019). Land–climate Interactions, in Climate Change and Land. IPCC.


Jensen, M et al., (2018). Environmental Warming and Feminization of One of the Largest Sea Turtle Populations in the World. Current Biology, 28(1).


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Laffoley, D and Baxter, J (eds.) (2016). Explaining Ocean Warming: Causes, Scale, Effects and Consequences. International Union for Conservation of Nature.


Laffoley, D and Baxter, J (eds.) (2019). Ocean Deoxygenation: Everyone’s Problem. International Union for Conservation of Nature.


Lang, F (2020). Climate Crisis Obvious as Bears Wake up from Hibernation Early Due to Overheating. Interesting Engineering, March 16.


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Lawler, J and Mathias, M (2007). Climate Change and the Future of Biodiversity in Washington. Report prepared for the Washington Biodiversity Council.


Leadley, P, Pereira, H, Alkemade, R, Fernandez-Manjarrés, J, Proença, V, Scharlemann, J,,Walpole, M (2010). Biodiversity Scenarios: Projections of 21st Century Change in Biodiversity and Associated Ecosystem Services. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Technical Series no. 50.


Leemans, R and Eickhout, B (2004). Another Reason for Concern: Regional and Global Impacts on Ecosystems for Different Levels of Climate Change. Global Environmental Change, 14(3).


Lenoir, J, Bertrand, R, Comte, L, Bourgeaud, L, Hattab, T, Murienne, J and Grenouillet, G (2020). Species Better Track Climate Warming in the Oceans than on Land. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 4.


Marks, G (2018). Climate Change is Causing a Dangerous Uptick in Cases of Lyme Disease. Pacific Standard, April 16.


McKelvey, K et al., (2021). Adapting Research, Management, and Governance to Confront Socioecological Uncertainties in Novel Ecosystems. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 4.


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National Audubon Society (2015a). Audubon’s Birds and Climate Change Report: A Primer for Practitioners. National Audubon Society. 


National Audubon Society (2015b). Audubon’s Birds and Climate Change Report: Explore the Impacts. National Audubon Society. [Interactive mapping of the projected shift in the range of different birds through 2080, by species and region.  Scroll down to it.]


Nolan, C and 41 co-authors (2018). Past and Future Global Transformation of Terrestrial Ecosystems Under Climate Change. Science, 361(6405):


Oleksy, I, Baron, J, Leavitt, P and Spaulding, S (2020). Nutrients and Warming Interact to Force Mountain Lakes into Unprecedented Ecological States. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 287(1930).


Parfenova, E, Tchebakova, N and Soja, A (2019). Assessing Landscape Potential for Human Sustainability and 'Attractiveness' Across Asian Russia in a Warmer 21st Century. Environmental Research Letters, 14(6).


Pautasso, M, Doring, T, Garbelotto, M, Pellis, L and Jeger, M (2012). Impacts of Climate Change on Plant Diseases — Opinions and Trends. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 133.


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Perrings, C (2010). Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Climate Change: The Economic Problem. The World Bank Environment Department.


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Radchuk, V and 64 co-authors (2019). Adaptive Responses of Animals to Climate Change are Most Likely Insufficient. Nature Communications, 10(3109).


Richardson, A, Chaudhary, C, Schoeman, D and Costello, M (2021). Marine life is Fleeing the Equator to Cooler Waters. History Tells Us This Could Trigger a Mass Extinction Event. The Conversation, April 7.


Rodriguez-Labajos, B (2013). Climate Change, Ecosystem Services, and Costs of Action and Inaction: Scoping the Interface. WIREs Climate Change, 4(6).


Roman-Palacios, C and Wiens, J (2020). Recent Responses to Climate Change Reveal the Drivers of Species Extinction and Survival. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(8).


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Ryan, S, Carlson, C, Mordecai, E and Johnson, L (2019). Global Expansion and Redistribution of Aedes-borne Virus Transmission Risk with Climate Change. PLoS Negl Tropical Disease, 13(3): e0007213.


Saintilan, N, Khan, N, Ashe, E, Kelleway, J, Rogers, K, Woodroffe, C and Horton, B (2020). Thresholds of Mangrove Survival Under Rapid Sea Level Rise. Science, 368(6495).


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Slater, G (2019). Study Finds Climate Change Causing Fatal Virus to Spread to Marine Mammals Oceans Apart. People, Nov. 12. 


Sloat, S (2019). Sperm Study Increases Concern That Climate Change Will Kill Off Species. Inverse, April 16.


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Soroye, P, Newbold, T and Kerr, J (2020). Climate Change Contributes to Widespread Declines Among Bumble Bees Across Continents. Science, 367(6478). 


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Turner, M et al., (2020). Climate Change, Ecosystems and Abrupt Change: Science Priorities. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 37(1794).


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University of Birmingham (2021). Melting Glaciers May Produce Thousands of Kilometers of New Pacific Salmon Habitat., Dec. 7.


University of East Anglia (2021). How Climate Change Could Impact Algae in the Global Ocean., Sept. 16.


Urton, J (2020). Marine Animals Live Where Ocean is Most ‘Breathable,’ but Ranges Could Shrink with Climate Change. UW News, Sept. 16.


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USA National Phenology Network (2020). Status of Spring. [With animated maps showing how early spring leaf out is happening.]


University of Connecticut (2021). Animals Died in 'Toxic Soup' During Earth's Worst Mass Extinction: A Warning for Today., Sept. 17.


UW News Staff (2020). Ocean Acidification Impacts Oysters’ Memory of Environmental Stress. UW News, March 12.


Visser, M (2022). Phenology: Climate Change is Shifting the Rhythm of Nature, Frontiers 2022: Noise, Blazes and Mismatches. United Nations Environment Programme.


Vorosmarty, C, McIntyre, P, Gessner, M, Dudgeon, D, Prusevich, A, Green, P, Glidden, S, Bunn, S, Sullivan, C, Reidy, C, Liermann, C, and Davies, P (2010). Global Threats to Human Water Security and River Biodiversity.  Nature, 467: 555-561.


Wang, Y, Shipley, B, Lauer, D, Pineau, R and McGuire, J (2020). Plant Biomes Demonstrate that Landscape Resilience Today is the Lowest it has Been Since EndPleistocene Megafaunal Extinctions. Global Change Biology, 26(10).


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Wells, M et al., (2015). Harmful Algal Blooms and Climate Change: Learning from the Past and Present to Forecast the Future. Harmful Algae, 49.


Williams, A (2020). Climate Change Has Degraded Productivity of Shelf Sea Food Webs. Scienmag, June 8.


Xu, X, Jia, G, Shang, X, Riley, W and Xue, Y (2020). Climate Regime Shift and Forest Loss Amplify Fire in Amazonian Forests. Global Change Biology, 26(10).


Yirka, B (2020). Brazilian Forests Found to be Transitioning from Carbon Sinks to Carbon Sources., Dec. 21.


Zaman, I and Khuda, M (2011). Climate Change and Corruption Leave the World’s Largest Mangrove Forest in Peril, in Transparency International (ed.), Global Corruption Report: Climate Change. Earthscan, London.



        C. Conflict, Security, Displacement, and Migrations [back to subsections]


Abel, G, Brottrager, M, Crespo Cuaresma, J and Muttarak, R (2019). Climate, Conflict and Forced Migration. Global Environmental Change, 54: 239-249.  


Actionaid International (2020). Costs of Climate Inaction: Displacement and Distress Migration.


Adger, W et al., (2020). Urbanization, Migration, and Adaptation to Climate Change. One Earth, 3(4).


Ahmed, N (2020). British Military Prepares for Climate-Fueled Resource Shortages. Vice, Sept.14.


Anglia Ruskin University (2019). Global Chaos Map Project.


Arcanjo, M (2018a). Climate Migration: A Growing Global Crisis. Climate Institute, April, 30.


Arcanjo, M (2018b). The Climate-Conflict Nexus in Asia: Fact or Fiction? Climate Institute, May 14.


Ayazi, H and Elsheikh, E (2019). Climate Refugees: The Climate Crisis and Rights Denied. Othering & Belonging Institute.


Azhar, G (2017). Climate Change Will Displace Millions in Coming Decades. Nations Should Prepare Now to Help Them. The Conversation, Dec. 18.


Baba, A, Tayfur, G, Gunduz, O, Howard, K, Friedel, M and Chambel, A (200). Climate Change and its Effects on Water Resources: Issues of National and Global Security. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series, volume 3. [A book - not free for download.]


Baker, A (2021). Environmental Crises Are Forcing Millions Into Cities. Can Countries Turn Climate Migrants Into an Asset? Time, April 22.


Barnett, J and Adger, WN (2007). Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict.  Political Geography, 26(6): 639-655.


Barrett, O (2019). Central America: Climate, Drought, Migration and the Border. The Center for Climate and Security, April 17.


Baussan, C, Duarte, L, Spaggiari, O and Stillman, S (2021). When Climate Change and Xenophobia Collide. The New Yorker, Feb. 16.


Benner, A, Rothe, D, Ullstrom, S and Stripple, J (2019). Violent Climate Imaginaries: Science-Fiction-Politics. Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy, Research Report #001.


Bergholt, D and Lujala, P (2012). Climate-related Natural Disasters, Economic Growth, and Armed Civil Conflict. Journal of Peace Research, 49(1).


Bettini, G (2013). Climate Barbarians at the Gate? A Critique of Apocalyptic Narratives on ‘Climate Refugees’. Geoforum, 45.


Bettini, G, Nash, S and Gioli, G (2017). One Step Forward, Two Steps Back? The Fading Contours of (In)justice in Competing Discourses on Climate Migration. The Geographical Journal, 183(4).


Beyatli, B (2019). The Dark Face of Climate Change: Climate Refugees.


Black, R Adger, WB,.Arnell, N, Dercond, S, Geddese, A and Thomas, T (2017). The Effect of Environmental Change on Human Migration. Global Environmental Change, 21(suppl. 1): S3-S11.


Blitzer, J (2019). How Climate Change is Fueling the U.S. Border Crisis. The New Yorker, April 3.


Boas, I and Dobson, R (2011). Disrupting Lives: Climate Migration and Corruption, in Transparency International (ed.), Global Corruption Report: Climate Change. Earthscan, London.


Bottollier-Depois, A (2022). Climate Migrants Could Face a World of Closing Doors., Feb. 28.


Bowles, D, Butler, C and Morisetti, N (2015). Climate Change, Conflict and Health. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 108(10).


Brown, O. (2007). Climate Change and Forced Migration: Observations, Projections and Implications, Human Development Report 2007/2008. UNDP.


Burke, M, Hsiang and Miguel, E (2014). Climate and Conflict. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 20598.


Buxton, N (2021). Primer on Climate Security: The Dangers of Militarising the Climate Crisis. The Transnational Institute.


Buxton, N and Hayes, B (eds.) (2015). The Secure and the Dispossessed - How the Military and Corporations are Shaping a Climate-Changed World. The Transnational Institute. Publishers site: Full text for free: [“Examines the military and corporations' strategies in the context of climate change to secure wealth for those who have it while further dispossessing those who will be most affected by climate change.”]


Cabrera, Y (2019). ‘Climate Chaos’ is Displacing the World’s Poor Communities. Grist, Dec. 3.


Campbell, J and Warrick, O (2014). Climate Change and Migration in the Pacific. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific.


Campbell, K, Gulledge, J, McNeill, J, Podesta, J, Ogden, P, Fuerth, L, Woolsey, R, Lennon, A, Smith, J and  Weitz, R (2007). The Age of Consequences: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change. Center for Strategic and International Studies, Center for a New American Security.


The Center for Climate and Security (2017). Military Expert Panel Report: Sea Level Rise and the U.S. Military’s Mission.


Chazalnoël, M, Pușcaș, I, Ai, Y, Pheto, N and Phakathi, T (2019). Climate Change and Migration in Vulnerable Countries. The International Organization for Migration and the Office of the High Representative for Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States.


Chin-Yee, S (2019). Climate Change and Human Security. The European Centre for Energy and Resource Security, Strategy Paper 18. Department of War Studies, King’s College London.


Climate Migration Forum (2021). Resources. [Collection of papers.]


Climgration (2021).


Climgration (2021). Case Studies.


Climgration (2021). Reports.


Collins, C (2019). Climate Change and Global Security: Planning for Potential Conflict. Climate Institute, Sept. 25.


Corry, O (2017). The International Politics of Geoengineering: The Feasibility of Plan B for Tackling Climate Change. Security Dialogue, 48(4). [Includes security implications]


Covering Climate Now (2021). Flight for Their Lives.  [Collection of articles about climate migration.]


Cox, K, Knack, A, Robson, M, Adger, N, Paille, P, Freeman, J, Black, J and Harris, R (2020). A Changing Climate: Exploring the Implications of Climate Change for UK Defence and Security. The Global Strategic Partnership, RAND Europe.


DARA and the Climate Vulnerable Forum (2012). Climate Vulnerability Monitor 2nd Edition: A Guide to the Cold Calculus of a Hot Planet. Fundación DARA Internacional.


Da Silva, I (2019). Displaced by the Desert: An Expanding Sahara Leaves Broken Families and Violence in its Wake. Relief Web, Oct. 18.


Deaton, J (2019). This City May Become a Magnet for Climate Refugees. Mother Jones, Dec. 7.


Dellinger, A (2019). Extreme Weather has Displaced Over 7 Million People Already this Year, New Report Says. Mic, Sept. 30.


Department of Defense, Office of the Undersecretary for Policy (2021). Department of Defense Climate Risk Analysis. Report Submitted to National Security Council.


De Sherbinin, A et al., (2012). Migration and Risk: Net Migration in Marginal Ecosystems and Hazardous Areas. Environmental Research Letters, 7.


Detraz, N and Windsor, L (2014). Evaluating Climate Migration: Population Movement, Insecurity and Gender. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 16(1).


Devlin, C and Hendrix, C (2014). Trends and Triggers Redux: Climate Change, Rainfall, and Interstate Conflict. Political Geography, 43.


Dunlop, I and Spratt, D (2017). Disaster Alley: Climate Change Conflict and Risk. Breakthrough National Centre for Climate Restoration. Discussion Paper. [Comprehensive with an engaging format. Written to be readable by anyone.]


The Environmental Justice Foundation (2014). The Gathering Storm: Climate Change, Security and Conflict.


Faheid, D and Livingstone, K (2021). To Flee, or to Stay Until the End and Be Swallowed by the Sea. Inside Climate News, July 18.


Fan, Q, Fisher-Vanden, K and Klaiber, H (2018). Climate Change, Migration, and Regional Economic Impacts in the United States. Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, 5(3).,less%20susceptible%20to%20extreme%20climate.&text=In%20addition%2C%20wage%20effects%20are,results%20in%20larger%20welfare%20changes


Fatima, R, Wadud, A and Coelho, S (2014). Human Rights, Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Migration: A New Paradigm. Migration Policy Institute.


Femia, W (2018). Significant Security Threats from Climate Change on the Horizon. Defense Dossier, 23: 20-24.


Flavell, A (2014). IOM Outlook on Migration, Environment and Climate Change. International Organization for Migration.


Flavelle, C (2020). U.S. Flood Strategy Shifts to ‘Unavoidable’ Relocation of Entire Neighborhoods. The New York Times, Aug. 26.


Flavelle, C, Barnes, J, Sullivan, E and Steinhauer, J (2021). Climate Change Poses a Widening Threat to National Security. The New York Times, Oct. 21.


Freedman, A (2021). Climate Change is a Major Threat to Stability, Spy Agencies Say. Axios, Apr. 9.


Frietsch, M (2020). People On the Move: Migration as An Adaptation to Climate Change. Science 4 Sustainability, Nov. 9.


Fritz, C (2010). Climate Change and Migration: Sorting through Complex Issues without the Hype. Migration Policy Institute, March 4.


Frohlich, C and Klepp, S (2018). Climate Change and Migration Crises in Oceania. Toda Peace Institute, Policy Brief No. 20.


Funes, Y (2018). The Migrant Caravan's Plight Is a Glimpse of Our Coming Climate Crisis. Gizmodo, Oct. 25.


Gander, K (2020). Climate Change Leading to Warming of Just 1.5C Could Kill 1,600 More Americans Every Year. Newsweek, Jan. 13. [Includes alarming short video with David Wallace-Wells]


Gaub, F and Lienard, C (2021). Arab Climate Future: Of Risk and Readiness. Chaillot Paper 170. The European Union Institute for Security Studies.


Gemenne, F (2017). Why the Numbers Don’t Add Up: A Review of Estimates and Predictions of People Displaced by Environmental Changes. Global Environmental Change, 21(suppl. 1): S41-S49.


Gilruth, P (2019). Environment, Climate Change and Security. Foresight Brief, 12. United Nations Environment Programme.


Gleick, P (2014). Water, Drought, Climate Change, and Conflict in Syria. Weather, Climate and Society, 6: 331-340.


Glieck, P (2021). The Climate Crisis Will Create Two Classes: Those Who Can Flee, and Those Who Cannot. The Guardian, July 7.


Global Oneness Project (2019).  Migration.  [A collection of articles and films to “Discover what’s lost and gained as migrants travel long distances in search of a new home.”]


Government Office for Science (2011). Migration and Global Environmental Change Future Challenges and Opportunities.


Greig, J (2020). This Is How Climate Change Will Increase Human Conflict. Vice, June 5.


Griffiths, J (2019). What Happens When Parts of South Asia Become Unlivable? The Climate Crisis is Already Displacing Millions. CNN, July 17.


Gunn, L (2017). National Security and the Accelerating Risk of Climate Change. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 5.


Gustina, G (2021). Without ‘Transformative Adaptation’ Climate Change May Threaten the Survival of Millions of Small Scale Farmers. Inside Climate News June 23.


Guzman, J, Martine, G, McGranahan, G, Schensul, D and Tacoli, C (eds) (2009). Population Dynamics and Climate Change. United Nations Population Fund and International Institute for Environment and Development. [Free book with 14 chapters.]


Harp, R and Karnauskas, K (2020). Global Warming to Increase Violent Crime in the United States. Environmental Research Letters, 15(3).


Hartog, J (2021). Turning Up the Heat: Climate Change, Fragility, and Conflict. Fragile States Index, May 20.


Hauer, M (2017). Migration Induced by Sea-level Rise Could Reshape the US Population Landscape. Nature Climate Change, 7: 321–325.


Hawa, K (2017). Health and Climate Security: Interconnected Security Challenges of Climate Change and Infections Disease, in Werrell, C and Femia, F, (eds) Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene. The Center for Climate and Security.


Haywood, A (2021). The Fat Lady Has Just Sung. Medium, Nov. 3. [“The US military is planning on a greater than 1.5 degrees Celsius rise in global temperatures and chaos, by 2030.”]


Hegre, H, Buhaug, H, Calvin, K, Nordkvelle, J, Waldhoff, S and Gilmore, E (2016). Forecasting Civil Conflict Along the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways. Environmental Research Letters, 11(5).


Hino, M, Field, C and Mach, K (2017). Managed Retreat as a Response to Natural Hazard Risk. Nature Climate Change, 7: 364–370.  


Horton, R, Sherbinin, A, Wrathall, D and Oppenheimer, M (2021). Assessing Human Habitability and Migration. Science, 372(6548).


Hsiang, S, Burke, M and Miguel, E (2013). Quantifying the Influence of Climate on Human Conflict. Science, 341(6151). https://10.1126/science.1235367


Hsiang, S and Sobel, A (2016). Potentially Extreme Population Displacement and Concentration in the Tropics Under Non-Extreme Warming, Scientific Reports, 6.


Huizenga, D (2022). Environmental Disasters are Fueling Migration — Here’s Why International Law Must Recognize Climate Refugees. The Conversation, Jan. 13.


Huntjens, P and Nachbar, K (2015). Climate Change as a Threat Multiplier for Human Disaster and Conflict. The Hague Institute for Global Justice, Working Paper 9.


Ide, T, Brzoska, M, Donges, J and Schleussner, C (2020). Multi-method Evidence for When and How Climate-related Disasters Contribute to Armed Conflict Risk. Global Environmental Change, 62.


Institute for Economics & Peace (2020). Over One Billion People at Threat of Being Displaced by 2050 Due to Environmental Change, Conflict and Civil Unrest.


Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (2020). Previous Global Reports on Internal Displacement.


International Military Council on Climate and Security (2020). The World Climate and Security Report 2020.


International Organization for Migration (2013). MECLEP Infographics on Migration as Adaptation to Environmental and Climate Change, in Environmental Migration Platform.


Ionesco, D, Mokhnacheva, D and Gemme, F (2016). The Atlas of Environmental Migration. Routledge.


Johnson, S (2021). Climate Crisis Leaving ‘Millions at Risk of Trafficking and Slavery’. The Guardian, Sept. 20.


Jones, A, Natalini, D and Phadtare, I (2019). Environmental Stress is Already Causing Death – This Chaos Map Shows Where. The Conversation, Oct. 24.


Kariuki, A and Kron, A (2021). Climate Action Holds Key to Tackling Global Conflict. United Nations Environment Programme.


Kelly, C, Mohtadi, S, Cane, M, Seager, R and Kushnir, Y (2015). Climate Change in the Fertile Crescent and Implications of the Recent Syrian Drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(11).


Kempe, Y (2021). House Hunters are Fleeing Climate Change, Causing a New Kind of Gentrification. Grist, April 9.


King, D, Schrag, D, Dadi, Z, Ye, Q and Ghosh, A (2015). Climate Change: A Risk Assessment. Centre for Science and Policy, University of Cambridge.


King, M and Burnell, J (2017). The Weaponization of Water in a Changing Climate, in Werrell, C and Femia, F, (eds) Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene. The Center for Climate and Security.


Kuperman, A (2011). Can Political Institutions Avert Violence from Climate Change? Robert Strauss Center for International Security and Law, Climate Change and African Political Stability.


Lavelle, M (2021). By 2050, 200 Million Climate Refugees May Have Fled Their Homes. But International Laws Offer Them Little Protection. Inside Climate News, Nov. 2.


Lee, B (2016). Causes and Cures VIII: Environmental Violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 30.


Lefbvre, B (2021). How ‘Climate Migrants’ Are Roiling American Politics. Politico, Nov. 27.


Lelieveld, J, and Hadjinicolaou, P (2016). Climate-exodus Expected in the Middle East and North Africa. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, May 2.


Levy, B, Sidel, V and Patz, J (2017). Climate Change and Collective Violence. Annual Review of Public Health, 38.


Lo, J (2021). Biden Orders Adviser to Explore Options for Resettling Climate Migrants. Climate Home News, Feb. 8.


Lustgarten, A (2020a). The Great Climate Migration Has Begun. NY Times, July 23. or Where Will Everyone Go? ProPublica, July 23.


Lustgarten, A (2020b). Climate Change Will Force a New American Migration. ProPublica, Sept. 15. [A key article.]


Martin, S, Bergmann, J, Rigaud, K and Yameogo, N (2021). Climate Change, Human Mobility, and Development. Migration Studies, 9(1).


McCartney, C (2020). Migration and the Shared Planet. Radical Ecological Ecology, Oct. 18.


McDonnell, T (2019). Climate Change Creates a New Migration Crisis for Bangladesh. National Geographic, Jan. 24.


McLeman, R (2017a). Migration and Displacement in a Changing Climate, in Werrell, C and Femia, F, (eds) Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene. The Center for Climate and Security.


McLeman, R (2017b). Migration and Land Degradation: Recent Experiences and Future Trends. Global Land Outlook Working Paper. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.


McMichael, C (2020). Human Mobility, Climate Change, and Health: Unpacking the Connections. The Lancet Planetary Health, 4(6).


Mhatre, A (2021). Climate Refugees: The Quest for a Haven from Extreme Weather Events. CBS News, Ja. 24. [With a focus on climate migration in the U.S.A.]


Migration Data Portal (2020). Environmental Migration. [Leads to data and other resources.]


Miles-Novelo, A and Anderson, C (2019). Climate Change and Psychology: Effects of Rapid Global Warming on Violence and Aggression. Current Climate Change Reports, 5(1): 36-46.


Monaghan, K, Rubin, D and Little, G (2021). To Win the Climate Battle, We Need the Intelligence Community. The Hill, March 8.


Morell, M (2020). Environmentalist Bill McKibben on National Security Implications of Climate Change. CBS news, Aug. 12.


Mosello, B, Foong, A, Konig, C, Wolfmaier, S and Wright, E (2020). Spreading Disease, Spreading Conflict? COVID-19, Climate Change and Security Risks. The Climate Security Expert Network.


Munoz, S (2019).  What Happens When a Country Drowns? The Conversation, July 1.


Naser, M (2012). Climate Change, Environmental Degradation, and Migration: A Complex Nexus. William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review, 36(3).


National Intelligence Council (2021). National Intelligence Estimate: Climate Change and International Responses Increasing Challenges to US National Security Through 2040. Office of the Director of National Intelligence, NIC-NIE-2021-10030-A.


The National Security, Military, and Intelligence Panel on Climate Change (2020). A Security Threat Assessment of Global Climate Change.


Nawrotzki, R, Diaconu, M and Pittman, S (2009). Climate Change Induced Human Migration: The Necessity of Collective Global Action. Global Studies Journal, 2(1).


Newland, K (2011). Climate Change and Migration Dynamics. Migration Policy Institute.


Norwegian Refugee Council, (2019). Disaster and Climate Change.


O’Brien, K, Sygna, L, Leichenko, R, Adger, W, Barnett, J, Mitchell, T, Schipper, L, Tanner, T, Vogel, C and Mortreux, C (2008). Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation and Human Security. A Commissioned Report for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.


O’Sullivan, T (2015). Environmental Security is Homeland Security: Climate Disruption as the Ultimate Disaster Risk Multiplier. Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, 6(2).


Oxfam (2019). Forced from Home: Climate-fueled Displacement.


Peters, A (2019). Want to Find a Place to Live That Will be Safe from Climate Change? Good Luck. Fast Company, Oct. 4.


PF Pictures (2017). The Age of Consequences. [“Investigates the impacts of climate change on increased resource scarcity, migration, and conflict through the lens of US national security and global stability.”]


Pinter, N (2021). The Lost History of Managed Retreat and Community Relocation in the United States. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 9(1).


Podesta, J (2019). The Climate Crisis, Migration, and Refugees. The Brookings Institute. Commissioned for the 16th annual Brookings Blum Roundtable.


ProPublica (2021). The Great Climate Migration. [Collection of articles on the subject.]


Quintos, P (2019). Climate Change and Human Mobility. Rosa Luxembourg Stiftung Policy Paper.


Raineri, L (2020). Sahel Climate Conflicts? When (Fighting) Climate Change Fuels Terrorism. The European Union Institute for Security Studies.


Ramirez, I (2019). Climate Change Will Create 1.5 Billion Migrants by 2050 and We Have No Idea Where They'll Go. Vice, Sept. 12.


Ramirez, R (2021). It's 'Inescapable': Pacific Islanders Have Tried to Flee the Climate Crisis, Only to Face New Threats. CNN, July 8.


Renner, M (2013). Climate Change and Displacements, in Assadourian, E and Prugh, T (eds.), State of the World 2013: Is Sustainability Still Possible? Worldwatch Institute.


Richards, J and Bradshaw, S (2017). Uprooted by Climate Change: Responding to the Growing Risk of Displacement. Oxfam International.


Rigaud, K, Kanta, de Sherbinin, A, Jones, B, Bergmann, J, Clement, V, Ober, K, Schewe, J, Adamo, S, McCusker, B, Heuser, S, and Midgley, A (2018). Groundswell: Preparing for Internal Climate Migration. The World Bank.


Robinson, C, Dilkina, B and Moreno-Cruz, J (2020). Modeling Migration Patterns in the USA Under Sea Level Rise. PLoS ONE, 15(1).


Robustelli, T and Panfil, Y (2022). What Are We Going to Do with More Than 200 Million Climate Refugees? Slate, March 26.


Rodriguez, S (2021). It’s Not a Border Crisis. It’s a Climate Crisis. Politico, Jul 19.


Rosa, Eugene A., Thomas Dietz, Richard H. Moss, Scott Atran and S. C. Moser (2012). Managing the Risks of Climate Change and Terrorism. Solutions, 3(2): 59-65.


Salehyan, I and Hendrix, C (2014). Climate Shocks and Political Violence. Global Environmental Change, 28.


Santur, H (2019).  Weather and War: How Climate Shocks are Compounding Somalia’s Problems. The New Humanitarian, Nov. 19.


Saperstein, A (2015). Climate Change, Migration, and the Puget Sound Region: What We Know and How We Could Learn More. Report prepared for the University of Washington Climate Impacts Group. The Daniel J. Evans School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Washington


Schleussner, C, Donges, J, Donner, R and Schellnhuber, H (2016). Armed-Conflict Risks Enhanced by Climate-related Disasters in Ethnically Fractionalized Countries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(33): 9216-9221.


Shapiro, A, Ozug, M and Davis, W (2022). The First Step to Preparing for Surging Climate Migration? Defining it. NPR, Feb. 23.


Shepherd, A, Mitchell, T, Lewis, K, Lenhardt, A, Jones, L, Scott, L, and Muir-Wood, R (2013). The Geography of Poverty, Disasters and Climate Extremes in 2030. Overseas Development Institute.


Sherwood, S and Huber, M (2010). An Adaptability Limit to Climate Change Due to Heat Stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(21).


Singh, H (20). Climate Induced Displacement/migration: An Overview. ActionAid International. [Pdf of presentation full of statistics and graphics.]


Spratt, D and Dunlop, I (2019a). The Third Degree: Evidence and Implications for Australia of Existential Climate-related Security Risk. Breakthrough National Centre for Climate Restoration. Discussion Paper.


Sutter, J (2021). As People Flee Climate Change On the Coasts, this Midwest City is Trying to Become a Safe Haven. CNN, April 12.


Tempus, A (2020). Are We Thinking About Climate Migration All Wrong? Rolling Stone, Mar. 14.


Turrentine, J (2019). Climate Change Is Already Driving Mass Migration Around the Globe. Natural Resources Defense Council. [Brief]


Ufberg, M (2022). ‘It’s Happening Now’: How Rising Sea Levels Are Causing a US Migration Crisis. The Guardian, April 7.


United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (2019). Land and Human Security.


United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2017). Overview Climate Change and Disaster Displacement: An Overview of UNHCR’S Role.


United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2021a). Climate Change and Disaster Displacement. [Leads to many reports and other resources.]


United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2021b). Displaced on the Frontlines of the Climate Emergency. [“Story Maps”]


UN Water (2019). Refugees and Forced Displacement Crises, in The United Nations World Water Development Report 2019: Leaving No One Behind. UNESCO.


U.S. Government Accountability Office (2020). A Climate Migration Pilot Program Could Enhance the Nation’s Resilience and Reduce Federal Fiscal Exposure.


Van Lange, P, Rinderu, M and Bushman, B (2018). CLASH: Climate (Change) and Cultural Evolution of Intergroup Conflict. Group Process Intergroup Relations, 21(3).


Von Lucke, F, Wellman, Z and Diez, T (2014). What’s at Stake in Securitising Climate Change? Towards a Differentiated Approach. Geopolitics, 19(4).


Wallace-Wells, D (2018). UN Says Climate Genocide is Coming. It’s Actually Worse than That. NY Mag., Oct. 10.


Walsh, B (2021). The Future Will Depend on Letting People Move. Axios, Oct. 13.


Werrell, C and Femia, F (2013). The Arab Spring and Climate Change. The Center for Climate and Security.


Werrell, C and Femia, F (2018). Climate Change Raises Conflict Concerns. The UNESCO Courier.


Werz, M and Conley, L (2012). Climate Change, Migration, and Conflict: Addressing Complex Crisis Scenarios in the 21st Century. Center for American Progress.


The White House of the United States of America (2021). Report on the Impact of Climate Change on Migration.


Whitely Binder, L and Jurjevich, J (2016). The Winds of Change? Exploring Climate Change-driven Migration and Related Impacts in the Pacific Northwest: Symposium Summary. Portland State University Population Research Center and the University of Washington Climate Impacts Group.


World Food Programme (2019). Climate Change and Conflict. [2 page fact sheet format]


The World Staff (2020). Could Migration be a Solution to the Climate Crisis? The World, PRX. [Podcast and written summary.]


Yawn, A (2020). As Gulf Swallows Louisiana Island, Displaced Tribe Fears the Future. The American South, USA Today Network, Feb. 27. [Personalizing sea level rise and climate migration. Very engaging, lots of graphics.]


Yayboke, E, Staguhn, J, Houser, T and Salma, T (2020). A New Framework for U.S. Leadership on Climate Migration. Center for Strategic and International Studies.



        D. Deforestation and Wildfire [back to subsections]


Abatzoglou, J and Williams, A (2016). Impact of Anthropogenic Climate Change on Wildfire across Western US Forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(42): 11770–75.


Agence France-Presse (2019). Vast Wildfires in Siberia a Potential "Disaster" for Arctic, and the World's Climate. CBS News, July 30.


Bowlin, N (2019). The West’s Worst Fires aren’t Burning in Forests. High Country News, Jun 13.


Brinkema, C, O’Shea, T and Paz y Mino, P (2019). Scorched Earth: Culture and Climate Under Siege. Climate One.  [video of panel discussion]


Bryson, D (2021). U.S. West Faces Little-known Effect of Raging Wildfires: Contaminated Water. Reuters, July 1.


Burley, H and Thomson, E (2021). A Climate Wake-up; But Business Failing to Hear the Alarm on Deforestation. Global Canopy.


Canon, G (2022). ‘Urban Fire Storm’: Suburban Sprawl Raising Risk of Destructive Wildfires. The Guardian, Jan. 6.


Chow, D (2020). Australia Wildfires Unleash Millions of Tons of Carbon Dioxide. NBC News, Jan. 22.


Climate Reality Project (2019). This is the New Normal: California and Constant Fire.


Coogan, S, Robinne, F, Jain, P and Flannigan, M (2019). Scientists’ Warning on Wildfire — A Canadian Perspective. Canadian Journal of Forest Resources, 49.


Coughlin, M, Ellison, A and Cavanaugh, A (2019). Social Vulnerability and Wildfire in the Wildland-Urban Interface: Literature Synthesis. Ecosystem Workforce Program Working Paper Series, Institute for a Sustainable Environment, University of Oregon.


Cushman, C (2020). Fanning the Flame: Amazon and Australia Fires. YSI Water Blogged, Aug. 4.


Davies, I, Huago, R, Roberstons, J, and Levin, P (2018). The Unequal Vulnerability of Communities of Color to Wildfire. PLoS ONE, 13(11): e0205825.


Davis, K, Dobrowski, S, Higuera, P, Holden, Z, Veblen, T, Rother, M, Parks, S, Sala, A and Maneta, M (2019). Wildfires and Climate Change Push Low-elevation Forests Across a Critical Climate Threshold for Tree Regeneration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(110).


De Place, E and DeStephano, P (2019). How Does Climate Change Affect Northwestern Wildfires? Sightline, Aug. 14.


Di Liberto, T (2020). Fire Fuels in High Northern Latitudes are Becoming More Flammable. NOAA Climate.Gov, Dec. 8.


Dowdy, A, Purcell, L, Boulter, S and Moura, L (2022). Wildfires Under Climate Change: A Burning Issue, in Frontiers 2022: Noise, Blazes and Mismatches. United Nations Environment Programme. [Engaging graphics]


Elbein, S (2022). 'Double Hazards' Map Points To a Hidden Geography of Wildfire Risk. The Hill, Feb. 9.


Flannigan, M, Amiro, B, Logan, K, Stocks, B and Wotton, B (2006). Forest Fires and Climate Change in the 21st Century. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11(4): 847-859.


Gatti, L et al., (2021). Amazonia as a Carbon Source Linked to Deforestation and Climate Change. Nature, 595.


Gleason, K, McConnell, J, Arienzo, M, Chellman, N and Calvin, W (2019). Four-fold Increase in Solar Forcing on Snow in Western U.S. Burned Forests Since 1999. Nature Communications, 10(2026).


Goering, L (2020). New Research Warns Wildfires May Create Unmanageable Risks as Temperatures Continue to Rise. Thomson Reuters Foundation News, March 4.


Gomes, V, Vieira, I, Salomao, R and Steege, H (2019). Amazonian Tree Species Threatened by Deforestation and Climate Change. Nature Climate Change, 9: 547–553.


Goss, M, Swain, D, Abatzoflou, J, Sarhadi, A, Kolden, C, Williams, A, and Diffenbaugh, N (2020). Climate Change is Increasing the Likelihood of Extreme Autumn Wildfire Conditions Across California. Environmental Research Letters, 15(9).


Gregory, M (2019). The Arctic Is on Fire, and It Might Be Creating a Vicious Climate 'Feedback Loop'. Vice, July 29.


Guzman, J (2020). Australia Wildfires Threaten to Upset the Earth's Carbon Balance. The Hill, Jan. 23.


Halofsky, J, Peterson, D and Harvey, B (2020). Changing Wildfire, Changing Forests: The Effects of Climate Change on Fire Regimes and Vegetation in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Fire Ecology, 16(4).


Harvey, C (2019). In “Vicious Cycle,” Snowmelt Fuels Wildfires and Wildfires Melt Snow. Scientific American, May 9.


Helbig, M et al., (2020). Increasing Contribution of Peatlands to Boreal Evapotranspiration in a Warming Climate. Nature Climate Change, 10. [Drying out of peat lands increases risk of fire and greenhouse gas emissions.]


Hickey, H (2021). Drier, Warmer Night Air is Making Some Western Wildfires More Active at Night. UW News, Aug. 5.


Joshi, S (2020). Scientists Are Worried About ‘Zombie Fires’ Ravaging the Arctic. Vice, May 28.


Littell, J, Peterson, D, Riley, K, Liu, Y and Luce, C (2016). A Review of the Relationships Between Drought and Forest Fire in the United States. Global Change Biology 22:2353-2369.


Liu, Y, Goodrick, S and Stanturf, J (2012). Future U.S. Wildfire Potential Trends Projected Using a Dynamically Downscaled Climate Change Scenario. Forest Ecology and Management, 294: 120-135. ,


Ma, M (2021). New Report: State of the Science on Western Wildfires, Forests and Climate Change. University of Washington News, Aug. 2.


McKenzie, D. and Littell, J (2017). Climate Change and the Eco-hydrology of Fire: Will Area Burned Increase in a Warming Western USA? Ecological Applications, 27:26-36.


Morgan, H, Bagley, A, McGill, L, and Raymond, C (2019). Managing Washington Wildfire Risk in a Changing Climate. Workshop summary report prepared by the Northwest Climate Adaptation Science Center and the Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington, Seattle.


Noble, C, Sampaio, G, Boma, L, Castilla-Rubio, J, Silva, J and Cardoso, M (2016).  Land-use and Climate Change Risks in the Amazon and the Need of a Novel Sustainable Development Paradigm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 113(39): 10759-10768.


Port, N et al., (2021). United States of Wildfire. NPR, Aug. 10.  [Interactive visualization.]


Prevedello, J, Winck, G, Weber, M, Nichols, E and Sinervo, B (2019). Impacts of Forestation and Deforestation on Local Temperature Across the Globe. PloS ONE, 14(3).


Prichard, S, Hagman, K and Hessburg, P (2021). How Years of Fighting Every Wildfire Helped Fuel the Western Megafires of Today. The Conversation, Aug. 2.


Princing, M (2019). Wildfires Are the New PNW Summer Norm — and They’re Impacting Our Health. Right as Rain, UW Medicine, Aug.15.


Pyne, S (2021). Welcome to the Pyrocene. Grist, Aug. 18.


Ross, L, Gannon, C and Steinberg, N (2020). Climate Change and Wildfires: Projecting Future Wildfire Potential. Four Twenty Seven Report, Moody’s Corporation.


Rott, N 92020). Fires Where They Are 'Not Supposed To Happen' In Australia's Ancient Rainforest. NPR, March 28.


Sadegh, M, Abatzogoluo, J and Alizadeh, M (2021). Western Fires are Burning Higher in the Mountains at Unprecedented Rates In a Clear Sign of Climate Change. Science X, May 25.


Schneider, L, Cooke, C, Stansell, N and Haberle, S (2020). Plants Safely Store Toxic Mercury. Bushfires and Climate Change Bring it Back into our Environment. The Conversation, Jan. 29.


Sidik, S (2020). Feedback Loops of Fire Activity and Climate Change in Canada. EOS, Dec. 8.


Simon, M (2021). Oh Good, Now There's an Outbreak of Wildfire Thunderclouds. Wired, July 27.


Stephens, S et al., (2014). Temperate and Boreal Forest Mega-fires: Characteristics and Challenges. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, 12(2).


Stevens-Rumann, C, Kemp, K, Higuera, P, Harvey, B, Rother, M, Donato, D, Morgan, P and Veblen, T (2018). Evidence for Declining Forest Resilience to Wildfires Under Climate Change. Ecology Letters, 21.


Struzik, E. (2020). The Age of Megafires: The World Hits a Climate Tipping Point. Yale Environment 360, Sept. 17.


Swain, D (2021). A Shorter, Sharper Rainy Season Amplifies California Wildfire Risk. Geophysical Research Letters, 48(5).


Technical University of Munich (2021). How Climate Change and Fires are Shaping the Forests of the Future. ScienceDaily, July 14.


Thomson Reuters Foundation News (2020). In Focus: Amazon Forest and Climate Change. [Web site repository of articles on the topic.]


Tollefson, J (2020). Why Deforestation and Extinctions Make Pandemics More Likely. Nature: News, Aug. 7.


Union of Concerned Scientists (2020). The Connection Between Climate Change and Wildfires.


United Nations Environment Programme and GRID-Arendal (2022). Spreading like Wildfire: The Rising Threat of Extraordinary Landscape Fires.


United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (2019). Chapter 3: Risk, in The UN Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2019. [Includes a robust section on wildfire]


Van Mantgem, P, Nesmith, J, Keifer, M, Knapp, E, Flint A and Flint, L (2013). Climatic Stress Increases Forest Fire Severity Across the Western United States. Ecology Letters, 16(9): 1151–56.


Webber, T (2020). As Forests Burn Around the World, Drinking Water is at Risk. ABC News, Jan. 31.


Well, E (2022). This Isn’t the California I Married. The New York Times, Jan. 3.


Williams, A, Abatzoglou, J, Gershunov, A, Guzman-Morales, J, Biship, D, Balch, J and Lettenmaier, D (2019). Observed Impacts of Anthropogenic Climate Change on Wildfire in California. Earth’s Future, 7(7).


Wood, S and Ventimiglia, C (2020). Global Fires. Future Earth, Issue Brief.


Xu, X (2020). Climate Shift, Forest Loss and Fires — Scientists Explain How Amazon Forest Is Trapped In A Vicious Circle. Scienmag, July 22.


Xu, X, Jia, G, Shang, X, Riley, W and Xue, Y (2020). Climate Regime Shift and Forest Loss Amplify Fire in Amazonian Forests. Global Change Biology, 26(10).


Young, A, Higuera, P, Duffy, P and Hu, F (2016). Climatic Thresholds Shape Northern Highlatitude Fire Regimes and Imply Vulnerability to Future Climate Change. Ecography, 40(5).


Zaman, I and Khuda, M (2011). Climate Change and Corruption Leave the World’s Largest Mangrove Forest in Peril, in Transparency International (ed.), Global Corruption Report: Climate Change. Earthscan, London.


Zou, Y, Rasch, P, Wang, H, Xie, Z and Zhang, R (2021). Increasing Large Wildfires Over the Western United States Linked to Diminishing Sea Ice in the Arctic. Nature Communications, 12(6048).



        E. Drought and Desertification [back to subsections]


Abdulla, F, Gafrej, R, Nagy, Z, Palfi, G and Szabo, E (2017). Water Scarcity and Drought: A Good Practice Handbook. Regional Environmental Center, Szentendre, Hungary.


Alexander, K (2020). California, Rest of the West Sinking Into a Rare Mega-drought, Scientists Say. San Francisco Chronicle, April 16.


Berardelli, J (2021). Western U.S. May Be Entering its Most Severe Drought in Modern History. CNN, April 12.


Carrington, D (2010). Desertification is Greatest Threat to Planet, Expert Warns. The Guardian, Dec. 16. 


Cheng, L, Hoerling, M, Liu, Z and Eischeid, J (2019). Physical Understanding of Human-Induced Changes in U.S. Hot Droughts Using Equilibrium Climate Simulations. Journal of Climate, 32(14).


Cook,B, Ault, T and Smerdon, J (2015). Unprecedented 21st Century Drought Risk in the American Southwest and Central Plains. Science Advances, 1(1).


Dai, A (2012). Increasing Drought Under Global Warming in Observations and Models. Nature Climate Change, 3: 52-58.


Dai, A, Zhao, T and Chen, J (2018). Climate Change and Drought: A Precipitation and Evaporation Perspective. Current Climate Change Reports, 4.


Da Silva, I (2019). Displaced by the Desert: An Expanding Sahara Leaves Broken Families and Violence in its Wake. Relief Web, Oct. 18.


Debeij, J (2019). When a Town Runs Dry. Global Oneness Project.  [8 minute film plus lesson plan]


Diffenbaugh, N, Swain, D and Touma, D (2015). Anthropogenic Warming has Increased Drought Risk in California. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(13).


Gaind, N and Stoye, E (2019). How Climate Change is Melting, Drying and Flooding Earth — In Pictures. Nature, Covering Climate Now, Sept. 26.


Global Oneness Project (2019). Living with Less Water. [Lesson Plan accompanying a short film on drought in the Central Valley in CA]


Gregg, R and Kershner, J (2019). Extremes to Ex-Streams: Ecological Drought Adaptation in a Changing Climate. EcoAdapt, Bainbridge Island.


Hohenthal, J and Minoia, P (2017). Social Aspects of Water Scarcity and Drought, in Eslamian, S and Eslamian, F (eds) Handbook of Drought and Water Scarcity. Principle of Drought and Water Scarcity. CRC Press, Tailor & Francis LTD.


Kelley, C, Mohtadi, S, Cane, M, Seager, R and Kushnir, Y (2015). Climate Change in the Fertile Crescent and Implications of the Recent Syrian Drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(11).


Kelly, R, Chipman, M, Higuera, P, Stefanova, I, Brubaker, L and Hu, F (2013). Recent Burning of Boreal Forests Exceeds Fire Regime Limits of the Past 10,000 Years. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, July.


Kesselen, B (2021). Drought is Here to Stay in the Western U.S. How Will States Adapt? NBC News, June 11.


Lane, T (2014). Desertification: Land Degradation Under a Changing Climate. Climatica.


Littell, J, Peterson, D, Riley, K, Liu, Y and Luce, C (2016). A Review of the Relationships Between Drought and Forest Fire in the United States. Global Change Biology, 22:2353-2369.


Lustgarten, A (2021). 40 Million People Rely on the Colorado River. It’s Drying Up Fast. ProPublica, Aug. 27.


MacDonald, G (2010). Water, Climate Change, and Sustainability in the Southwest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(50).


Martin, J et al., (2020). Increased Drought Severity Tracks Warming in the United States’ Largest River Basin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(21).


Mazdiyasni, O and AghaKouchak, A (2015). Substantial Increase in Concurrent Droughts and Heatwaves in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(37).


McKenzie, D (2019). 'If the Climate Stays Like This, We Won't Make It' Say Those on the Frontline of Africa's Drought. CNN, Dec. 14.


McSweeney, R (2019). Explainer: ‘Desertification’ and the Role of Climate Change. Carbon Brief, June 8.


Meza, I, Siebert, S, Döll, P, Kusche, J, Herbert, C, Rezaei, E, Nouri, H, Gerdener, H, Popat, E, Frischen, J, Naumann, G, Vogt, J, Walz, Y, Sebesvari, Z and Hagenlocher, M (2020). Global-scale Drought Risk Assessment for Agricultural Systems. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 20(2).


Milman, O (2021). ‘We Live in a Desert. We Have to Act Like it’: Las Vegas Faces Reality of Drought. The Guardian, July 9.


Mirzabaev, A, Wu, J, Evans, J, García-Oliva, F, Hussein, I, Iqbal, M, Kimutai, J, Knowles, T, Meza, F, Nedjraoui, D, Tena, F, Türkeş, M, Vázquez, R and Weltz, M (2019). Chapter 3: Desertification, in Climate Change and Land. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.


NASA Earth Observatory (2007). Temporary Drought or Permanent Desert?


Narang, S (2018a). Navajo Women Struggle to Preserve Traditions as Climate Change Intensifies. Public Radio International. [coping with a water crisis]


Narang, S (2018b). 360 Video: Climate Change on the Navajo Nation. Public Radio International.


National Integrated Drought Information System (2019). U.S. Drought Portal.


Nunez, C (2019). Desertification, Explained. National Geographic, May 31.


Overpeck, J and Udall, B (2020). Climate Change and the Aridification of North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(22).


Park C, Jeong, S, Joshi, M, Osborn, T, Ho, C, Piao, S, Chen, D, Liu, J, Yang, H, Park, H, Kim, B, and Feng, S (2018). Keeping Global Warming Within 1.5 °C Constrains Emergence of Aridification. Nature Climate Change, 6:70-74.


Pierce, C (2018). The Term ‘Drought’ is Out of Date for the American Southwest. They Call It ‘Aridification’ Now. Esquire, Dec. 12.


Pike, L (2021). The Megadrought Parching 77 Percent of the Western US, Explained. Vox, March 13.


Pokhrel, Y et al., (2021). Global Terrestrial Water Storage and Drought Severity Under Climate Change. Nature Climate Change, 11.


Real News Network (2018b). Global Warming will Increase Risks of Desertification. [video of interview]


Sarhadi, A, Concepcion Ausin, M, Wiper, M, Touma, D and Diffenbaugh, N (2018). Multidimensional Risk in a Nonstationary Climate: Joint Probability of Increasingly Severe Warm and Dry Conditions. Science Advances, 4(11): 3487.


Schreiner-McGraw, A and Ajami, H (2021). Delayed Response of Groundwater to Multi-year Meteorological Droughts in the Absence of Anthropogenic Management. Journal of Hydrology, 603(B).


Science Direct (2019). Desertification. [Links to many journal articles on desertification and drought.]


Singh, M (2021). ‘Potentially the Worst Drought in 1,200 years’: Scientists on the Scorching US Heatwave. The Guardian, June 18.


United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (2016). The Ripple Effect: A Fresh Approach to Reducing Drought Impacts and Building Resilience.


United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (2017). Drylands, in Global Land Outlook.


United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (2019). Chapter 6: Special Section on Drought, in The UN Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2019.


University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (2010). Climate Change: Drought May Threaten Much of Globe Within Decades. NCAR & UCAR News, Oct. 19.


U.S. Department of Agriculture (2019). Dealing with Drought. Climate Hubs. [Leads to several resources]


Van der Voo, L (2021). Young Farmers Lose Hope as Drought Closes In: ‘It’s Like a Sad Country Song’. The Guardian, Aug. 5. [About the Klamath water crisis.]


Williams, A et al., (2020). Large Contribution from Anthropogenic Warming to an Emerging North American Megadrought. Science, 368(6488).


Wilson, S (2022). As it Enters a Third Year, California’s Drought is Strangling the Farming Industry. The Washington Post, March 22.


Xie, W, Xong, W, Pan, J, Ali, T, Cui, Q, Guan, D, Meng, J, Mueller, N, Lin, E and Davis, S (2018). Decreases in Global Beer Supply Due to Extreme Drought and Heat. Nature Plants, 4: 964-973.



        F. Economics and Politics (much, much more on this broad topic in section III) [back to subsections]


Alston, P (2019).  Climate Change and Poverty: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights. Human Rights Council, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.


Archer, D, Kite, E and Lusk, G (2020). The Ultimate Cost of Carbon. Climatic Change, 162.


Bank of Canada and Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (2021). Using Scenario Analysis to Assess Climate Transition Risk.


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