A Zapotec Natural History, Part 2:
Data, Commentary, and Images in Digital Format


  1. Preface to the CD
  2. Illustrations and Tables from Part 1
  3. Background
  4. The Ethnoflora
  5. The Ethnofauna
  6. Fungi
  7. Plant Species Index
  8. English/Latin Name Index
  9. Spanish/Latin Name Index
  10. Zapotec/Latin Name Index
  11. Index of Images
  12. Index of Sounds

E. The Ethnofauna

Links to major animal classes

Arthropods ^ArtInsects ^InsectVertebrates ^Ver

Lifeform má-wǐn [`animal´ + `child/small´]: Animalia in part; animalito, insecto, bicho; animal, tiny.


1) lòmbrîz [`worm<sp>´]: Nematomorpha in part; lombriz; intestinal worms.



2) mèr-biè [`turkey´ + Y]: caracol: snail (and slug ?): Gastropoda, Pecten sp.; the shell is called x-cônch-mèrbiè [`its shell<sp>´ + `snail´]: occurs in local forests.

3) mèr-biù [`turkey´ + Y] (= má-nrùdz [`animal´ + `smooth/slippery´], cf. mèl̲-biù `shrimp´): Gastropoda spp.; slug.



4) mèel̲-lèts [`snake/worm´ + Y] (= měe-lèts [`animal´ + Y]): sanguijuela; leech.


5) mèel̲-yù [`snake/worm´ + `earth´]: lombriz (de tierra): worm, earthworm.





6) mèedz-yǎs, mèedz-yàs [`fierce animal´ + Y]: Astacidae spp.; acamaya: crayfish, uncommon in San Juan.


7) mèl̲-biù [`fish´ + Y] (cf. mèl̲ `fish´, mèr-biù `slug´): Penaeida; camarón/chacál: shrimp, edible.

8) mèl̲-pchôg [`fish´ + `husk/shell´]: Crustacea in part; cangrejo: crab: medicinal: for whooping cough, boiled.


9) mégǔch, měe-gǔch [`pillbug´]: Isopoda spp.; cochinillo: pillbug, roly-poly, sowbug

9a) mégǔch[-0], měe-gǔch[-0] [`pillbug´, unmarked prototype]: Isopoda spp.

9b) měe-gǔch-dán [`pillbug´ + `forest/wild´]: Isopoda spp.; cochinillo del monte; type of pillbug, roly-poly, sowbug.


10) mèel̲-yàas [`snake/worm´ + `black´] (= měe-gǎl-nrùdz [`centipede´ + `smooth´]): Diplopoda; milpiés; millipede: some consultants assert that this one stings.


11) mégǎl, měe-gǎl [`animal´ + Y]: Chilopoda; ciempiés; centipede: to 10 cm long.

11a) měe-gǎl[-0] [`centipede´, unmarked prototype]: Chilopoda in part;

11b) měe-gǎl-yèen̲ [`centipede´ + `child´]: Chilopoda in part; centipede, small;

11c) měe-gǎl-nrùdz [`centipede´ + `smooth´] (= mèel̲-yàas [`snake/worm´ + `black´]): Myriapoda in part; millipede: some consultants assert that this one stings.


Links to insect orders and arachnids

Thysanura ^[THY]Odonata ^[ODO]Orthoptera ^[ORT]
Isoptera ^[ISO]Dermaptera ^[DER]Mallophaga ^[MAL]
Hemiptera ^[HEM]Homoptera ^[HOM]Neuroptera ^[NEU]
Coleoptera ^[COL]Lepidoptera ^[LEP]Diptera ^[DIP]
Siphonaptera ^[SIP]Hymenoptera ^[HYM]Arachnida ^[ARA]

12) mâ-guì [`animal´ + `fire´]: identification uncertain; it leaves a powder when it passes that burns; when one sleeps in the bush the animal burns you, your skin turns red; in the high mountains.

13) miǎts [X]: Insecta in part; tipo de gusano; larva sp.


UN) Lepismatidae; silverfish; not named.


14) má-nìs [`animal´ + `water´] (= àviôn [`airplane<sp>´], má-rò-pós [`animal´ + `edge of´ + `well<sp>´], má-pàsàdôr1 [`animal` + `traveler<sp>´], pàlôm-ró-guiùu [`pigeon´ + `at´ + `river´]): Odonata; Neuroptera; includes also Hemiptera, Gerridae; libélula; dragonfly, damselfly, owlfly; water strider; said to occur in various colors: black, green, blue, and yellow.

15) má-èlìcôptèrò [`animal´ + `helicopter<sp>´]: Odonata, Zygoptera spp.; tipo de libélula; damselfly.

16) mlôol-mèl̲ [`tadpole´ + `fish´] (= ngùdzìi-nìs [= `spider´ + `water´]): Odonata spp., larvae; tipo de bicho aquático: dragonfly larva.




17) nguzhánch [X], nguzhénch [X, San Pedro Gbëë] (= càpùlín [`grasshopper<sp>´]): Acrididae; chapulín; grasshopper; hops, does not fly; edible: cf. a shrub of the Asteraceae called bâr-nguzhánch (Coreopsis sp.);

17a) nguzhánch-pèlôt [`grasshopper´ + `ball<sp>´] (= nguzhánch-pèlòtiên [`grasshopper´ + `ball<sp>´]): Acrididae in part; chapulín chiquito como pelota; type of grasshopper, tiny, in ball;

17b) nguzhánch-càfé [`grasshopper´ + `coffee-colored<sp>´]: Acrididae in part; chapulín de color café: type of grasshopper, light brown;

17c) nguzhánch-nguiǎ [`grasshopper´ + `green´] (= nguzhánch-vêrd [`grasshopper´ + `green<sp>´]: Acrididae in part; tipo de chapulín, verde: type of grasshopper, green;

17d) nguzhánch-pǐnt [`grasshopper´ + `spotted<sp>´]: Acrididae in part; tipo de chapulín: type of grasshopper;

17e) nguzhánch-yǎ-guì [`grasshopper´ + `up high´ + `mountain´], nguzhénch-guì [`grasshopper´ + `mountain´, San Pedro Gbëë]): Orthoptera in part; chapulín del cerro; type of grasshopper, in mountains.

18) měe-tsǒ [`animal´ + `broad´]: Orthoptera in part; langosta: locust, edible.

19) nguládz [X]: Orthoptera, Acrididae, Schistocerca spp.; chapulín de alas pintadas: grasshopper with colorful wings, not edible; chapulín cafecito clasico with large wings.

19a) nguládz[-0] [`type of grasshopper´, unmarked prototype]: Acrididae in part;

19b) nguládz-còlět [`type of grasshopper´ + `naked´]: Acrididae in part; used when a child has difficulty teething; wingless;

19c) nguládz-yǎ-guì [`type of grasshopper´ + `up high´ + `mountain´]: Acrididae in part; chapulín del cerro; grasshopper of the mountains.

20) ngùsìguèr [X + Y] (= ngùsùuguièr, ngùsùuquièr): Orthoptera, Acrididae spp.; tipo de chapulín comestible; apagador de ocote; type of grasshopper, winged, green face; edible; relative of nguzhánch.

21) ngùsôoc [`type of locust´]: Orthoptera, Acrididae, Sphenarium sp.; tipo de chapulín, chapulín de tierra caliente; colorful, stocky, wingless grasshopper; edible; PMZ collected a paper bag full at the Río Grande below the road bridge at 1630 m December 18, 1996.

22) níilyě [nǐil `boiled corn´ + `raw´]: Acrididae in part; tipo de chapulín; grasshopper, large, brown, wingless, found in the mountains; edible: boiled in salt water with garlic and lime, then grilled; resembles měe-xtîl (Orthoptera, Ensifera, Tettigonidae, see below) but is brown; 1) catch by hand or net, 2) leave overnight in a bottle or little bag to eliminate excrement, 3) put on the comal, the Mesoamerican ceramic “wok,” 4) put in a bottle with boiled water, 5) put on a plate with lime.

22a) níilyě[-0] [`raw boiled corn´, unmarked prototype]: Acrididae in part; tipo de chapulín; grasshopper;

22b) níilyě-yěets [`boiled corn´ + `raw´ + yellowish´]: Acrididae in part; chapulín café raro; for ear aches, put [on] the feet.



23) měe-xtíl [`animal´ + `Castillian<sp>´]: Tettigonidae in part; chapulín grande; katydid; large grasshopper, edible: they are cooked on a griddle in salt water with garlic and lemon;

23a) měextíl-ró-yù [`katydid´ + `of town´]: Acrididae in part; chapulín grande: large grasshopper: this one is edible;

23a1) měextíl má-bguì (còyûch) [`katydid´ + `male´ + (`brownish´)] (= měextíl-café [`katydid´ + `coffee<sp>´], měextíl-nguěts [`katydid´ + `yellow´]): Acrididae in part; chapulín grande, male: katydid, male (coffee colored); edible; cook on the comal; found below town; they are a pest as they “eat the milpa”;

23a2) měextíl, má-gùs (nguiǎ) [`katydid´ + `female´ + (`green´)]: Acrididae in part; chapulín grande, female: katydid, female (green).

23b) měextíl-dán [`katydid´ + `forest/wild´]: Tettigonidae in part; chapulín grande; type of katydid; this type not eaten.

24) wbízhcâl [`fiscál<sp>´]: Tettigonidae in part; "fiscál"; large katydid; not eaten; `males´ and `females´ distinct; close relative of càmpàmôch, if not synonymous; or a type of grasshopper: Acrididae in part;

24a) wbízhcâl[-0], the prototype; relatively small; Tettigonidae in part;

24b) wbízhcâl-gól [`fiscál<sp>´ + `large´] (perhaps = càmpàmôch [`large katydid<sp>´]): Tettigonidae in part; tipo de "fiscál": large katydid;

24c) wbízhcâl-gùts [`fiscál<sp>´ + `yellowish´]: Tettigonidae in part; tipo de "fiscál": large katydid, yellow.

25) càmpàmôch [`large katydid<sp>´] (perhaps = wbízhcâl-gól [`fiscál<sp>´ + `large´]): campamocha: large katydid, green, winged.

UN) Acrididae sp.; tipo de bicho; type of long-horned grasshopper.



26) mdiǒl [X]: Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Gryllus sp.; grillo; cricket; if it calls in the house someone will die; used to cure mules and horses when they will not drink; for stomach pain, give boiled, ground-up cricket in a tea; give the feet to goats or sheep as a purgative; use for bite of “coral spider” (i.e., black-widow); prepare with mezcal and alcanfor; old people say the cricket was the first god; they believe this because it sings every afternoon and used to speak to them when the slept with its song; people say that if you kill one, when you are placed in your grave no cricket will sing.

26a) mdiǒl[-0] [`cricket´]: Gryllidae in part; grillo no específico; cricket, residual;

26b) mdiǒl-bîdz [`cricket´ + `dry´]: Gryllidae in part; grillo de campo seco; cricket, of dry country;

26c) mdiǒl-dán [`cricket´ + `forest/wild´]: Gryllidae in part; grillo del campo; cricket, of the mountains; male and female distinguished;

26d) mdiǒl-làs [`cricket´ + `small/slender´]: Gryllidae in part; grillo chico; cricket, small, brown, wingless, of milpas;

26e) mdiǒl-nquǐts [`cricket´ + `white´]: Gryllidae in part; grillo blanco; white cricket;

26f) mdiǒl-ró-yù [`cricket´ + `of town´]: Gryllidae in part; grillo de la casa; large cricket, of the house;

26g) mdiǒl-yǎ-guì [`cricket´ + `up high´ + `mountain´]: Gryllidae in part; grillo de los ceros; cricket, of the mountains;

26h) mdiǒl-yèen̲ [`cricket´ + `child´]: Gryllidae in part; grillo chico; cricket, black, small: Gryllidae in part; its calls are distinct from those of mdiǒl[-0]:

26i) mdiǒl-zhàn̲-quiè [`cricket´ + `beneath´ + `cliff/rock´]: Gryllidae in part; grillo de peña: cricket, of cliffs.


27) mǐl [X] (= càbây-mén̲-dǒx [`horse<sp>´ + `devil´], càbây-xǐil [`horse<sp>´ + `wing´], càbây-yâg [`horse<sp>´ + `tree/log´], x-càbây-diâbl [`its horse´ + `devil<sp>´]): but also may refer to a type of Phasmatid ^[[ArtOrtMan1]], which see; mantis religiosa: praying mantis; so called because it “bucks like a horse”; comes in two colors; not harmful.

Phasmatodea (Phasmida)

28) ngúbéch-yâg, ngùběch-yâg [`lazy´ + `tree/log´]: Phasmida spp.; zacatón, flojera, insecto palo, mantis religioso, campamocha; walking stick: so called because they move very slowly or because if you see one you will be lazy; they come in various colors; males and females hard to tell apart, but must exist as they mate in the manner of dogs or snakes, wrapping around each other; they do not harm the milpa; if you put a stick in front of it and it grabs it, you will carry loads;

28a) ngúbéch-yâg[-0] [`walking stick´, unmarked prototype] (= ngúbéch-yâg-càfuêy [`walking stick´ + `coffee<sp>´], ngúbéch-yâg-còyûch [`walking stick´ + `brownish´], ngúbéch-yâg-pàvònâd [`walking stick´ + Y<sp>]): Phasmida spp.; flojera de color café: a large, brown walking stick;

28b) ngúbéch-yâg-dòo [`walking stick´ + `large´]: Phasmida spp.; zacatón grande; walking stick, very large, to 30 cm;

28c) ngúbéch-yâg-vèrd [`walking stick´ + `green<sp>´]: Phasmida spp.; zacatón verde: walking stick, green.

29) x-càbây-diâbl [poss. + `horse<sp>´ + `devil<sp>´] (= x-càbây-mén̲-dǒx) [poss. + `horse<sp>´ + `devil´]: caballo del diablo: Phasmida spp.; type of walking stick, green.

Blattodea (Blattaria)

30) zhwěecw [X]: Blatellidae, Blatella germanica; cucaracha; cockroach:

30a) zhwěecw[-0] (= zhwěecw-lén̲-yù [`cockroach´ + `inside´ + `house´]): Blatellidae in part; this variety is brown, in contrast to that `of the forest´, which is black.

30b) zhwěecw-dán [`cockroach´ + `forest/wild´] (= zhwěecw-yǎ-guì [`cockroach´ + `up high´ + `mountain´]): Blatellidae, Dyctioptera; cucaracha del monte, negra: type of cockroach, of the bush; found in rotten trunks.

31) má-rò-tiè [`animal´ + `edge of´ + `hearth´]: Blatellidae; cucaracha del brasero: type of roach.


32) mlǎa [X] (= mrè-xǐil [`ant´ + `wing´]): Hodotermitidae, Zootermopsis sp. or Kalotermitidae; tipo de termite; type of termite; especially winged castes; may form mud channels on house posts.


33) má-dòozhêr [`animal´ + `scissors<sp>´]: Forficulidae; tijereta, tijerilla; earwig: said to “bite a little with its tails”; found in elotes; a “hardworking” animal; only during the rainy season because they have already eaten their food by Lent;

33a) má-dòozhêr[-0] [`earwig´]: Forficulidae; tijereta, tijerilla, no especificado: earwig, residual;

33b) má-dòozhêr-nrôob [`earwig´ + `large´]: Forficulidae; tijereta, tijerilla, grande: earwig, large: this is the “real” one.

Mallophaga, Anopleura (Phthiraptera)

34) měets [X] (= mìtsiě [X, San Pedro Gbëë): Pediculidae, Pediculus humanus ssp. capitis piojo; louse;

34x) mquí [X]: Pediculidae eggs; liendre: nit, egg of louse: egg.

102) mèdòo, měe-dòo [X] (cf. měe-dòx ?): Mallophaga in part; coruco, cocoyuche, piojo de ave; flea, chigoe flea or bird louse.

103b) mguìd-riàaz [`flea´ + `to get stuck/to be nailed or pricked with a thorn´]: Mallophaga in part; tipo de pulga de gallinas; type of flea, of chickens.


NON) má-lò-guièe-lěch [`animal´ + `on´ + `Lopezia´]: bicho de la flor guièe-lěch (Lopezia); insect pest of guièe-lěch.

NON) má-lò-guièe-tǐ-dán [`animal´ + `on´ + `Bidens sp.´ + `forest/wild´]: bicho de la flor guièe-tǐ-dán (Bidens sp.); insect pest of guièe-tǐ-dán.

NON) má-lò-guièe-tǐ-nguěts [`animal´ + `on´ + `Bidens aurea´]: bicho de la flor guièe-tǐ-nguěts (Bidens aurea); insect pest of guièe-tǐ-nguěts.

NON) má-nguěts-làs [`animal´ + `yellow´ + `small/slender´]: tipo de bicho; type of bug.

NON) má-lò-wgàa [`animal´ + `on´ + `milpa´]: bicho de la milpa; type of bug.

35) má-biǎa [`animal´ + `prickly-pear cactus´]: bicho de nopal; type of bug on prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia).

64) má-bziàa [`animal´ + `bean´] (= má-lò-bziàa, mâ-nè-ròw-ló-bziàa, mâ-nè-rów-bziàa): bicho de frijól: e.g., Coleoptera spp.; Hemiptera, Pentatomidae sp.; insect pest of beans (bziàa).

36) má-lò-bziàa-xtǐl [`animal´ + `on´ + `faba bean´]: Hemiptera sp; bicho de los habas; type of beetle/bug of faba beans.

37) má-lò-guièe-bziàa [`animal´ + `on´ + `bean flower´]: bicho de flor de frijól; insect pest of bean flowers.

38) má-lò-yâg [`animal´ + `on´ + `tree/trunk´]: Hemiptera sp.; bicho en árboles podridos: type of bug, in dead trees.

39) má-lò-yàg-blæ̀æ [`animal´ + `on´ + `Arctostaphylos pungens´]: Hemiptera sp.; bicho parasítico: type of parasite, causes red leaf gall on manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens).


40) mlôol̲-ngǎs [`water critter´ + `black´]: includes Hemiptera spp.; Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae spp.; Anura larvae; tipo de bicho aquático: includes water bug species, water scavenger beetles, tadpoles.

41) má-mtǐit [`animal´ + `bed bug´]: Hemiptera, Gelastocoridae; tipo de chinche aquático: toad bug.


NON) má-nguěts [`animal´ + `yellow´]: Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Siren sp. ?; tipo de chinche; type of assassin bug.

NON) má-càfé [`animal´ + `coffee´]: includes Coleoptera, Elaterida, Coccinellidae; Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Reduvius sp. ?; tipo de chinche y/o coleóptero: type of bug and/or beetle.

NON) má-lò-yàg-yàaz [`animal´ + `on´ + `chamizo<sp>´]: Hemiptera, Lygaeidae spp. ?; tipo de chinche: type of bug.

42) mlôol̲ [X]: includes Hemiptera, Gerridae, Notonectidae; Coleoptera, Dytiscidae; tipo de bicho; bilole; renacuajo; water bug species such as the water strider; three types, one of the surface, the second with mouth above, the third with head and tail;

42a) mlôol̲-nguiǎ [`water bug´ + `green´]: Hemiptera, Notonectidae, Notonecta spp.; tipo de bicho aquático: water bug species.

42b) mlôol̲-nìs [`water bug´ + `water´]: Hemiptera, Gerridae spp.; bicho aquático que no hunda; water bug species; this variety does not dive.

42c) mlôol̲-nzǽ [`water bug´ + Y]: Coleoptera, Dytiscidae spp. ?; bicho aquático que hunda: a diving water beetle.

43) mtǐit [X]: Cimicidae, Cimex lectularis; chinche: bedbug.

44) má-nguládz [`animal´ + `fly sp.´] (= guìzh-nguládz [`herb´ + `fly sp.´]): Hemiptera, Miridae spp. ?; tipo de chinche: type of bug; always in groups on plants; they are a pest but do not attack crops.


NON) má-lò-guìzh [`animal´ + `on´ + `herb´]: tipo de bicho: type of bug: Pentatomidae sp. ?

45) má-plânch [`animal´ + `plank<sp>´]: tipo de bicho como una plancha: type of bug like a plank: Pentatomidae sp.

46) ngutǐp, ngutǒop, mtǒop [X] (cf. ndxěex): Hemiptera, Coreidae, Pentatomidae; insecto, chinche apestoso; leaf-footed bugs, stink bugs; said to eat branches and/or squash (Cucurbita pepo) leaves; one non-odiferous variety may occur in rotten firewood; there are various types distinguishable by their disagreeable odors.

46a) ngutǐp[-0], mtǒop[-0] [`stink bug´, unmarked prototype]:

46b) ngutǐp-yǎ-guì, mtǒop-yǎ-guì [`stink bug´ + `up high´ + `mountain´]: or Blattodea ?; found in the mountains.




47) má-næ̀æg [`animal´ + `thirst´]: Cicadidae; chicharra, cigarra; cicada.

Membracidae, Cercopidae, Cicadellidae

NON) má-àviôn2 [`animal´ + `airplane<sp>´]: bicho como avión; type of insect.

NON) má-èlìcôptèrò2 [`animal´ + `helicopter<sp>´]: tipo de bicho; leafhopper.

48) má-càbây1 [`animal´ + `horse<sp>´]: Homoptera, Membracidae, cf. Thelia sp.; tipo de bicho; type of leafhopper, resembles a thorn.

49) má-càrnêr [`animal´ + `ram<sp>´]: tipo de bicho, parece un carnero; type of bug, looks like a ram.

50) mâ-nguǐd [`animal´ + `chicken´] bicho que parece una gallina; type of bug, looks like a chicken.

51) ndzǔc-duênt [`saliva´ + `duende<sp>´]: Homoptera, Cercopidae spp.; tipo de insecto; spittle bug.

EX51) xìn-ndzǔc-duênt [`relative of´ + `saliva´ + `duende<sp>´]: Homoptera, Cercopidae sp.; tipo de insecto; spittle bug.


52) ngùsiôog-lô [`blind´ + `eye´] (= mísyâgùlôo [X] ?): Homoptera, Fulgoridae sp. ^[[ArtHomFul1]]; type of bug, very strange looking.


53) mèzh [X] (= mèx ?): Aphididae; aphid.

54) (d)xgìr-guìdzá [?]: Aphididae; aphid; pest of faba beans.


55) méy, mêy [`fungus´]: Dactylopidae, Dactylopus spp. ^[[ArtHemDac1]]; bicho de cochinilla: cochineal bug; source of a brilliant red dye, but no longer produced in San Juan.


56) mrêg [X] (= mrêg-yâg [`ant´ + `tree/trunk´]): Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae larva; hormiga dragón; antlion; some Neuroptera larva are used to treat babies´ drooling and for when their teeth don´t emerge; grind up and apply.

14) má-rò-pós [`animal´ + `edge of´ + `well<sp>´] (= má-nìs [`animal´ + `water´], àviôn [`airplane<sp>´], má-pàsàdôr1 [`animal` + `traveler<sp>´], pàlôm-ró-guiùu [`pigeon´ + `at´ + `river´]): Odonata; Neuroptera, Ascalaphidae; includes also Hemiptera, Gerridae; libélula; dragonfly, damselfly, owlfly; water strider; said to occur in various colors: black, green, blue, and yellow.




NON) má-càfé [`animal´ + `coffee´]: Coleoptera, Elateridae, Coccinellidae; Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Reduvius sp. ?; tipo de chinche y/o coleóptero; type of bug and/or beetle.

64) má-bziàa [`animal´ + `bean´] (= má-lò-bziàa [`animal´ + `on´ + `bean´], mâ-nè-ròw-ló-bziàa, mâ-nè-rów-bziàa [`animal´ + `that eats beans´]): Coleoptera, Hemiptera spp.; bicho de frijól; insect pest of beans (bziàa).


NON) má-lò-yàg-yàaz-nàad [`animal´ + `on´ + `chamizo´ + `sticky´]: tipo de coleóptero; type of beetle, feeds on yàg-yàaz-nàad (Baccharis sp.).

NON) má-ngǎs-nìzhniê [`animal´ + `black´ + `red´]: tipo de coleóptero, negro y rojo; type of red and black beetle.

NON) má-nrùdz [`animal´ + `smooth/slippery´]: tipo de coleóptero; type of beetle, elytra smooth, shiny, dark brown.

NON) má-pînt [`animal´ + `spotted´]: tipo de coleóptero; type of beetle.

NON) má-yǎ-guì [`animal´ + `up high` + `mountain´]: tipo de coleóptero; type of beetle.

NON) má-zhàb [`animal´ + `husk´]: tipo de coleóptero; type of beetle.

57) má-chòrǎgw [`animal´ + `lizard´]: tipo de coleóptero; type of beetle, short wings, resembles a lizard.

58) má-lò-guièe-tǐ, má-guièe-tǐ [`animal´ + [`on´ +] `Bidens spp.´]: bicho de la flor guièe-tǐ (Bidens spp.): insect pest of the flower guièe-tǐ.

59) mcúp [X] (= ngutǐp [X]): tipo de coleóptero; type of beetle, terrestrial, has no odor.

60) mòlpáp [X]: tipo de coleóptero; type of beetle.

Caraboidea, Gyrinoidea, Hydrophiloidea

61) mlôol̲-nzǽ [`water bug´ + Y]: Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae spp.; tipo de bicho aquático; diving beetle ?

Staphylinoidea, Cantharoidea

62) ngòoz-guì [`hunter´ + `fire´] (= má-rguià-bní [`animal´ + `to grow´ + `light´]: Lampyridae, Photinus sp.; luciérnaga; firefly.

Cleroidea, Elateroidea

63) x-má-yàg-guiěl [`animal´ + `alder´]: Buprestidae sp.; tipo de coleóptero de los olmos; type of beetle on alders (yàg-guiěl, Alnus spp.).


64) má-bziàa [`animal´ + `bean´] (= má-lò-bziàa [`animal´ + `on´ + `bean´], mâ-nè-ròw-ló-bziàa, mâ-nè-rów-bziàa [`animal´ + `that eats beans´]): Coleoptera spp., Hemiptera spp.; bicho de frijól: insect pest of beans; e.g., a small, shiny black beetle.

64a) má-bziàa-làs [`animal´ + `bean´ + `small/slender´]: Coccinellidae sp.; bicho de frijól chiquito; ladybird beetle, so called because it favors a particular bean variety, bziàa-làs.

65) má-tòrtûg [`animal´ + `tortoise<sp>´]: tipo de coleóptero: type of ladybird beetle: Coccinellidae ?, Coleoptera


66) mzhudz [X]: Meloe sp., oil beetle; for warts (cf. Hunn 1977:120-121); when disturbed exude caustic oil from leg joints, which contains cantharidin.


67) ndxěx, ndxěex [X] (cf. mtǒop): Tenebrionidae, Noserus sp.; tipo de coleóptero, dormilón; darkling beetle.

68) má-nìs-nrùdz [`animal´ + `water´ + `smooth/slippery´] (= má-pàsàdôr2 [`animal´ + `traveler<sp>´]): Zopheridae (< Tenebrionidae), Zopherus nodulosus nodulosus ^[[ArtColZop2]]; tipo de insecto; ironclad beetle; type of beetle that makes spittle; medicinal, for babies that slobber a lot; tie it around their neck (alive or dead).


69) má-càmiôn [`animal´ + `truck<sp>´]: Passalidae sp.; tipo de coleóptero; type of beetle.

70) mrǔux [X]: mayate: beetle, June bug (larva is the gallina ciega, the prototype of mtsàn): Phyllophaga spp., Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae: adults fly in May and June; they particularly like to eat the flowers of yàg-rèdz (Quercus magnoliifolia); non-cultivated species of dahlia (Dahlia and Cosmos, Asteraceae), are known collectively as guièe-dâl-mrǔux, though the rationale for this association is not clear; these are inedible.

71) mtsàn [X]: Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae, Phyllophaga spp. larvae; gallina ciega: root borer; larva of mrǔux; pest of the corn crop.

71a) mtsàn[-0] [`cutworm´, unmarked prototype] (= mtsàn-nquǐts [`cutworm´ + `white´]): Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae, Phyllophaga spp. larvae; gallina ciega; larva of mrǔux (mayate) and/or of xtǒb; eats leaves of milpa plants.

71b) mtsàn-yâg [`cutworm´ + `tree/trunk´]: Coleoptera sp. larva; tiny worm that cuts right around and through the branches of trees such as Leucaena esculenta, Acacia pennatula.

71c) mtsàn-blâg-wé [`cutworm´ + `Wigandia urens´] (< mèel̲-dòb): Lepidoptera in part, larvae; gusano del maguey: maguey worm from Wigandia urens; edible.

71x) dzìt-mtsàn [`egg/bone´ + `cutworm´]: Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae, Phyllophaga spp. pupae; tipo de gusano; type of pupa, not an “egg”; said to be made of pure mud; yellowish; damages the milpa.

71x) mtsàn-bàrên [`cutworm; + Y<sp>]: Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae, Phyllophaga spp. pupae; type of pupa; “it is alive” (i.e., it moves inside); damages the milpa.

72) ngutîb [`roller´]: Scarabaeidae in part; escarabajo pelotero, roda caca; dung beetle; compare “spike buck” (Odocoileus virginianus);

72a) ngutîb[-0] [`dung beetle´, unmarked prototype]: Scarabaeidae in part; escarabajo pelotero, roda caca: dung beetle;

72b) ngutíb-guiě [`beetle´ + `dung´] (cf. xtǒb-guiě): Scarabaeidae. Canthon sp.; escarabajo pelotero, roda caca; dung beetle;

72c) ngutíb-dán [`beetle´ + `forest/wild´]: tipo de coleóptero: darkling beetle: Eleodes sp., Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera;

72d) ngutíb-yǎ-guì [`beetle´ + `up high´ + `mountain´]: tipo de cucaracha: cockroach, black.

73) xtǒb [`an odor´] (= má-xtǒb [`animal´ + `scarab beetle´]): Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae, Strategus sp.; perhaps also Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae; escarabajo, tobeno, animal cascarudo; scarab and/or rhinoceros beetle; perhaps also flies at dusk; flies “like an airplane”; larvae are `worms´, mtàadz; of two types, yellow and white; some are edible, others are not; those with a horn “like an elephant” are cooked in the fire and eaten;

73a) xtǒb[-0] [`scarab´, unmarked prototype]: Scarabaeidae in part; escarabajo, scarab and/or rhinoceros beetles ^[[ArtColSca1]]; various color varieties may be recognized, as follows:

73a1) xtǒb-àzûl [`scarab´ + `blue<sp>´]: Scarabaeidae in part; escarabajo; scarab and/or rhinoceros beetle, blue;

73a2) xtǒb-bguì [`scarab´ + `male´]: Scarabaeidae in part; escarabajo macho; beetle, scarab and/or rhinoceros beetles `males´, which are larger and blacker;

73a3) xtǒb-càfêy [`scarab´ + `coffee<sp>´] (= xtǒb-còyûch): Scarabaeidae in part; escarabajo; coffee-colored: beetle, scarab and/or rhinoceros beetles, has a little horn (“cachita”);

73a4) xtǒb-còlôr [`scarab´ + `color<sp>´]: perhaps Hemiptera, Pentatomidae sp.; escarabajo, pestoso; stink bug or beetle, colorful;

73a5) xtǒb-ngǎs [`scarab´ + `black´]: Scarabaeidae in part; escarabajo; scarab and/or rhinoceros beetles, black;

73b) xtǒb-guiě [`scarab´ + `dung´] (= xtǒb-x-guiě-ngǒn [`scarab´ + `of cow dung´] (cf. ngutǐp-guiě [X + `dung´]): Scarabaeidae, Strategus sp.; pelotero, tobeno, gentilicio de cristóbal; dung beetle > ngutǐb-guiě; there are said to be `males´ and `females´; prepared and eaten, but only the one that does not have horns; take off the wings first.

74) mtàadz [X]: Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae, Dynastinae larvae; gusano que cambia en xtǒb; “gusano de palo podrido que se come”; they are `worms´, of two types, yellow and white; not eaten except perhaps by children.

75) mluts [X]: Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae, Euphoria sp.; enters squash flowers.


NON) mâ-nè-ròw-nguzhánch [`animal´ + `that eats´ + `grasshopper sp.´]: Cerambycidae spp.; long-horned beetle; flies when it rains; “announces with its long antennae that there is food.”

NON) má-ngǒn [`animal´ + `ox´]: Cerambycidae sp.

76) má-siêrr [`animal´ + `saw<sp>´] (= mzhòodz-càrpìntêr [`bee´ + `carpenter<sp>´]): Cerambycidae spp.; coleóptero carpintero; long-horned beetle; kills guaje trees (Leucaena esculenta) by cutting the bark all around the trunk.

77) mâ-pchôg [`animal´ + `shell´], Passalidae or Cerambycidae; pasalido or cerambicido; bark and/or long-horned beetles.


64) mâ-nè-ròw-ló-bziàa(-ní) [`animal´ + `that eats´ + `beans´]: Chrysomelidae spp.; cf. cojoyera/o; flower beetle; pest of beans.


78) má-flôj [`animal´ + `lazy<sp>´]: Curculionidae sp.; tipo de bicho flojo; type of weevil.

NON) má-lò-yàg-bnù [`animal´ + `on´ + `Ipomoea intrapilosa´]: Curculionidae sp.; tipo de coleóptero; type of weevil.

79) ngùxôg [X]: Curculionidae spp.; gorgojo; weevil.


80) méguǐd, měe-guǐd ^[[SndMhpLpd1]] (= pàlòmít [`butterfly/moth<sp>´]: Lepidoptera in large part, adults; mariposa, palomita; adult butterfly, e.g., mourning cloak (Nymphalis antiopa L. ^[[ArtLepNym1]]), moth ^[[ArtLepSpp1]]; most consultants include sphinx moths (Sphingidae), despite their name, dzǐn̲g-guièel [`hummingbird´ + `night´]): if the dust [from its wings] gets in your eyes it will hurt them;

80a) pàlòmít[-0] [`butterfly/moth<sp>´, unmarked prototype]: Lepidoptera in large part, adults; individuals frequently described by nonce forms (see below); one consistently recognized and named folk specific is detailed below:

80b) pàlòmít-guiělgùt [`butterfly/moth´ + `dead person´]: Noctuidae, Ascalapha odorata; mariposa de muerto; black witch ^[[ArtLepAsc1]]: a large, blackish moth, often flies during the day; it enters houses, where it may rest on the walls; it is said to be the soul of a dead person and/or to indicate that someone will die.

80x) dzìt-pàlòmít [`egg/bone´ + `butterfly/moth<sp>´]: Lepidoptera in part, pupae; pupa de mariposa; type of pupa, green chrysalis; not an “egg.”

NON) pàlòmít-àzûl [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `blue<sp>´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa azul; butterfly, blue, small.

NON) pàlòmít-biòg [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + Y]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa café y amarillo, color bajito; moth, brown and yellow, dull colored.

NON) pàlòmít-càfé [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `coffee-colored<sp>´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa café; butterfly, skipper, moth, tan.

NON) pàlòmít-càfé-nìzhniê [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `red´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa café y roja; butterfly, tan and red.

NON) pàlòmít-càfé-nquǐts [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `white´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa café y blanca; butterfly, tan and white.

NON) pàlòmít-càfé-pînt [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `spotted<sp>´] (= pàlòmít-pînt-càfé): Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa café y pintada; butterfly, moth, brown, patterned.

NON) pàlòmít-càfé-ró-yù [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `coffee-colored<sp>´ + `door/in front of the house´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa café y de casa; butterfly, tan, of the town.

NON) pàlòmít-chòb-còlôr [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `two´ + `color<sp>´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa de dos colores; butterfly, of two colors.

NON) pàlòmít-còlôr [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `colorful<sp>´]: Lepidoptera, Papilio sp.; mariposa grande; swallowtail butterfly.

NON) pàlòmít-guièe [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `flower´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa de colores; butterfly, colorful.

NON) pàlòmít-gùts [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `yellowish´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa amarillente; butterfly, yellowish.

NON) pàlòmít-gùts-nlǎan [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `dark´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa amarilla; butterfly, [dark] yellow.

NON) pàlòmít-làs [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `small/slender´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa chiquita; butterfly, small.

NON) pàlòmít-lén̲-yù [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `in the house´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa de la casa; moth, found inside the house.

NON) pàlòmít-lìmôn [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `lemon-colored<sp>´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa de color de limón; butterfly, lemon-colored.

NON) pàlòmít-mìyâg [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `Bixa orellana´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa de color de achiote; butterfly, moth, color of annato, an orange pigment from the achiote tree (Bixa orellana, Bixaceae).

NON) pàlòmít-nàrânj [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `orange<sp>´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa anaranjada; butterfly, orange.

NON) pàlòmít-ngǎs [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `black´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa negra; butterfly, black.

NON) pàlòmít-nguěts [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `yellow´]: Lepidoptera, e.g., Saturniidae, Antheraea polyphemus; mariposa amarilla; butterfly, yellow.

NON) pàlòmít-nguěts-guièe [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `yellow´ + `flower´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa amarilla y como flor: butterfly, yellow.

NON) pàlòmít-nguěts-ró-guiùu-bè [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `yellow´ + `river shore´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa amarilla del río; butterfly, yellow, of rivers.

NON) pàlòmít-nguiǎ [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `green´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa verde; butterfly, green.

NON) pàlòmít-ngùts [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `yellowish´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa amarillente, color bajo; butterfly, yellowish, dull-colored.

NON) pàlòmít-nìzhniê [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `red´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa roja; moth, reddish.

NON) pàlòmít-pînt [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `spotted<sp>´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa pintada; butterfly, multicolored.

NON) pàlòmít-pînt-càfé [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `spotted<sp>´ + `coffee-colored<sp>´] (= pàlòmít-càfé-pînt): Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa pintada y café; butterfly, skipper, moth, multicolored.

NON) pàlòmít-pînt-dán [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `spotted<sp>´ + `forest/wild´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa pintada del cerro; butterfly, yellow, of mountains.

NON) pàlòmít-pînt-nìzhniê [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `spotted<sp>´ + `red´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa pintada y roja; butterfly, moth, multicolored.

NON) pàlòmít-pînt-nquǐts [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `spotted<sp>´ + `white´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa pintada y blanca; butterfly, multicolored.

NON) pàlòmít-pînt-ròsâd [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `spotted<sp>´ + `rose-colored<sp>´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa pintada y rosada; butterfly, multicolored.

NON) pàlòmít-ròsâd [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `rose-colored<sp>´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa rosada; butterfly, rose-colored.

NON) pàlòmít-ró-yù [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `door/in front of the house´]: Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa de las casas; moth, attracted to lights in houses.

NON) pàlòmít-vêrd [`butterfly/moth<sp>´ + `green<sp>´] (cf. pàlòmít-nguiǎ): Lepidoptera sp.; mariposa de tres colores; butterfly, of three colors.

81) dzǐn̲g-guièel [`hummingbird´ + `night´] (< méguǐd): Lepidoptera, Sphingidae spp. ^[[ArtLepSph1]]; may be extended to include tailed skippers, Hesperiidae in part; chuparosa, colibrí de noche: sphinx moth; consultants differ in their judgment of whether this is a bird or a moth, though the majority favor the latter view; feeds on flowers at night; if you leave a broken pot outside this animal will come and repair it so that it will not leak.

82) mxìl̲ [X]: Lepidoptera in part; polilla; moth, eats clothing, infests grain, e.g., maize; flies out when disturbed; young turkeys eat them; becomes a butterfly/moth.

83) mèel̲-zhêl [`worm´ + `silk´]: Lepidoptera, Saturniidae spp.; gusano de seda; silk worm.

84) nguliá [X]: Lepidoptera in large part, larvae; oruga; caterpillar ^[[ArtLepLrv1]]:

84a) nguliá[-0], unmarked prototype]: Lepidoptera in large part, larvae;

84b) nguliá-dùr [`caterpillar´ + `pine needle´]: Lepidoptera in part, larvae; tipo de oruga que pica, “hoja de pino”; caterpillar, stinging spines; a powerful sting; especially found on willows (Salix bonplandiana, Salicaceae);

84b1) nguliá-dùr-yèen̲ [`caterpillar´ + `pine needle´ + `child´]: Lepidoptera in part, larvae; small spiny caterpillar, black with yellow spines;

84b2) nguliá-dùr-yôx [`caterpillar´ + `pine needle´ + `large/powerful´]: Lepidoptera in part, larvae; a large spiny caterpillar;

84c) nguliá-làs [`caterpillar´ + `small/slender´]: Lepidoptera in part, larvae; tipo de oruga delgada; caterpillar, small, slender;

84d) nguliá-mbé [`caterpillar´ + `clean´]: Lepidoptera in part, larvae; tipo de oruga sin pelos; caterpillar, hairless;

84e) nguliá-nzép [`caterpillar´ + X] (= ngúliá[-0] [`prototypical caterpillar´): Lepidoptera in part, larvae; tipo de oruga peligrosa; caterpillar, small; dangerous sting, causes fever, sores: rests on the undersides of leaves; of hot country.

90) nguliá-ngǎs [`caterpillar´ + `black´] (= ndzěets, x-pæ̀cw-diôs): Lepidoptera, Arctiidae, Isia sp.; tipo de oruga negra; caterpillar, black woolly bear.

91) nguliá-nguiǎ [`caterpillar´ + `green´] (= ngutǐix-gòod [`measurer´ + Y]): Lepidoptera, Geometridae spp., larvae; tipo de medidor; caterpillar, inch-worm.

92) nguliá-xtîl [`caterpillar´ + `Castillian<sp>´] (= x-pæ̀cw [`its dog´]): tipo de oruga como perrito castellano; caterpillar, hairy, like a little dog; powerful sting that causes fever; transforms into mariposa.

NON) má-měy-yǔp [`animal´ + `mushroom sp.´ + Z]: Insecta in part, larva; tipo de gusano; worm of the edible mushroom měy-yǔp (Amanita cesarea).

NON) má-yâg [`animal´ + `tree/trunk´]: Lepidoptera, Psychidae; tipo de larva; bagworm.

85) má-zhǒb [`animal´ + `corn´]: comején; moth larvae, two varieties, attacks roots of corn.

86) mèel̲-ziè [`animal´ + `elote´] (cf. mtsàn-blâg-wé): Noctuidae, Helicoverpa sp. larva; gusano del elote; worm of green corn; extended to include “worms” inside wasp and fly galls, etc.

87) mèel̲-dòb [`snake/worm´ + `maguey´] (> mtsàn-blâg-wé): gusano del maguey; Cossus redtenbanci, Hipopta agavis (Cossidae) larvae; maguey worm; comes out from dòb (Agave spp., Agavaceae), blâg-wé (Wigandia urens, Hydrophyllaceae), and/or blâg-bîdz (Dodonaea viscosa, Sapindaceae); those of agaves are yellow, put alive in mezcal bottles; transform into palomita.

71b) mtsàn-blâg-wé [`cutworm´ + `Wigandia urens´] < mèel̲-dòb): Lepidoptera in part, larvae; gusano del maguey; maguey worm from Wigandia urens; edible.

88) mèel̲-bèn̲ [`worm´ + `mud´], gusano de lodo; eats clothing and occurs in humid areas under rocks; identity undertain.

89) mzióg-lò [`maggot´ + `root´]: Lepidoptera sp., larva; tipo de oruga; type of caterpillar.

90) ndzěets [X] (= nguliá-ngǎs [`caterpillar´ + `black´], x-pæ̀cw-diôs [poss. + `dog´ + `god´]): Arctiidae. Isia sp., larvae; tipo de oruga, negra, no pica; woolly bear caterpillar, non-stinging.

91) ngutǐix-gòod [`measurer´ + Y]) (= nguliá-nguiǎ): Geometridae spp. larvae; medidor; inch worm.

92) x-pæ̀cw [poss. + `dog´]: Lepidoptera sp., larva; oruga con pellos largos; caterpillar with long hairs, black and brown, terrestrial.

93) cárnèrǐt [`little ram<sp>´]: Lepidoptera sp., larva; oruga con cuernos, sin pelo; caterpillar, horned, no hairs.


NON) má-nè-rów-nì-wgàa [`animal´ + `that eats´ + `milpa´]: Diptera sp. larva ?; tipo de larva; type of fly larva.

94) měe-ndǒx [`animal´ + `angry/cruel/mean´] (= měe-dòo ?): Simuliidae sp.; mosquito que come sangre; blackfly; drinks blood.

95) mèedz-gǒn [`lion´ + `ox´]: Culicidae, Tipulidae; mosquito; tiny biting fly.

96) mlènts [X]: Culicidae spp.; zancudo; mosquito: extended to include Tipulidae and Ichneumonidae sp. (Hymenoptera);

96a) mlènts[-0], unmarked prototype]: Culicidae, Culex sp.; zancudo; mosquito;

96b) mlènts-dán [`mosquito´ + `forest/wild´]: Tipulidae sp.; tipo de mosquito del monte; crane fly;

96c) mlènts-ngǎs [`mosquito´ + `black´]: Diptera in part; tipo de mosquito negro; fly, black, bites or stings; found in the mountains;

96d) mlènts-nguěts [`mosquito´ + `yellow´]: Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae spp.; zancudo amarillo; ichneumonid wasp;

96e) mlènts-nrôob [`mosquito´ + `large´]: Tipulidae; zancudo grande; crane fly.

97) còrtàtrîp, còltò-trîp [`cuts tripe<sp>´]: Culicidae larvae; tripitas, corta-tripa [`rips gut´]: mosquito larvae; has a small head; lives in dirty water; if you drink water with these larva in it your intestines will split.

98) mtěed [X] (cf. nguládz): Tabanidae spp.; may include Asilidae spp.´ tábano; horse flies, extended to include robber flies; eats the blood of cattle, donkeys, and dogs; it is harmful; may bite people, but does not sting; bites and sucks blood of large animals; it is said that one may cut a piece of the tail and attach a little piece of paper, as a letter; let it fly and it will carry the letter far;

98a) mtěed[-0], unmarked prototype]: Tabanidae spp.; tábano no específico; horse fly, residual;

98b) mtěed-bûrr [`biting fly´ + `donkey<sp>´] (= zhì-mtěed-bûrr [poss. + `biting fly´ + `donkey<sp>´]): Tabanidae spp.; tábano que persigue buros; horse fly that attacks donkeys.

98c) mtěed-chǐv [`biting fly´ + `goat<sp>´]: Tabanidae sp., may include also Asilidae sp.; tábano que persigue chivos; horse fly that attacks goats; may include robber flies.

99) nguládz [X] (cf. mtěed): mosca; fly: two types are widely recognized, nguládz-guìib, which shines, and nguládz-yè, which seeks out raw meat:

99a) nguládz-guìib [`fly´ + `metal´] (= nguládz-ziè [`fly´ + `green corn´]): Calliphoridae spp.; tipo de mosca verde; green-bottle fly, larger than nguládz-yè; they lay eggs on rotten meat; produce mzióggusanos”;

99b) nguládz-yè [`fly´ + `raw´]: Calliphoridae spp.; mosca verde; fly, green, smaller than ngulâdz-guìib;

99c) nguládz-ró-yù [`fly´ + `door/in front of the house´]: Muscidae, Musca domestica; mosca de la casa; house fly;

99d) nguládz-dán [`fly´ + `forest/wild´]: Diptera in part; mosca del monte: some kind of fly found away from town;

99e) nguládz-mzhòodz [`fly´ + `bee´]: Tabanidae sp.; mosca parecida a una abeja; type of horse-fly that attacks goats; resembles but is distinct from mtěed.

100) ngurǔdz [X]: Simuliidae spp.; tipo de mosquito: black fly, gnat; may also refer to a type of fly that does not bite, but gets entangled in one´s hair.

100a) ngurǔdz[-0] [`black fly´, unmarked prototype]: Simuliidae spp.; tipo de mosquito: black fly, gnat;

100b) ngurǔdz-làs [`black fly´ + `small/slender´]: Diptera in part; tipo de mosquito: midge.

101) mzióg [X]: Calliphoridae spp. larvae; larva de mosca verde; maggot; some are larger, other smaller, both called the same; hatch from eggs laid on rotten meat by nguládz-yè, nguládz-guìib.


102) mèdòo, měe-dòo [X] (cf. měe-dòx, Diptera, Simuliidae, above): Mallophaga in part; coruco, cocoyuche, piojo de ave; flea or bird louse.

103) mguìd [X]: Pulicidae, Pulex irritans; pulga; flea;

103a) mguìd[-0] [`flea´, unmarked prototype]: Pulicidae, Pulex irritans; pulga: flea;

103b) mguìd-riàaz [`flea´ + `to get stuck/to be nailed or pricked with a thorn´]: Mallophaga in part; tipo de pulga de gallinas, cocoyuche: type of flea or louse, of chickens.



*96d) mlènts-nguěts [`mosquito´ + `yellow´]: Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae spp.; zancudo amarillo; ichneumonid wasp.


104) mrè [X]: Formicidae spp.; hormiga; ant; an intermediate or mini-life form, as several folk generics are optionally named as subcategories:

104a) mrè[-0] [`ant´, unmarked prototype]: Formicidae spp.; hormiga; ant;

104b) mrè-yěets [`ant´ + `yellowish´](= mrè-nguěts [`ant´ + `yellow´], mrè-àrriêr [`ant´ + `muleteer<sp>´], xín-àrriêr [`relative of´ + `muleteer<sp>´]): Formicidae in part; hormiga, chica, amarilla; ant, small, yellow, bites: related to the arriera (leaf-cutter ant).

105) ndùn [X] (= mrè-ndùn [`ant´ + Y]): Formicidae, perhaps Pogonomyrmex sp.; hormiga mora, tipo de hormiga grande que pica; type of large powerfully stinging ant, associated with Acacia spp.; an edible wild herb, nlí-dùn, Porophyllum tagetoides (Asteraceae), is apparently named for this ant, with which it associates; to treat stings of this ant rub on crushed leaves of bârr-x-guìzh-nguládz (Senna sp.) or of nlí-dùn.

106) mrè-ziêgw [`ant´ + `blind<sp´] (= ziêgw [`blind<sp´]): Formicidae in part; tipo de hormiga solitaria, parece ser ciega, pica; type of solitary ant, pale colored, blind, uses odor; stings.

107) miâdz [X] (= mrè-miâdz): Formicidae, Atta mexicana ^[[ArtHymFor1]], winged adults; chicatana; flying ant, edible; flights occur near the first solid rains of the season (normally June 10-24, in time for the fiesta of San Juan, June 24) and typically last just one night; an accumulation of soil (abono) at the nest entrance of miób, leaf-cutter ants, indicates that a flight is imminent ^[[ArtHymFor2]]; this term refers to the huge, winged reproductive castes, known to be transformed leaf-cutters; the first flight near San Juan in 1998 occured the morning of June 27, late, as were the rains; they are considered a delicacy; they are cooked in oil, on the comal, eaten with salt and lime.

108) mi{o:}b, miób [X] (= mrè-miób [`ant´ + `arriera<sp´]): Formicidae, Atta spp.; hormiga arriera; leaf-cutter ant; they cut leaves and carry them into their nests; these ants transform into miâdz, which emerge from the nests of this species with the first solid rains (miób rdzèe mâ miâdz mâ), June 10-24, in time for the fiesta of San Juan, June 24.

109) x-pǎan-zhǐil [poss. + `tail´ + `cotton´]: Formicidae in part; hormiga de madera; ant, inside wood.


110) má-zhiân [`animal´ + Y](= fòrtûn [`fortune<sp>´]): Mutillidae spp.; tipo de avispa sin alas; velvet ants, actually a wingless wasp; may be considered a kind of `ant´; two varieties, the “true” fòrtûn has bright yellow on its back; this is the “fortuna gris-anaranjada” and indicates good luck; you will meet something of value; if you encounter one you will find what you are looking for or will sell well; put it in a match box and leave it for 15 days; if it is still alive after 15 days you will have good luck; the other is red, which “means jealousy” (“muina”); “fortuna roja” indicates the person will have courage; however, it is bad luck if encountered first.

110a) fortuna gris-anaranjada, the “true” fòrtûn; it has bright yellow on its back; this indicates good luck;

110b) fortuna roja, the red fòrtûn, which “means jealousy” (muina), indicates the person will have courage; however, it is bad luck if encountered first.


111) mæ̂s [X]: Vespidae; tipo de avispa; wasp, thick-waisted.

112) zhíngàan̲g [X]: Pompilidae spp. and/or Vespidae, e.g., Polistes sp.; zapatudo, zapatero; spider wasp and/or wasp, hornet; may be extended to include certain large red and black flower beetles;

112a) zhíngàan̲g-làs [`wasp´ + `small/slender´]: Vespoidea in part; avispa chica; wasp, thread-waisted, small; does not sting; nests in caves, rocks;

112b) zhíngàan̲g-ngǎs [`wasp´ + `black]: Vespidae spp.; avispa negra; wasp, hornet, black (and/or w/orange wings), stings;

112c) zhíngàan̲g-nguěts [`wasp´ + `yellow´]: Vespoidea in part; avispa amarilla; wasp or hornet, yellow; solitary; feeds on flowers, builds small nests in rocks, stings;

112d) zhíngàan̲g-nìzhniê [`wasp´ + `red´]: Pompilidae spp.; avispa roja; spider wasp, black with red wings;

112e) zhíngàan̲g-pînt [`wasp´ + `spotted´]: Vespidea in part; avispa pinta; wasp, red and yellow, nests in caves, rocks; nest is small.

113) mæ̀z-ncuěets, mæ̀z-ncuèets [`fox´ + `wasp nest´] (= ncuěets-dòo [`panal´ + `large´]?): Sphecidae or Vespidae in part; avispa de panal, chica; a small, black, narrow-waisted wasp that builds a paper nest, round, like a ball, which may be attached to a cliff face; a cliffy area with a number of nests at 2500 m s of town is called zhàn-quiè-ncuěets [`cliff-base´ + `wasp nest´]: balls of honey (dzìn) and hive are collected and eaten; “bites” one´s face and around one´s eyes; to get rid of the nests use smoke of ocote; if stung one needs to put excrement on the wound.

114) ncuěets [`panal´]: Vespoidea in part; tipo de avispa; type of wasp; the name also means `wasp nest´ (panal); may be synonymous with mæ̀z-ncuěets.

114a) ncuěets-bàa [`panal´ + `tomb´]: Vespoidea in part; avispa del suelo; ground nesting wasp.

114x) ncuěets-dèts [`panal´ + `vacant/empty´]: Vespoidea in part, abandoned nest; nido abandonado.

113) ncuěets-dòo [`panal´ + `large´] (= mæ̀z-ncuěets ?): Vespidae in part; avispa chica: small wasp that constructs a large hanging paper nest.

115) ndzìn-yû [X + `earth´]: Vespoidea in part; tipo de avispa; type of ground-nesting wasp, gives a painful sting that hurts for two days; there are two types, one more painful than the other.

117d) mzhòodz-làs [`bee´ + `small/slender´]: Vespoidea sp.; tipo de avispa: type of small wasp.

NON) mzhòodz-pínt [`bee´ + `spotted<sp>´]: Vespoidea sp.; avispa pintada: wasp with bi-colored antennae.

NON) mzhòodz-rgo-liù-mâ-gùt [`bee´ + `measure´ + `earth´ + `dead´]: Pompilidae spp.; “tierra muerte”: type of spider wasp.


116) nguxǒy [X] (= nguxǒy-ngǎs [`sweat bee´ + `black´] ?): Apoidea, Halictidae spp.; avispa de tierra; small ground nesting bee (may also nest in trees); nest is round; does not sting, makes honey;

116a) nguxǒy-ngǎs [`sweat bee´ + `black´] (= nguxǒy ?): Apoidea in part; enfadoso: type of small black bee.

117) mzhòodz [X]: Apoidea in part; may include some Vespoidea (and even some Hemiptera, though possibly in error); abeja en general; bees in general; may include mbîdz-guièt;

117a) mzhòodz-dzìn [`bee´ + `honey´]: Apoidea spp.; abeja de miel; bee that makes honey; makes honey in a hole in a tree; or may nest in reeds; women say to children that they are like honey bees (enjambre), because when they sting they will die, i.e., the child that commits the error pays for it.

117b) mzhòodz-guie [`bee´ + `?´] (= mzhòodz-guièe [`bee´ + `flower´], mbîdz-guièt [`dry´ + `bread´], mzhòodz-mbîdz-guièt [`bee´ + `dry´ + `bread´]: cf. (cf. mànzân-mbìdz-guièt [`apple´ + `dry´ + `bread´]: mzhòodz-tòrò-pînt [`bee´ + `bull´ + `spotted´]): Apidae, Apinae, Bombini, Bombus sp.; tipo de abeja, abejorro con franjas amarillas; type of bumblebee, nests in quiotes (Agave flower stalks); makes powder honey; flies to flowers in season, otherwise keeps to “fosa septica,” holes in wood/tree trunks; found only in December; does not bite.

117c) mzhòodz-guìts [`bee´ + `hair´]: Apoidea sp.; tipo de abeja pelosa; type of hairy bee;

117d) mzhòodz-làs [`bee´ + `small/slender´]: Vespoidea sp.; tipo de avispa; type of wasp, small;

117e) mzhòodz-ngǎs [`bee´ + `black´]: Apidae, Xylocopinae spp. and/or Apinae, Bombini spp., abeja negra, abejorro negro; carpenter bee or bumblebee ssp. (black with yellow face); nest in agave buds/quiotes; boys cut them open; they are not fierce, just hit the quiote and they leave; little balls of honey;

117f) mzhòodz-ngǒn-ngǎs [`bee´ + `ox´ + `black´]: Apidae, Apinae, Bombini, Bombus sp. ?; abeja negra; bumblebee sp., black;

117g) mzhòodz-nguěts [`bee´ + `yellow´]: Apidae, Apinae, Bombini, Bombus sp. ?; abeja amarilla; bumblebee sp., yellow;

117h) mzhòodz-tòrò-pînt [`bee´ + `bull´ + `spotted´] (= mzhòodz-ngǒn-pînt; cf. mzhòodz-guièe): Apidae, Apinae, Bombini, Bombus sp.; abeja pinta; bumblebee sp., large, yellow and orange on back; stings: found up to 2760 m.;

117i) mzhòodz-yèen̲ [`bee´ + `child/small´], mzhòodz-ngǎs-yèen̲ [`bee´ + `black´ + `child/small´]: Apidae, Apinae, Bombini, Bombus sp. ?; abeja negra pequeña; bumblebee sp., black, small: Bombus sp. ?

118) mzhòodz-njâmbr [`bee´ + `bee hive<sp>´] (= njâmbr [`bee hive<sp>´]): Apidae, Apinae, Apis mellifera; abeja común, abeja de miel; honey bee; introduced from Europe.

119) mzhòodz-ngǒn-pînt [`bee´ + `ox´ + `spotted´] (= mzhòodz-tòrò-pînt, tòrò-pînt): Apidae, Apinae, Bombini, Bombus sp.; abeja pintada; type of bumblebee, large, spotted.

NON) mzhòodz-pînt [`bee´ + `spotted´]: Vespoidea sp.; avispa pintada: wasp with bi-colored antennae.

NON) mzhòodz-rgo-liù-mâ-gùt [`bee´ + `measure´ + `earth´ + `animal´ + `dead´]: Pompilidae spp.; “tierra muerte”; type of spider wasp.

118) njâmbr [`bee hive<sp>´] (= mzhòodz-njâmbr [`bee´ + `hive<sp>´]): Apidae, Apinae, Apis mellifera; abeja común, abeja de miel; honey bee; introduced from Europe.

119) tòrò-pînt [`bull´ + `spotted´]) (= mzhòodz-tòrò-pînt, mzhòodz-ngǒn-pînt): Apidae, Apinae, Bombini, Bombus sp.; abeja pintada; type of bumblebee, large, spotted.




120) mèegù, měe-gù [X] (= měe-cò San Pedro Gbëë): Arachnida, Scorpionida; alacrán; scorpion ^[[ArtArcSco1]]: `male´ and `female´ are recognized as distinct; female carries her young on her back; found beneath rocks; most poisonous when [the female] has recently laid its eggs; bite said to cause fever, paralyze mouth and tongue; to treat scorpion bites one should eat `cold´ things like brown sugar, powdered instant coffee, chocolate, lime heated in the fire, or bathe with salt water; or get an injection at the clinic; cure with almendra de cedrón, which is very hot, grate a bit of seed to powder with a spoon, stir in hot water; the animal is `cold´ (frío).

120a) mèegù[-0], měe-gù[-0] [`scorpion´, unmarked prototype]: Arachnida, Scorpionida in part; alacrán; scorpion;

120b) měe-gù-ndǒx [`scorpion´ + `angry/cruel/mean´] (= má-ndǒx, měe-gù-ngǎs): Arachnida, Scorpionida in part; alacrán venenoso; poisonous scorpion: Cenchroides sp.; a large, black scorpion;

120c) měegù-nguěts [`scorpion´ + `yellow´]: Arachnida, Scorpionida in part; alacrán amarillo; scorpion, yellow;

120d) měe-gù-còyûch [`scorpion´ + `brown´] (měe-cò-còyôch, San Pedro Gbëë): Arachnida, Scorpionida in part; alacrán café; brown scorpion.


121) ngùdzìi-liù [`spider´ + `earth´]: Arachnida, Thelyphonida (Uropygi); animalito como una araña; whip scorpion, vinagaroon.


122) ngutòo-gôl [`dead/departed soul´ + `old/ancient´]: Arachnida, Solifugae; solifugo; wind scorpion.


123) měe-guǐts [`animal´ + `hair´]: Arachnida, Phalangida; segador, espantapájaros, araña zancuda; daddy-long-legs: if you catch one you will have good luck and get a lot of money.


124) mèd [X]: Parasitiformes, Acarina, Ixodidae, Argasidae; garrapata; tick.

125) mèx [X]: Acarina in part; pegapiel, arador; chiggers, red mites.

126) cònchút [tick<sp>´]: Acarina in part; garrapata; tick.


127) ngùdzìi [X]: Arachnida, Araneida; araña; spider, in general; some are considered dangerous when in people´s houses; spider bites — which cause stomach pain — may be treated with salt, to draw out the “air”; spider´s web is called lbæ̀-ngùdzìi [`vine´ + `spider´];

127a) ngùdzìi[-0] [´spider´, unmarked prototype]: Arachnida, Araneida; araña no específica; spider, residual;

127b) ngùdzìi-còrâl [`spider´ + `coral<sp>´]: Araneida, Theridiidae, Latrodectus sp.; viuda negra; spider, black widow; bites not fatal, but dangerous; powerful bite, impedes speech, one´s tongue “sleeps”; treat with a medio cuartito of mezcal with alcanfor; if an animal eats the spider web with hay it will die;

127c) ngùdzìi-zhàb [`spider´ + `husk´]: Araneida, Megalomorphae, Theraphosidae spp. ^[[ArtAraTar1]]; tarantula venenosa; tarantula (poisonous); zhàb because it has very thick skin; the black one is the most dangerous, equal to a scorpion; the black tarantula is more dangerous than the yellow; it bites the hooves of animals; cure with lime and ash of panela or piloncillo (crude sugar), then finally with white gas; if not cured the hoof will fall off;

127c1) ngùdzìi-zhàb-ngǎs [`tarantula´ + `black´]: Megalomorphae, Theraphosidae sp.; the most dangerous;

127c2) ngùdzìi-zhàb-nguěts [`tarantula´ + `yellow´]: Megalomorphae, Theraphosidae sp.; less dangerous than the black tarantula;

127d) ngùdzìi-zhǐil [`spider´ + `cotton´]: Araneida in part; tipo de araña, tela como algodón; type of spider, cotton-like web;

127e) ngùdzìi-tsòn-lô [`spider´ + `three´ + `face´]: Araneida in part; araña de tres caras; spider, orb-weaver, “three faces” hidden in the pattern on its abdomen;

127f) ngùdzìi-còyûch [`spider´ + `brown´]: Araneida in part; araña de color café; spider, brown;

127g) ngùdzìi-dán-ptsǽæ [`spider´ + `hot country´]: Araneida in part; araña de tierra cáliente;spider sp., of hot country at lower elevations;

127h) ngùdzìi-dòozhêr [`spider´ + `scissors<sp>´]: Araneida in part; araña con abdomen largo; spider with long abdomen;

127i) ngùdzìi-dzìt [`spider´ + `egg´]: Araneida in part; araña pequeña, parece un huevecito; spider, small, looks like an egg;

127j) ngùdzìi-guì [`spider´ + `mountain´]: Araneida in part; araña del cerro o del hinchazón; spider, fat, small; also larger longish spider;

127k) ngùdzìi-làs [`spider´ + `small/slender´]: Araneida in part; araña pequeña; spider, small;

127l) ngùdzìi-lén̲-yù [`spider´ + `inside´ + `house´]: Araneida in part; araña de la casa; spider sp., flat, of houses; a common spider of houses, rather large, flat, gray, innocuous; not consistently distinguished nomenclaturally despite its conspicuous presence;

127m) ngùdzìi-liù [`spider´ + `earth´]: Arachnida, Pedipalpida;

127n) ngùdzìi-ngǎs [`spider´ + `black´]: Araneida in part; araña negra, chiquita; type of black spider, very small; also may refer to a type of black widow spider;

127o) ngùdzìi-nguěts [`spider´ + `yellow´]: Araneida in part; araña amarilla; type of yellow spider, yellow;

127p) ngùdzìi-nguiǎ [`spider´ + `green´] (= ngùdzìi-vêrd [`spider´ + `green<sp>´]): Araneida in part; araña verde; type of green spider;

127q) ngùdzìi-pînt [`spider´ + `spotted´]: Araneida in part; tipo de araña; type of spider;

127r) ngùdzìi-rguià-bní [`spider´ + `gives´ + `light´]: Araneida in part; tipo de araña, verde brillante: type of spider, metallic green;

127s) ngùdzìi-yǎ-guì [`spider´ + `up high´ + `mountain´]: Araneida in part; araña del cerro; spider, of the mountains;

127t) ngùdzìi-yèen̲ [`spider´ + `child/small´]: Araneida in part; araña chiquita; spider, very small, though strong (“resista mucho”); found under rocks.

CHORDATA, vertebrates

Snakes ^SnakeAmphibians ^AmpBirds ^BirdMammals ^Mam

Squamata, lizards

1) mdzîd [X]: Phrynosoma braconnieri ^[[VerLizPhr1]]; cameleón; horned lizard: fairly common near San Juan in sandy soils in matorral habitat; placed on the top of the head to cure head aches; it is considered to belong to the ngùrǎgw “family.”

2) mèel̲-nì [`snake´ + `foot´]: Heloderma horridum or Gerrhonotus liocephalus ^[[VerLizGer1]]; may be extended to include salamanders, such as Pseudoeurycea sp.; escorpión; Gila monster or alligator lizard: one consultant described it as very large (to 50 cm), slow moving (“does not flee”), with a short tail and smooth skin; poisonous; found at lower elevations; this best fits the Gila monster (Heloderma horridum).

3) ngùrǎgw [X] (= chòrǎgw [X]): Squamata in part, including at least all local Sceloporus, Norops (Anolis), Aspidoscelis (Cnemidophorus), and Ameiva species; lagartija; lizard: abundant and conspicuous at all elevations and in all habitats:

3a) ngùrǎgw-bǎy [`lizard´ + `rebozo<sp>´] (= ngùrǎgw-zhòoy-bǎy [`lizard´ + `rough´ + `rebozo<sp>´]): Sceleporus mucronotus ssp. omiltemanus ^[[VerLizSce5]]; lagartija de collar; collared spiny lizard; common in town;

3b) ngùrǎgw-ngùzì [`lizard´ + `sun/god of lightning´] (= ngùrǎgw-nguiǎ [`lizard´ + `green´], ngùrǎgw-vêrd [`lizard´ + `green<sp>´], ngùrǎgw-yá-guì [`lizard´ + `up high´ + `mountain´]): Sceleporus formosus ^[[VerLizSce8]], ^[[VerLizSce3]] and/or Sceleporus jalapae ^[[VerLizSce6]]; spiny lizard, green: this lizard has a special association with ngùzì, Zapotec god of lightning that controls the rains, so is treated with respect and not disturbed; it is common in pine forests above town up to the highest summits at > 3000 m.;

3c) ngùrǎgw-zhòoy [`lizard´ + `rough´] (= ngùrǎgw-zhòoy-bǎy [`lizard´ + `rough´ + `rebozo<sp>´]): Sceleporus spinosus ^[[VerLizSce1]]; type of spiny lizard with very rough scales; common near town;

3d) ngùrǎgw-bèed [`lizard´ + `dirty´] (= ngùrǎgw-ngǎs [`lizard´ + `black´], ngùrǎgw-môr [`lizard´ + `moorish<sp>´], ngùrǎgw-mèedz [`lizard´ + `dangerous animal´, San Pedro Gbëë]): Sceloporus siniferus ^[[VerLizSce4]]; largartija "sucia"; spiny lizard, small, dark, striped;

3e) ngùrǎgw-làs [`lizard´ + `small/slender´]: Sceleporus sp. ^[[VerLizSce7]]; lagartija de collar; spiny lizard, very small, possibly juveniles;

3f) ngùrǎgw-guìd [`lizard´ + `skin/leather´] (= ngùrǎgw-guìd-rôj [`lizard´ + `skin/leather´ + `red<sp>´], ngùrǎgw-làs [`lizard´ + `small/slender´]): Norops (Anolis) sp. ^[[VerLizNor1]], ^[[VerLizNor2]]; chíntete; anole;

3g) ngurǎgw-mèel̲1 [`lizard´ + `snake/worm´]: Ameiva sp. ^[[VerLizAme1]] and Aspidoscelis (Cnemidophorus) sp. ^[[VerLizAsp1]], ^[[VerLizAsp2]]; lizard, race-runner; body striped with black and green; seen only at the height of the dry season, April through June.

*20) ngùrǎgw-nrùdz [`lizard´ + `smooth´] (= ngurǎgw-mèel̲2 [`lizard´ + `snake/worm´]): Salamandridae, Pseudoeurycea sp.; salamandra; salamander.

4) ngutsiěts [X]: Iguanidae, Ctenosaura spp., Iguana iguana; iguana; iguana;

4a) ngutsiěts-ngǎs [`iguana´ + `black´]: Ctenosaura similis; iguana negra; black iguana: reported to occur at scattered cliff colonies in the area, including in San Juan Gbëë at the San Andrés cliffs (quiè-sàn-àndrês); hunted and eaten; a boy had one near San Cristóbal Amatlán;

4b) ngutsiěts-guièl [`iguana´ + `lake´] (= ngutsiěts-vêrd [`iguana´ + `green<sp>´]): Iguana iguana; iguana verde ("de laguna"); green iguana (extralimital).

Ophidia, snakes

Life form: mèel̲1 [= ràstrâd]

We have positively identified the following species/genera in San Juan and San Pedro Gbëë to date: aff. Tantilla sp. ^[[VerSnaTan1]], Thamnophis sp. ^[[VerSnaTha1]], and Crotalus mollossus ssp. nigrescens. Two names appear to refer to intermediate level taxa: mèel̲-dǐx [`snake´ + `fierce´]: Ophidia in part; any poisonous or notably dangerous snake; includes ngòoz-mdzìn, mèel̲-ngùbìdz, and miàab; and mèel̲-nguâat [`snake´ + `deaf´] (= nguâat [`deaf´]): Crotalus spp., Sistrurus sp.; rattlesnakes in general. The name is apparently a calque on the Spanish term vibora sorda.

5) miàab [X] (= mèel̲-miàab [`snake´ + X]): Crotalus spp. or Sistrurus ravus; type of rattlesnake; large, to > 1 m; skin is gray and black with black and white cross markings shaped like wings.

6) ngùbìdz [`sun´] (= mèel̲-ngùbìdz [`snake/worm´ + `sun´]): Crotalus sp.; type of rattlesnake;

6a) ngùbìdz-yàas [`sun´ + `black´] (= mèel̲-ngùbìdz-yàas [`snake´ + `sun´ + `black´]): Crotalus intermedius ?, Sistrurus ravus ?; type of rattlesnake, blacker than ngùbìdz-yěets [`sun´ + `yellow´];

6b) ngùbìdz-yěets [`sun´ + `yellow´] (= mèel̲-ngùbìdz-yěets [`snake´ + `sun´ + `yellow´]): Crotalus mollossus ssp. nigrescens; black-tailed rattlesnake; yellower than ngùbìdz-yàas [`sun´ + black´].

7) mèel̲-ngutòo [`snake/worm´ + `dead/dead person/departed soul´]: Crotalus sp.; said to be a type of rattlesnake: however, it is red and black like a coral snake; to see one is a bad omen, indicating that someone in the family will die.

8) mziǒn [X] (= mèel̲-mziǒn [`snake´ + Y]): Micrurus browni, Micrurus ephippifer; coral snake, to 80 cm; slender; black, white, yellow, and red rings on the body; poisonous; found throughout.

9) ngòoz-mdzìn [`hunter´ + `deer´] (= mèel̲-ngòoz-mdzìn [`snake´ + `deer hunter]): possibly the boa constrictor (Boa constrictor); large (> 1 m), fast-moving snake, with large eyes; so-called because it moves as fast as a deer, making a sound as it moves; not because it is large enough to catch and eat a deer.

10) mèel̲-yâg [`snake´ + `tree/shrub´]: Ophidia in part; type of snake: long (to 1 m), slender brown snake that climbs bushes; not poisonous.

11) mèel̲-nìs [`snake´ + `water´]: Thamnophis sp. ^[[VerSnaTha1]]; garter snake; greenish snake that lives in the water; not known to be poisonous.

12) mèel̲-gây [`snake/worm´ + `gallo<sp>´, that is, `chicken snake´] (= mèel̲-ndiàg [`snake/worm´ + X, San Pedro Gbëë]): Ophyracus undulatus ?; venemous snake with horned eye brows.

13) miùung [X]: Ophidia in part; type of poisonous snake.

14) ngòoz-mzîn [`snake/worm´ + `mouse´] (= mèel̲-ngòoz-mzîn [`snake´ + `hunts´ + `mouse´]: Ophidia in part; ratonera; rat snake; in neighboring San Pedro Gbëë they recognize a larger, poisonous relative of the `rat snake´ called mèel̲-ngòoz-mzîn-dòo [`snake´ + `hunts´ + `mouse´ + `cord´ or `great´]: Ophidia in part; vibora sorda; type of viper. This calls to mind mèel̲-dòo [`snake´ + `cord´ or `great´]: Ophidia sp.; culebra de mecate; a mythical giant snake that lives in springs and seepage areas, guarding these sources of water.

Testudinata, turtles

15) mæ̀w [X] (= tòrtûg [`turtle<sp>]): Testudinata; tortoise, turtle;

15a) mæ̀w[-0] [X, unmarked prototype]: most likely Kinosternon integrum though a second terrestrial species was observed and photographed at ca. 1700 m near San Cristóbal Amatlán, Chelopus rubida ^[[VerTurChe1]] (cf. Casas-Andreu, Méndez-de-la-Cruz, and Aguilar-Miguel 2004:390); tortoise, turtle: a freshwater species (thus most likely Kinosternon integrum) is occasionally found at the small, seasonal pond (x-làgûn-dây) 2 km nw of San Juan Gbëë; children hunt them for fun;

15b) mæ̀w-nìs-dòo [`turtle´ + `ocean´] (= tòrtûg-dòo [`turtle<sp>´ + `big´]): sea turtles, extralimital; while several species occur along the Pacific Coast of Oaxaca, the olive ridley or golfina (Lepidochelys olivacea, Cheloniidae) is the common breeding species most likely to be encountered on visits to adjacent coasts.

Crocodylia, crocodiles, alligators, caimans

16) měn [X] (= làgârt `lagarto<sp>´]): Crocodrilidae, Crocodrilus acutus and/or Alligatoridae, Caiman fuscus; lagarto, caimán, o cocodrilo; caiman or crocodile (extralimital).

Amphibia, amphibians

17) mbîich [X]: Anura in part; rana; frog; only one type known; a small green robber frog (Eleutherodactylus sp. ^[[VerAmpEle1]]); in small lakes and rivers of lower elevations; they sing when the rains begin.

18) mèe-bědz [`animal´ + X]: Bufonidae in part; sapo; toad; one type known; small, black or clay-colored (baroso), likely Bufo sp. ^[[VerAmpBuf1]].

19) mlôol̲ [X] (= mlôol̲-ngǎs [`small water animal´ + `black´]): Anura in part; renacuajo; tadpole: one expert consultant asserts that it is not generally recognized in San Juan that tadpoles turn into frogs and toads; mlôol̲ also includes a variety of aquatic insects, adult and larval, without clear distinction, which are treated separately above with the invertebrates.

20) ngùrǎgw-nrùdz [`lizard´ + `smooth´] (= ngùrǎgw-mèel̲2 [`lizard´ + `snake/worm´]: Caudata, Plethodontidae, Pseudoeurycea sp.; salamandra; lungless salamander.

Pisces, fishes

21) mèl̲ [X]: Pisces in part; fish

21a) mèl̲[-0] [`fish´, unmarked prototype]: Pisces in part; small fish of local streams;

21b) mèl̲-làs [`fish´ + ´small/slender´]: Pisces in part; sardines: bought in the market;

21c) mèl̲-lîs [`fish´ + ´lisa<sp>´]: Pisces in part; < Sp. lisa; bought in the market

21d) sàbàlôt [`sabalote<sp>´]: Pisces in part; < Sp. sabalote; a kind of fish with spiny fins bought in the market;

21e) mòjâr [`mojarro<sp>´]: Pisces in part; < Sp. mojarro; mojarro; bought in the market.

mèl̲-biù [`fish´ + Y] (cf. mèl̲, mèr-biù) `shrimp´ is included above as invertebrate generic 7; it may be included in mèl̲ `fish´.

Aves, birds

1) gàrs [`garza<sp>´ `heron´] (= gàrs-nquǐts [`heron´+ `white´]) ^[[SndMhpGar1]]; Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis); heron/egret: the Cattle Egret is the species most likely to occur at San Juan, though other species might be encountered travelling at the coast and in the Isthmus of Tehuántepec; optionally modified “white.”

2) pìxîx [ON] ^[[SndMhpPix1]]; Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis): the name is likely borrowed from local Spanish pijiji; known from coastal travels only.

3) gâns [`ganso<sp>´ `goose´] ^[[SndMhpGan1]]; goose (Anser sp.): kept occasionally as a domestic animal; most of Gray-lag (Anser anser) and/or Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides) parentage.

4) bǎd [`ganso<sp>´ `duck´];

4a) bǎd [`duck´] (= bǎd-xtîl [`duck´ + `Castillian<sp>´]) ^[[SndMhpBad1]]; Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) and/or Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos): domestic ducks are uncommon, usually white, possibly of hybrid ancestry of Muscovy Duck and/or Mallard parentage; optionally modified “Castillian,” indicative of exotic origin;

4b) bǎd-guìx [`duck<sp>´ + `bush/wild´, < pato] (= bǎd-guiùu [`duck<sp>´ + `river´]); wild ducks (Anatidae in part): a few species occur in small numbers in winter on impoundments in the Oaxaca valley, such as Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), American Wigeon (Anas americana), Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis), and Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis); a few other species might occur in winter on the coast, where the Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) occurs natively.

5) pěch [`X´] ^[[SndMhpPch1]]: Cathartidae, New World vultures:

5a) pěch-msìdòo [`vulture´ + `eagle´] (= rên [`blood´]); King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa): now, at least, very rare; might be known from travels to the Isthmus of Tehuántepec; one older man reported the name and that it did occur in San Juan Gbëë; the generic synonym was noted by Reeck (1991);

5b) pěch-rúx [`vulture´ + `naked´] (= ngól̲-běts [X + Y]); Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus): less common and widespread than the next; the generic synonym was reported by Reeck;

5c) pěch[-0] [`vulture´, unmarked prototype] (= pěch-yèts [`vulture´ + `yellowish´]); Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura): the prototypical vulture; normally simply named pěch.

6) msì [`hawk´] ^[[SndMhpMsi1]]:

6a) msì[-0] [`hawk´, unmarked prototype]; Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Short-tailed Hawk (Buteo brachyurus) (possibly includes also the Zone-tailed Hawk [Buteo albonotatus]); the prototypical msì is the common, widespread resident Buteo jamaicensis; other species are rare visitors; some distinguish Buteo jamaicensis as msì-dòo “large hawk,” though others argue that msì-dòo is larger still (see below); cognate with Cordova´s picija (1987), a general term for diurnal birds of prey;

6b) msì-dòo [`hawk´ + `very large´]; Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus); larger hawks, possibly properly the eagles Harpyhaliaetus solitarius, Aquila chrysaetos, and/or Spizaetus ornatus, though none of these has been documented for the region; cognate with Cordova´s picijatào (1987),”águila real”; see note above for alternate treatment of Buteo jamaicensis; Falco peregrinus is a rare transient and likely an ad hoc affiliate;

6c) msì-lâg [`hawk´ + X]; Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus), Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperi), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus); smaller hawks, the first is a permanent resident and breeder, thus likely the prototype; Circus cyaneus is an uncommon migrant and thus likely an ad hoc affiliate; the name is composed of the generic for hawks, eagles, and falcons (excepting only Caracara plancus and Falco sparverius) modified by “small.”

7) mguîn̲-rlæ̌-dzìt [`bird´ + `breaks´ + `bone´] (= quèbràntwês [quebranta-huesos<sp> `breaks bones´]); Crested Caracara (Caracara plancus): not known to occur in San Juan Gbëë, though common in the Oaxaca valley; the Zapotec name is a translation equivalent of the common local Spanish name quebranta-huesos, literally “breaks bones,”, a term originally applied to the Lammergeier or Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) of Europe.

8) líd [ON]; American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) ^[[SndAveFal1]], ^[[SndMhpLid1]]: fairly common in open country near town in winter; the name is onomatopoetic; one consultant called the Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) líd-yèen̲, literally “baby kestrel.”

9) chìchàlác [ON] (= mèr-zhîg [`turkey´ + `gourd´]) ^[[SndMhpCch1]]; West Mexican Chachalaca (Ortalis poliocephala) ^[[SndAveOrt1]]; an uncommon resident at the lower margins of San Juan Gbëë where occasionally hunted; the first variant is onomatopoetic and may be borrowed from local Spanish chachalaca; the second variant is composed of “turkey” (Meleagris gallopavo) modified by “gourd.”

10) mèr [`turkey´] ^[[SndMhpMer1]]; the Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) ^[[VerAveMlg1]]: common domestic fowl, most retaining normal coloration; likely present pre-Spanish contact; special terms for males (mèr-gòl, nguzěy, gòchêi), females (nguzân), and chicks (ndxězh) suggest long and intimate acquaintance and strong cultural significance; cognate with Cordova´s père/pète, variously “faysan,” “gallina,” “pavo,” “pollo”; no varieties named.

11) nguǐd [`chicken´] ^[[SndMhpNgi1]], ^[[SndMhpNgi2]]; Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus): common domestic fowl; special terms for males (gây, nguǐd-bǎy), females (nguǐd-gùs), and chicks (nguǐd-yèen̲) suggest strong cultural significance, but the fact that these special terms incorporate Spanish loans (gây from “gallo,” bǒy from “pollo”) or generic life-stage terms (yèen̲ for juvenile) suggest that their acquaintance with chickens is of less antiquity than that with turkeys; a number of varieties are named; the following may not be exhaustive:

11a) nguǐd-gàzh [`chicken´ + ];

11b) nguǐd-gùzh [`chicken´ + ];

11c) gây-àrdîl [`rooster<sp>´ + ];

11d) gây-ngǎs [`rooster<sp>´ + `black´] (= nguǐd-ngǎs [`chicken´ + `black´];)

11e) gây-nìzhniê [`rooster<sp>´ + `red´] (= nguǐd-nìzhniê [`chicken´ + `red´];)

11f) gây-pînt/gây-pǐnt [`rooster<sp>´ + `spotted<sp>´] (= nguǐd-pînt [`chicken´ + `spotted<sp>´];)

11g) nguǐd-còpètôn [`chicken´ + `big crest<sp>´];

11h) nguǐd-zhǎnd [`chicken´ + `?´];

11i) nguǐd-pèlûq [`chicken´ + `bald<sp>´] ^[[VerAveGal1]].

12) mtsòo [X]; Long-tailed Wood-Partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) ^[[SndMhpMts1]]: common resident of higher elevation forests; it is hunted, though without great success.

13) mtǒ [X]; Montezuma Quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) ^[[SndMhpMto1]]: uncommon resident of fields and pastures below the town; it is hunted, though rarely encountered.

14) pàlôm [`pigeon<sp>´] ^[[SndMhpPal1]]; Old and New World pigeons (Columba and Patagoenas);

14a) pàlôm[-0] [`pigeon<sp>´, unmarked prototype] (= pàlôm-xtîl [`pigeon<sp>´ + `Castillian<sp>´]); Rock Pigeon (Columba livia): a few feral Rock Pigeons live in San Pedro Gbëë, though none occurs at present in San Juan;

14b) pàlôm-dán [`pigeon<sp>´ + `forest/wild´]; Band-tailed Pigeon (Patagoenas [Columba] fasciata): common resident of higher elevation forests; it is hunted; < Sp. “paloma,” modified as “forest”; there appears to be no “authentic” Zapotec name in use.

15) còolíchè [ON] ^[[SndMhpZen1]]; White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica) ^[[VerAveZen1]]: common resident in and near town; the name is onomatopoetic; it is often trapped and kept as a cage bird, perhaps to be sold in Miahuatlán.

16) mézh [X] ^[[SndMhpZen2]]; Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura): uncommon resident of field margins and pasture lands below town; may be hunted.

17) côc [ON] ^[[SndMhpCol1]]; Inca Dove (Columbina inca) ^[[SndAveCol1]], ^[[SndAveCol2]]: abundant in and adjacent to town; the name is onomatopoetic, possibly cognate with Cordova´s cògo, “tortola aue” (1987); not distinguished from Common Ground Dove (Columbina passerina), which is rare in field margins.

18) guiès-ró-yù [ON, literally “pot of the earth”] ^[[SndMhpLep1]]; White-tipped Dove (Leptotila verreauxi) ^[[SndAveLep1]]: uncommon resident on steep hillsides and in canyons below town; the Zapotec name interprets the calls of this species as “pot of the earth.”

19) měw [X]; Military Macaw (Ara militaris): very rare spring visitor, attracted by fruiting cherry trees, according to one elderly consultant; the name is cognate with Cordova´s [máni]péo, “papagayo verde grande” (1987).

20) pèrícw [`perico<sp>´] ^[[SndMhpPsi1]]; Orange-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga canicularis): not known to occur in San Juan Gbëë but common on the nearby Pacific coastal lowlands; might be applied as well to other Aratinga species.

21) lòr [`loro<sp>´] (= còtôrr [`cotorro<sp>´]) ^[[SndMhpPsi2]], ^[[SndMhpPsi3]]; Lilac-crowned Parrot (Amazona finschi): not known to occur in San Juan Gbëë but occurs regularly on the southern slopes of the Sierra Miahuatlán; might be applied as well to other Amazona species, often kept as cage birds.

22) mriě [X] ^[[SndMhpGeo1]]; Lesser Roadrunner (Geococcyx velox): uncommon resident of field edges and semiarid scrub woodland below town.

23) mquí [X] ^[[SndMhpOtu1]]; Whiskered Screech-Owl (Megascops [Otus] trichopsis) ^[[SndAveOtu1]]: common resident of pine-oak forests above the village; probably also includes Elf Owl (Micrathene whitneyi), resident in oak and riparian woodland near town, and Mountain Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium gnoma) of high elevation pine forests; possibly cognate of Cordova´s pecuicui, “paxaros que tenian por agueros”; considered an evil omen by many, foretelling by its presence near the house misfortune, illness, or death in the family.

24) dǎm̲ [ON] ^[[SndMhpBub1]]; large owls (Strigiformes in part):

24a) dǎm̲[-0] [ON, unmarked prototype] (= dǎm̲-rǒb [`owl´ + `great´], dǎm̲-yòx [`owl´ + `great´]); Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus): occurs in woodland and forest near town; the generic name is onomatopoetic; it is cognate with Cordova´s tàma, “paxaros que tenian por agueros”; it is considered by many an ill omen; other species of larger owls which might occur here include Mottled (Strix virgata) and Stygian Owls (Asio stygius), though these may be distinguished as the next;

24b) dǎm̲-yêt [`owl´ + `small´]; Mottled (Strix virgata) and/or Stygian Owls (Asio stygius): neither has been recorded in San Juan Gbëë, but both are possible; both are smaller than prototypical dǎm̲ (Bubo virginianus), as the modifier implies.

25) pùrpùrwít [ON] (= cuěrpò-ruín [ON], càbàyêrò [`caballero<sp>´]) ^[[SndMhpCap1]]; Mexican Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus arizonae) ^[[SndAveCap1]]: common resident at virtually all elevations; particularly vocal February-April; the first two variants are onomatopoetic, the second apparently borrowed from a local Spanish term; the third variant may be idiosyncratic; it alludes to a folk tale in which a beautifully plumaged bird loans his feathers to another, is deceived and left without colorful plumage; this accounts for the fact that the whip-poor-will goes about after dark and is cryptically colored.

26) xlútsǐ [X] ^[[SndMhpXlu1]]; swifts (Apodidae) and swallows (Hirundinidae): both types of xlútsǐ (swifts and swallows) are believed to foretell rain patterns; swifts foretelling persistent drizzles, swallows brief hard rains:

26a) xlútsǐ-ngǎs [`swallow/swift´ + `black´]; swifts (Apodidae), specifically Black Swift (Cypseloides niger), Chestnut-collared Swift (Cypseloides rutilus), and White-throated Swift (Aeronautes saxatalis); all species of swifts (Apodidae) are presumably included: Cypseloides rutilus, is particularly conspicuous over town during the rainy season;

26b) xlútsǐ-nquǐts [`swallow/swift´ + `white´]; swallows (Hirundinidae), specifically Violet-green Swallow (Tachycineta thalassina), Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis), Cliff Swallow (Hirundo pyrrhonota), and Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica).

27) dzǐn̲g [ON] ^[[SndMhpTro1]]; hummingbirds (Trochilidae); colibrí, chuparosa:

27a) dzǐn̲g[-0] [ON, unmarked prototype]; hummingbirds in general (Trochilidae in large part), of which at least 14 species occur locally: the name is onomatopoetic; hummingbirds not otherwise known to be distinguished as a special type include the following: Dusky Hummingbird (Cynanthus sordidus), Berylline Hummingbird (Amazilia beryllina) ^[[VerAveAma1]]), Green-fronted Hummingbird (Amazilia viridifrons), Cinnamon-sided Hummingbird (Amazilia “wagneri”), Blue-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis clemenciae), Garnet-throated Hummingbird (Lamprolaima rhami), Magnificent Hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens) ^[[VerAveEug1]], Beautiful Hummingbird (Calothorax pulcher), Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris), and Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus); however, all hummingbirds are most often simply called dzǐn̲g;

27b) dzǐn̲g-dán-yǎ-guì [`hummingbird´ + `forest/wild´ + `up high´ + `mountain´]; White-eared Hummingbird (Basilinna [Hylocharis] leucotis), a species most common in pine forests above town; literally “mountain-forest hummingbird”; this may be a variant of dzǐn̲g-yǎ-guì (see below);

27c) dzǐn̲g-gué [`hummingbird´ + Y] (= dzǐn̲g-mgòod [`hummingbird´ + Y]); Bumblebee Hummingbird (Selasphorus [Atthis] heloisa); common in pine forests, occasionally to hedgerows near town; name is modified to indicate its very small size;

27d) dzǐn̲g-yǎ-guì [`hummingbird´ + `up high´ + `mountain´]; Green Violet-ear (Colibri thalassinus) and/or Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amesthytinus); literally “mountain hummingbird”; both are large species restricted to pine forests above the village; certain other species such as Lampornis clemenciae, Lamprolaima rhami, and Eugenes fulgens might also be included here.

28) chòo-dzê [`forty´ + `day´] ^[[SndMhpTrg1]]; Elegant Trogon (Trogon elegans): status uncertain, but apparently uncommon in oaks in canyons at middle elevations; the name means literally “forty-days” and may be a loan translation of a local Spanish name for the species (or for trogons in general); alludes to the Lenten season, at which time trogons are most vocal; it remains unclear if this term contrasts with the next or is synonymous; in that case, the two species of trogons are not distinguished.

29) mèr-dán [`turkey´ + `forest/wild´]; Mountain Trogon (Trogon mexicanus) ^[[SndAveTro1]]: common resident of pine forests, occasionally moving down via riparian corridors to the level of the town; literally “forest turkey,” not because it resembles a turkey physically but because it sounds like one; see preceding note for taxonomic questions.

30) càrpìntêr [`carpintero<sp>´]; woodpeckers (Picidae in general), with the sole exception of the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus): apparently no “authentic” Zapotec name for woodpeckers is known at present ^[[SndMhpPic1]]:

30a) càrpìntêr-ngǎs [`woodpecker´ + `black´]; Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) ^[[VerAveMel1]]: fairly common resident in oaks near town and in pine forests above;

30b) càrpìntêr-diè [`woodpecker´ + `powdered/dusty´]; Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius): fairly common winter visitor at all elevations; the name appears to describe the mottled back pattern; not always clearly distinguished from the next;

30c) càrpìntêr-psì [`woodpecker´ + `barred´] (= càrpìntêr-diè [`woodpecker´ + `powdered/dusty´]); Gray-breasted Woodpecker (Centurus hypopolius): fairly common on field margins and in semiarid scrub woodland below town; either included with Sphyrapicus varius as càrpìntêr-diè or distinguished as càrpìntêr-psì, literally “striped woodpecker”;

30d) càrpìntêr-psì-yèen̲ [`woodpecker´ + `barred´ + `small/child´]; Ladder-backed Woodpecker (Picoides scalaris): fairly common on field margins and in semiarid scrub woodland below town; literally “baby striped woodpecker,” which may be a nonce form, in which case it is best included with Centurus hypopolius;

30e) càrpìntêr-ló-guì [`woodpecker´ + `on mountain´]; Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus): common in pine forests above town; literally “mountain woodpecker,” aptly descriptive of its habitat preference;

30f) càrpìntêr-mâch [`woodpecker´ + `macho<sp>´]; Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus linearis) and/or Pale-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus guatemalensis): both are large species of low elevation tropical forests; known to San Juaneros from their travels to Pacific coastal areas and to the Isthmus of Tehuántepec; the attributive macho presumably alludes to their large size and/or powerful bills.

31) [mguîn̲-]pliêgw [[`bird´ +] ON] ^[[SndMhpClp1]]; Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus): common in pine and oak forests above town; the generic name is onomatopoetic; a rather aberrant woodpecker that often hunts worms on the ground.

32) ârbìtrò [`referee<sp>´]; White-striped Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes leucogaster) ^[[SndAveLep2]]: fairly common in pine and pine-oak forests above town; very hard to see but highly vocal at times, the call a loud descending trill that reminded our consultant of a referee´s whistle, hence the name, < Sp. árbitro, that is, “referee,” quite likely a nonce form; Lepidocolaptes affinis occurs at higher elevations but has very different calls, hence would not fit here and is apparently unnamed.

33) pédrǐt [ON, literally < Sp. “little Peter”] ^[[SndMhpCon1]]; Greater Pewee (Contopus pertinax) ^[[VerAveCon1]]: common resident in pine, oak, and riparian forests at all elevations; the name is onomatopoetic; one consultant “translated” the full song of this species as “pédrǐt, dzě, dzě, buì yù,” that is, “Little Peter, slowly, quietly, go home.”

34) mguîn̲-guiùu [`bird´ + `river´] ^[[SndMhpSay1]]; Black Phoebe (Sayornis nigricans): uncommon along rocky streams at and below town; literally “river bird”; clearly distinguished from mguîn̲-nìs [`bird´ + `water´], the American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus), see below.

35) mguîn̲-rchǔup [`bird´ + `whistle´]; Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer) ^[[SndAveMyi1]]: uncommon in forest and woodland at all elevations; literally “whistle bird”; it is not clear if this term might also be extended to the very similar Nutting´s Flycatcher (Myiarchus nuttingi), which is also uncommon but restricted to semiarid woodland below town.

36) cùchguêr [ON] ^[[SndMhpTyr1]]; kingbirds in general, specifically Cassin´s Kingbird (Tyrannus vociferans) ^[[SndAveTyr1]], Thick-billed Kingbird (Tyrannus crassirostris), and Western Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis): Cassin´s and Western Kingbirds are fairly common fall migrants, perhaps rarely wintering in open areas near town; the Thick-billed Kingbird is a rare resident of semiarid woodland below town; Say´s Phoebe (Sayornis saya), a rather similar bird that is uncommon in pastures in winter, was called xín-cùchguêr “relative of the kingbird.”

37) mtsùu [ON ?] ^[[SndMhpMts2]]; Cassin´s Vireo (Vireo cassinii): uncommon winter visitor; may also include the closely related Plumbeous Vireo (Vireo plumbeus), which is an uncommon resident in oak and semiarid woodland; Hutton´s (Vireo huttoni) and Warbling Vireos (Vireo gilvus) are also resident, preferring pine forests; it is not clear if this term is restricted to one or another vireo, to an assortment of vireos, or has some more general application; it is apparently onomatopoetic.

38) cuǐl̲ [ON] ^[[SndMhpJay1]]; the “jays” (Corvidae in part), specifically the Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica) ^[[SndAveAph1]], which is the unmarked prototype, contrasting with Steller´s Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri), as noted below; the generic name is onomatopoetic:

38a) cuǐl̲[-0] [ON, unmarked prototype]; Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica): common and conspicuous at virtually all elevations in open woodland; the unmarked prototype of the generic “jay” category;

38b) cuǐl̲-guì [`scrub jay´ + `mountain´]; Steller´s Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri): common in thick pine forests above town; literally “mountain scrub-jay.”

39) ngǎ [ON] ^[[SndMhpCor1]]; Common Raven (Corvus corax) ^[[SndAveCor1]]; cuervo, properly “crow” in the local Spanish: common at all elevations; the name is onomatopoetic.

40) mguîn̲-ló-liù [`bird´ + `on ground´] (= mguîn̲-zhàn̲-guìzh [`bird´ + `under´ + `weed/grass´]) ^[[SndMhpLar1]], ^[[SndMhpSpa1]]; Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris): uncommon resident of overgrazed pastures; literally “ground bird”; the second variant, literally “under-weed bird”, is perhaps more properly applied to the Rufous-crowned Sparrow (Aimophila ruficeps).

41) mguîn̲-pàyâs [`bird´ + `clown<sp>´] ^[[SndMhpPar1]]; Mexican Chickadee (Poecile [Parus] sclateri): common in higher elevation pine forests; may include the Bridled Titmouse (Baeolophus [Parus] wollweberi), which replaces the chickadee in oak woodland near town; literally “clown bird,” < Sp. payaso “clown,” alluding to the black and white “harlequin” face pattern.

42) mziùud [`bag maker´] ^[[SndMhpPsa1]]; Bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus): common in brushy thickets and woodland at all elevations; literally “bag (animate),” from bziùud, referring to the finely woven hanging nests of this species.

43) mguîn̲-quiè [`bird´ + `cliff/rock´] (= mguîn̲-yěts [`bird´ + `yellowish´]) ^[[SndMhpMqe1]]; Boucard´s Wren (Campylorhynchus jocosus).

44) nguzhǐn [X]; wrens in general (Troglodytidae), with the exception of Campylorhynchus jocosus, see above; the name is presumably onomatopoetic:

44a) nguzhǐn[-0] [`wren´, unmarked prototype] ^[[SndMhpWre1]]; Bewick´s Wren (Thryomanes bewickii) ^[[VerAveThr1]]; may also include Canyon Wren (Catherpes mexicanus), but see below: common residents in town; the former is widespread in woodland near and below town; the latter is found also on steep cliffs in canyons below town (and it may be distinguished as noted below); these often nest in abandoned houses, which has earned them the reputation for some of a bird of ill-omen, as abandoned houses are associated with death;

44b) nguzhǐn-quiè [`wren´ + `cliff/rock´]; Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus): common on rocky outcrops near and below town; literally “rock wren”;

44c) nguzhǐn-zhàn̲-quiè [`wren´ + `base of cliff/rock´]; Canyon Wren (Catherpes mexicanus): nests on steep cliffs in canyons below town as well as in abandoned buildings in town; some consultants distinguish it from Thryomanes bewickii by virtue of its cliff habitat preference; literally “cliff wren”;

44d) nguzhǐn-guì [`wren´ + `mountain´]; Brown-throated Wren (Troglodytes “bruneicollis”): common in humid pine forests; literally “mountain wren”; Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) might be included here, but a singing bird of that species was classed by one consultant with the nightingale thrushes as mguîn̲-guìib-tsár, based on the richness of its song;

44e) nguzhǐn-gùts [`wren´ + `yellow´] (= nguzhǐn-zhiân [`wren´ + Y]); Crescent-chested Warbler (Parula [Vermivora] superciliosa): common in pine forests above town; one consultant named a netted bird of this species “yellow wren”; it is not clear if this is a common usage; might also be called wǐt or yěets (see below).

45) mguîn̲-nìs [`bird´ + `water´] (= bǎd-guiùu [`duck<sp>´ + `river´]); American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus): uncommon resident of swift streams in deep canyons below town; literally “water bird” or “river duck,” the former the more commonly heard; compare with mguîn̲-guiùu [`bird´ + `river´], the Black Phoebe (Sayornis nigricans), see above.

46) dìx [ON] ^SndMhpDix1; Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) ^[[SndAvePol1]]: common in chapparal and field margins at and below town; the name is onomatopoetic.

47) mguîn̲-guìib-tsár [`bird´ + `bell/metal´ + `vespers<sp>´] ^SndMhpThr1; Brown-backed Solitaire (Myadestes occidentalis) ^[[SndAveMya1]], Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus aurantiirostris), Russet Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus occidentalis ^[[VerAveCat1]], and Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzii): the prototype is the common, widespread, and vocal Myadestes occidentalis; the name means literally “vespers-bell bird”; the three resident species of nightingale thrushes (Catharus) are likewise etherially musical; all are difficult to see, thus it is perhaps not surprising they are not distinguished; a singing Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) was so-named also by one consultant for its ringing song.

48) miân [ON] ^[[SndMhpTur1]]; American Robin (Turdus migratorius): fairly common in woodland and forest at all elevations; the name is onomatopoetic, imitating a common call note.

49) mquièts [X] ^[[SndMhpMim1]]; Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos): fairly common in hedgerows and semiarid woodland below town; possibly cognate with Cordova´s [piguiñe]pequiche, “cençontlatloli paxaro que canta de muchas maneras”; may include also Curve-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre), which is an uncommon resident in town and semiarid scrub.

50) mæ̀cw-guiùu [`dog´ + `river´] ^[[SndMhpMel1]]; Blue Mockingbird (Melanotis caerulescens) ^[[SndAveMel1]]: common and highly vocal, though skulking; found especially in riparian thickets at all elevations, but also common in town gardens; literally “river-dog,” homonymic with the river otter (Lutra annectens), which shares the habitat preference for riparian sites; one consultant explained that it is likened to a dog for its intelligence, manifested in its creative mimicry of other birds, animals, and even people.

51) mguîn̲-bæ̀d [[`bird´] + `Peter<sp>´] ^[[SndMhpBom1]]; Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), soldadito: variably abundant in winter and early spring; eagerly hunted by boys with slingshots; they fly in tight flocks and numbers can be immobilized with a single shot.

52) péedrùuch [ON] ^[[SndMhpPti1]]; Gray Silky-Flycatcher (Ptilogonys cinereus) ^[[SndAvePti1]]: common resident at all elevations; the name is onomatopoetic.

53) wǐt [ON] ^[[SndMhpWit1]]; Tyrannidae, Parulidae, Emberizidae in part: a very general term for small birds that make soft “wit” notes; this apparently contrasts in some way with yěets, tsíríic, chǐlí, etc.), though it is difficult to discern consistent patterns of application; combinations also frequently occur, e.g., yěets-wǐt:

53a) wǐt[-0] [ON, unmarked prototype] (= yěets-wǐt [`yellowish´ + `small bird´]); for example: Dusky Flycatcher (Empidonax oberholseri), Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata), Vesper Sparrow (Poocetes gramineus); possibly including as well Cordilleran Flycatcher (Empidonax occidentalis), Pine Flycatcher (Empidonax affinis) ^[[VerAveEmp1]]; Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata), Black-throated-gray Warbler (Dendroica nigrescens), Hermit Warbler (Dendroica occidentalis), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), MacGillivray´s Warbler (Oporornis tolmiei), and Red-faced Warbler (Cardellina rubrifrons);

53b) wǐt-dán [`small bird´ + `forest/wild´]; Tufted Flycatcher (Mitrephanes phaeocercus): common resident of pine forests above town; literally “forest wǐt.”

54) mguîn̲-mâ-zhiàn [`bird´ + `animal´ + X] (= chǐlí [ON], tìlí [ON], or tsíríic [ON]); Painted Redstart (Myioborus pictus) and Slate-throated Redstart (Myioborus miniatus): the two redstart species are common residents, the former of oaks, the latter of pines (and it has been distinguished as chǐlí-dán, literally “forest redstart”); they appear to be the primary referents of the onomatopoetic variants: chǐlí = tìlí; the occasional consultant has applied these to Hutton´s Vireo (Vireo huttoni) based on vocalizations, but the latter species does not match the plumage descriptions provided.

55) mguîn̲-tsíríic [[`bird´] + ON] ^[[SndMhpTsi1]]; Parulidae in part, for example: Nashville Warbler (Vermivora ruficapilla): fairly common winter visitor in a variety of habitats; the onomatopoetic name tsíríic, like wǐt, may be applied rather inconsistently to a variety of small birds in imitation of their call notes; tsíríic has been applied also to Myioborus pictus, Myioborus miniatus, and Wilson´s Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla), however, these species are more often given other, more specifically appropriate, names.

56) yěets [`yellowish´] (or tsíríic [ON]) ^[[SndMhpYts1]]; Wilson´s Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla): common winter visitor; the name alludes to the bright yellow plumage; some variant of yěets may be applied to a wide variety of birds, all of which, apparently, show some yellow or yellowish in the plumage;

56a) yěets-dán [`yellowish´ + `forest/wild´]; Black-headed Siskin (Carduelis notata): uncommon in high pine forests;

56b) yěets-pînt [`yellowish´ + `spotted<sp>´]; Townsend´s Warbler (Dendroica townsendi): common winter visitor in pine and oak forests; literally “spotted” [< Sp. pinto] yěets.”

*53) yěets-wǐt [`yellowish´ + `small bird´]: see wǐt[-0], above.

57) x-quǐit-ngùbìdz [poss. + `toy´ + `sun´, literally `Sun´s toy´ ^[[SndMhpErg1]]; Red Warbler (Ergaticus ruber): common in pine forests above town; literally “red bird” and “Sun´s playmate,” both evocative of this bird´s bright red plumage.

58) mguîn̲-dǎm̲ [`bird´ + `large owl´] (or mguîn̲-ló-liù [`bird´ + `on´ + `ground´]); Rufous-capped Warbler (Basileuterus rufifrons) ^[[VerAveBas1]]: common resident of brushy habitats at all elevations; literally “owl bird,” a usage that remains obscure; the second variant is “ground bird,” a term used for a variety of ground-nesting birds.

59) mguěy [X] (= mguěy-guièe [`finch´ + `flower´]) ^[[SndMhpCar1]]; House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) and Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra): the House Finch is common in town, fields, and semiarid woodland below town; the Summer Tanager is a fairly common winter visitor in similar situations; the generic mguěy-guièe is literally “flower mguěy,” alluding to its bright red plumage; the House Finch is clearly the prototype, but may be marked off as mguěy-ndòo, “tame finch”; the tanager may be distinguished as měy-guièe, literally “mushroom flower,” the meaning of which remains obscure:

59a) mguěy-ndòo [`finch´ + `tame´]; House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus);

59b) měy-guièe [`mushroom´ + `flower´]; Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra);

59c) mguěy-guièe-pchôg [`finch´ + flower´ + `shell/husk´] (= mguěy-pchôg [`finch´ + `shell/husk´]) ^[[SndMhpPhe1]]; Black-vented Oriole (Icterus wagleri) and Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus): Black-vented Orioles are common in town and hedgerows and in semiarid woodland below town; it is the prototype of mguěy-guièe-pchôg; the Black-headed Grosbeak is common in pine and oak forests; the two species are not particularly similar in plumage and form, but both have rich songs and plumage highlights of yellow and orange; the name is literally “shell/husk [beak] finch,” perhaps alluding to the heavy beaks, particularly of the grosbeak, in contrast to the generic prototype of mguěy-guièe, the House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus);

59d) mguěy-guièe-dán [`finch´ + `flower´ + `forest/wild´]; Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus) ^[[VerAvePhe1]]: the Black-headed Grosbeak may be distinguished from the Black-vented Oriole as mguěy-guièe-dán, literally “forest finch.”

60) mguîn̲-wchǔup [`bird´ + `whistle´]; Chestnut-capped Brushfinch (Buarremon [Atlapetes] brunneinucha): fairly common in thickets in humid pine forests; this name strongly resembles mguîn̲-rchǔup, literally “whistle bird,” which, however, applies to the very different Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer).

61) chùubây [ON] (= xùubây [ON]); Collared Towhee (Pipilo ocai): uncommon resident of field margins and riparian thickets in pine forests above town; the name is said to apply to a bird resembling the Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus), but which is larger and found at higher elevations; this species might be the one intended.

62) [mguîn̲-]wǐx [[`bird´] + ON] ^[[SndMhpWix1]]; Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus): common in brushy thickets at all elevations; the name is onomatopoetic; the Hepatic Tanager (Piranga flava) was called xín-wǐx “relative of wǐx” by one consultant, perhaps alluding to the dull red colors on both.

63) chûurr [ON] (= chûurr-nìs [ON + `water´], chûurr-guié [ON + `rain´]) ^[[SndMhpPip1]]; White-throated Towhee (Pipilo albicollis) ^[[VerAvePip1]], ^[[SndAvePip1]]: abundant in town and common in fields; the generic name is onomatopoetic; it is sometimes modified by children as noted, literally, “water chûurr” and “rain chûurr.”

64) mtsùu [X] (= mguîn̲-pánt [`bird´ + Y] or mguîn̲-zhàn̲-guìzh [`bird´ + `under´ + `weeds/brush´]) ^[[SndMhpMts2]]; Rufous-crowned Sparrow (Aimophila ruficeps) ^[[VerAveAim1]]: common resident in hedgerows and semiarid scrub; the first viariant may be onomatopoetic; the second variant is descriptive of its reddish crown; the third is literally “under-weed bird” descriptive of its habitat; Bridled Sparrow (Aimophila mystacalis), an uncommon resident of semiarid scrub below town, may be included, as may wintering sparrows such as Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina) and Lincoln´s Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii).

65) mguîn̲-x-còl-nquǐts [`bird´ + poss. + `tail<sp>´ + `white´] (or mguîn̲-ló-quiè [`bird´ + `on´ + `rock´]); Yellow-eyed Junco (Junco phaeonotus): fairly common in pine forests above town; literally “white-tailed bird,” with the “tail” element < Sp cola; the second variant is literally “rock bird,” a term applied somewhat inconsistently to a variety of small birds that nest in rocky banks, e.g., Cordilleran Flycatcher (Empidonax occidentalis).

66) mguîn̲-bǒo [`bird´ + `charcoal´] (= mguîn̲-ngǎs [`bird´ + `black´], mguîn̲-guìzdòo [`bird´ + `Miahuatlán´]) ^[[SndMhpQui1]]; Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus): common in town and fields; literally “charcoal bird” or “black bird,” descriptive of the grackle´s plumage; the third variant is literally “Miahuatlán bird,” alluding to the fact that it became common after cattle were introduced from Miahuatlán, the main regional market center.

67) sànât-bûrr [`zanate<sp>´ + `donkey<sp>´] ^[[SndMhpMol1]]; Bronzed Cowbird (Molothrus aeneus): fairly common, especially in summer, in town and fields; literally “donkey grackle,” < Sp sanate, “grackle,” and burro, “donkey.”

68) mdzíl-dò [ON, literally `maize tassel´] (= mdzíli-dò [ON, literally `maize-tassel]) ^[[SndMhpSpi1]]; Lesser Goldfinch (Carduelis psaltria): common in fields and gardens; the name is likely onomatopoetic, though means “maize tassel,” a reference to its habit of feeding in milpas.

69) mguîn̲-mòlîn [`bird´ + `mill<sp>´] (= mguîn̲-ziělgâ [`bird´ + Y]); House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) ^[[VerAvePas1]]: a small population of this introduced weaver finch is resident in both San Juan and San Pedro Gbëë; one consultant called them literally “mill [< Sp. molino] birds,” as they gather at the town corn mill; the second variant is as yet uninterpretable.

Mammalia, mammals

1) běw [X] (= bèedz-běw [`fierce wild beast´ + Y], còyôt < Nahuatl) ^[[SndMhpCoy1]]: Canis latrans; coyote < Nahuatl; coyote: considered to be a kind of mèedz, a general term for “fierce wild beasts”; “b” replaces “m” in older forms in several instances.

2) bǐch [`biche<sp>´] (= mǐts [< Nahuatl]) ^[[SndMhpBch1]]: Felis cattus; gato; cat: introduced;

2a) bǐch-dán [`cat´ + `forest/wild´]: Felis cattus; gato silvestre; feral domestic cats.

3) bǔrr, bûrr [`donkey<sp>´] ^[[SndMhpBrr1]]: Equus asinus; burro; donkey: introduced; nearly every San Juan Gbëë family owns one or more as a beast of burden; the village population is at least 80-100 (HSC); teams of donkeys may on occasion be made to substitute for oxen ^[[SceAgrPlo6]]; several color varieties may be recognized:

3a) bǔrr-ngǎs [`donkey<sp>´ + black´]; Equus asinus var.;

3b) bǔrr-nguiǎ [`donkey<sp>´ + `green´]; Equus asinus var.;

3c) bǔrr-nquǐts [`donkey<sp>´ + `white´]; Equus asinus var.;

3d) bǔrr-brùyô [`donkey<sp>´ + `brown<sp>´]; Equus asinus var.;

3x) bǔrr-mâch [`donkey<sp>´ + `macho<sp>´]; Equus asinus, male; macho de burro; male donkey;

3x) bǔrr-gùs [`donkey<sp>´ + `female´]; Equus asinus, female; hembra de burro; female donkey;

3x) bǔrr-yèen̲ [`donkey<sp>´ + `child/small´]; Equus asinus, juvenile; juvenile donkey.

4) càtòrcè-fuêrz [`fourteen<sp>´ + `strength<sp>´]; Tamandua tetradactyla; catorce fuerza; collared anteater: extralimital; known only from lower elevations outside San Juan Gbëë.

5) càbây [`horse<sp>´] ^[[SndMhpCab1]]: Equus caballus; caballo; horse: introduced; rarely kept in San Juan Gbëë; competitive horse races were recently revived as part of the patron saint´s day community celebration (June 24), but most of the riders were from neighboring towns and local riders rode borrowed horses; a number of color varieties may be recognized:

5a) càbây-ngǎs [`horse<sp>´ + `black´]: Equus caballus var.; caballo prieto, black horse;

5b) càbây-nguěts [`horse<sp>´ + `white´]: Equus caballus var.; caballo blanco, white horse;

5c) càbây-nìzhniè [`horse<sp>´ + `red´]: Equus caballus var.; caballo rojo, red horse;

5d) càbây-nguěts [`horse<sp>´ + `yellow´]: Equus caballus var.; caballo amarillo, yellow horse;

5x) càbây[-0]: Equus caballus; caballo; male horse.

5x) yêw; Equus caballus; yegua, mare; càbây-gùs, literally `female horse´, is not used.

5x) càbây-yèen̲; Equus caballus; colt.

6) chǐv [`goat<sp>´] ^[[SndMhpGot1]]: Capra hircus; chivo; goat ^[[VerMamCap1]], ^[[VerMamCap2]], ^[[VerMamCap3]]: introduced; perhaps as many as 40% of San Juan Gbëë households keep goats, with some herds of more than 100; owners may “hire” fellow villagers to tend their goats “a medias,” that is, in exchange for half the kids born; small herds may be fed in the solar on a great variety of fodder plants collected at or near the milpa, though larger herds are pastured by children on terrenos baldíos, that is, lands not currently under cultivation, whether privately or communally owned; an average goat might sell for $200 pesos (ca. US$22, March 2000), though large males may be worth $400-800 pesos; they are usually sold to buyers who travel to San Juan Gbëë:

6x) chìv-ât; Capra hircus; chivato; male goat with horns;

6x) chǐv-gùs (= chǐv-wnàa); Capra hircus; chivo hembra; female goat;

6x) chǐv-yèen̲; Capra hircus; chivit; kid.

7) cònéf [`rabbit<sp>´] (= bæ̌æl [`meat´]) ^[[SndMhpRbt1]]; Sylvilagus, Oryctolagus; conejo; rabbit: bæ̌æl is an archaic term;

7a) cònéf-dân [`rabbit<sp>´ + `forest/wild´]; Sylvilagus cunicularis, Sylvilagus floridanus; conejo silvestre; wild rabbit, cottontail: the wild rabbits from forest above town are a different variety, smaller than those from below town;

7a1) cònéf-dân-ptsæ̌æ [`rabbit<sp>´ + `hot country´]; Sylvilagus cunicularis; conejo silvestre de tierra caliente; Mexican cottontail;

7a2) cònéf-yǎ-guì [`rabbit<sp>´ + `up high´ + `mountain´]; Sylvilagus floridanus; conejo silvestre de tierra fría; Eastern cottontail;

7b) cònêf-xtîl [`rabbit<sp>´ + `Castilian<sp>´] (= cònéf-ró-yù [`rabbit<sp>´ + `of the house´]): Oryctolagus cuniculus; conejo doméstico; domestic rabbit; introduced: these are typically white, though some are black;

7b1) cònêf-nquǐts [`rabbit<sp>´ + `white´]; Oryctolagus cuniculus var.; white rabbit;

7b2) cònêf-ngǎs [`rabbit<sp>´ + `black´]; Oryctolagus cuniculus var.; black rabbit.

8) mârt [`kinkajou<sp>´]; Potos flavus; martucha; kinkajou: not known to occur in San Juan Gbëë.

9) mdzìn [X] ^[[SndMhpOdo1]], ^[[SndMhpOdo2]]; Odocoileus virginianus; venado; white-tailed deer: scarce resident of San Juan Gbëë; a few each year are taken by local hunters; June and July are preferred for hunting deer, as the vegetation is thickest at that time and deer thus more likely to be found near town; one man raised a fawn in his compound in town; antler development in males is named, counting points on one side;

9x) ngù-tîb [`animate prefix´ + `one´]; Odocoileus virginianus; venado concuernos de un punto; male deer, spike antlers: this term may also be used for mtsàg, the brocket deer, Mazama americana;

9x) ngù-chǒp [`animate prefix´ + `two´]; Odocoileus virginianus; venado con cuernos de dos puntos; deer, two-point buck;

9x) ngù-tàp [`animate prefix´ + `four´]; Odocoileus virginianus; venado con cuernos de cuatro puntos; male deer, four-point buck;

9x) ngù-xôop [`animate prefix´ + `six´] (= x-guìt; “tipo de canasta”; term used by women); Odocoileus virginianus; venado con cuernos de seis puntos; male deer, six-point buck;

9x) ngù-xǒn [`animate prefix´ + `eight´]; Odocoileus virginianus; venado con cuernos de ocho puntos; male deer, eight-point buck.

10) mæ̀cw [X] (= bæ̀cw, spæ̀cw) ^[[SndMhpCan1]]: Canis familiaris ^[[VerMamCan1]], ^[[VerMamCan2]], ^[[VerMamCan3]]; perro; dog: bæ̀cw is archaic;

10a) mæ̀cw[-0] [`dog´, unmarked prototype]: Canis familiaris in part; perro típico; typical dog;

10a1) mæ̀cw-ngǎs [`dog´ + `black´]: Canis familiaris, var.; black dog;

10a2) mæ̀cw-nguěts [`dog´ + `yellow´]: Canis familiaris, var.; yellow dog;

10a3) mæ̀cw-nquǐts [`dog´ + `white´]: Canis familiaris, var.; white dog.

10b) mæ̀cw-xtîl [`dog´ + `Castillian<sp>´]: Canis familiaris; small dog breed with short legs and long hair;

10c) mæ̀cw-rguí-dòo [`dog´ + `male´ + `large´]; Canis familiaris; perro del campo; dog, of the country;

10x) mæ̀cw-mæ̂cw [`dog´, reduplicated]; Canis familiaris in part; perrito; puppy.

11) mæ̀cw-guiùu [`dog´ + `river´] (= mæ̀cw-dán [`dog´ + `forest/wild´]) ^[[SndMhpLut1]]; Lutra annectens; nutria; river otter: occurs rarely along the Río Grande at the lower edge of San Juan Gbëë, but more commonly seen on larger streams on the Pacific slope of the Sierra de Miahuatlán; the same name is used for the Blue Mockingbird (Melanotis caerulescens) (cited above as bird generic 34) without implying similarity or any special relationship.

12) mæ̀cw-xǐil [`dog´ + `cotton´] ^[[SndMhpOvi1]]; Ovis aries; borrego, la oveja, el carnero; sheep, ram: literally “cotton dog”, a term first recorded for a Zapotec language by Córdova “Oueja animal. Pécoxíila...” (1987:296); introduced; raised commonly in San Juan Gbëë for meat and wool, though outnumbered by goats perhaps 10:1; color varieties may be recognized:

12a) mæ̀cw-xǐil-ngǎs [`sheep´ + `black´]; Ovis aries var.; black sheep;

12b) mæ̀cw-xǐil-nguěts [`sheep´ + `yellow´]; Ovis aries var.; yellow sheep;

12c) mæ̀cw-xǐil-nquěts [`sheep´ + `white´]; Ovis aries var.; white sheep;

12d) mæ̀cw-xǐil-môr [`sheep´ + `gray<sp>´]; Ovis aries var.; gray sheep;

12e) mæ̀cw-xǐil-chìcòlât [`sheep´ + `chocolate<sp>´] (= mæ̀cw-xǐil-càfê [`sheep´ + `coffee<sp>´]); Ovis aries var.; chocolate-colored or coffee-colored sheep.

13) mèebæ̀ [X] ^[[SndMhpMus1]]; Mustela frenata ^[[VerMamMus1]]; tlacomixtle < Nahuatl; long-tailed weasel: common throughout; one individual captured and photographed in San Juan showed a striking black-and-white facial mask.

14) mèedz [X]; Felidae in part; Procyonidae in part; cf. bèedz, an old name for the coyote ^[[SndMhpFel1]], ^[[SndMhpFel3]], ^[[SndMhpFel4]]: mèedz is used to name not only the wild felines (Felidae in part) known to San Juaneros but also the coyote (mèedz-běw), ring-tail (mèedz-cuǐ), a nasty blood-sucking black fly (mèedz-gǒn), and the crayfish of local rivers (mèedz-yàs); though the coyote might be construed a “regular” member of the group, as it is one of “las fieras,” it is clear that the others are named metaphorically; in discussion of this group, consultants list the wild felines first and often must be reminded of the others, at mention of which they react with bemusement:

14a) mèedz-tîgr [`dangerous beast´ + `jaguar<sp>´] (= tîgr [`jaguar<sp>´]) ^[[SndMhpFel2]]; Felis onca; jaguar or tigre; jaguar: extralimital; local legend tells of a pair that killed goats on Guì-dòoz, above San Cristóbal Amatlán within the past 20 years;

14b) mèedz-miě [`dangerous beast´ + X] (= mèedz[-0] [`dangerous beast´, unmarked prototype]); Felis concolor; leon; puma, mountain lion or puma: according to local legend, the mountain lion is “a friend,” driving off the more dangerous jaguar; this legend may be based on the observation that the two large wild cats do not occupy the same territories;

14c) mèedz-ràbôn [`dangerous beast´ + `bob-tail<sp>´] (= mèedz-bôn [`dangerous beast´ + `bobtail<sp>´]); Lynx rufus; leopardo; bobcat: named for its “bobbed” tail;

14d) mèedz-yâg [`dangerous beast´ + `tree/shrub´] (= mèedz-sìlôt [`dangerous beast´ + `ocelot<sp>´]); Felis pardalis, Felis wiedii; ocelote; ocelot or margay: one or the other or both of the small spotted wild cats; Donato Acuca heard what he believed to be calls of Felis pardalis at 2450 m ssw of San Juan in pine forest.

*1) bèedz-běw [`dangerous beast´ + `coyote´] (= běw [`coyote´]; Canis latrans; coyote < Nahuatl; coyote: considered to be a kind of mèedz, a general term for “fierce wild beasts”; “b” replaces “m” in older forms in several instances.

15) mèedz-cuǐ [`dangerous beast´ + Y] ^[[SndMhpBas1]]; Bassariscus spp.; tipo de animal; ring-tail: considered to be “of a different family” than the wild cats.

16) mèt [X]; Mephitinae ^[[SndMhpMep1]]; Spilogale putorius, Mephitis macroura, Conepatus mesoleucus; zorrillo; skunk;

16a) mèt[-0] [`skunk´, unmarked prototype]; the “regular” skunk is large, black, with white on the head, most likely Mephitis macroura;

16a1) mèt-ngǎs [`skunk´ + `black´]; Mephitis macroura; zorrillo negro; skunk, black;

16a2) mèt-nquǐts [`skunk´ + `white´]; Conepatus mesoleucus; zorrillo blanco; skunk, white;

16b) mèt-wǐin [`skunk´ + `child/small´]; Spilogale putorius; spotted skunk: some aver that this small species has a more powerful odor than the normal variety.

17) měy [X] (= tûz [`pocket gopher<sp>´) ^[[SndMhpOrt1]]; Orthogeomys grandis; tuza; pocket gopher: not common in San Juan Gbëë; at lower elevations it may be a pest of banana plantations; to discourage gophers from eating the banana roots one may plant blâg-mdiǒl, a species of Xanthosoma (Araceae) at the base of the banana as the Xanthosoma root is poisonous; gopher meat is considered to be medicine for epilepsy; měy also means “mushroom,” while mêy is the cochineal scale insect, la grana cochinilla.

18) mæ̀z [X] ^[[SndMhpUro1]]; Urocyon cinereoargenteus; costoche, zorro; gray fox: common near town; foxes may become a pest in maturing milpa, eating green corn on the cob; such animals may be shot and their carcases hung up to discourage further visits; they also eat chickens, peaches, and cherries; a barranca on the northwest edge of town is called Guiùu-mæ̀z [`river´ + `fox´] as a family of foxes used to nest here; two “species” distinguished, which are said to keep apart:

18a) mæ̀z[-0] [`fox´, unmarked prototype]; Urocyon cinereoargenteus var.; the typical variety, medium-sized;

18b) mæ̀z-yèech [`fox´ + `whitish´]; Urocyon cinereoargenteus var.; a large variety with pale pelage, likened to the color of nìs-yèech `lime water´.

19) mǐcw [`monkey<sp>´] (= mà-chîn [`animal´ + `chinese<sp>´) ^[[SndMhpAte1]]; Ateles geoffroyi; chango, mono, mico; spider monkey: extralimital.

20) mliàn [X]; Lepus callotis; liebre; jackrabbit: uncommon at lower elevations in San Juan Gbëë, up to ca. 2000 m at Guì-ndzâg [`mountain´ + `fatigue´], 2 km n of San Juan town; hunted and eaten.

21) mtság [X] ^[[SndMhpMaz1]]; Mazama americana; mazate < Nahuatl; brocket deer: of definite occurrence in the region; clearly distinguished as a separate species distinct from young white-tailed deer with spike antlers, both may be called ngu-tîb; powdered scraping from the antlers of this species ingested to facilitate childbirth.

22) mùl [`mule<sp>´] (= guây [`mule<sp>´]) ^[[SndMhpMul1]]; male Equus asinus X female Equus caballus; mula, macho; mule: introduced;

22a) mâch [`male mule<sp>´]; Equus asinus X Equus caballus; macho; male mule;

22b) mùl [`mule<sp>´]; Equus asinus X Equus caballus; mula; female mule;

22c) “burro oficial”; female Equus asinus X male Equus caballus ^[[VerMamEqu1]]; Eucario considers his “burro oficial” superior to the standard mule and donkey.

23) mzhìidz [X] ^[[SndMhpNas1]]; Nasua narica; tejón; coatimundi: fairly common in San Juan Gbëë; hunted occasionally; two varieties are named, a smaller social “species” and a larger solitary “species”; consultants insist that they are quite distinct, though mammologists attribute the difference to age and sex, old males being solitary:

23a) mzhìidz-yàal [`coatimundi´ + Y]; Nasua narica in part; tejón que anda en manadas; coatimundi, social, other than mzhìidz-tîb;

23b) mzhìidz-tîb [`coatimundi´ + `alone´](= mzhìidz[-0]); Nasua narica in part; tejón solitario; coatimundi, solitary, old males.

24) mzîn [X] ^[[SndMhpRod1]]: Rodentia in part; ratón; rat, mouse;

24a) mzîn[-0] [`mouse´, unmarked prototype]: Rodentia in part;

24b) mzìn-bèd [`mouse/rat´ + `pouch´]; pocket mouse (Perognathus sp., Heteromyidae): widespread; stores food in cheekpouches; might also include Marmosa sp., cf. tlàcuâch-bèd [`oppossum<sp>´ + `pouch´]ratón canguro; mouse opossum;

24c) mzín-wguìt [`mouse/rat´ + `toy´] (= wguìt); Cricetidae spp. (Rodentia); ratoncito; a small rodent or, perhaps, a shrew (Sorex spp., Soricidae, Insectivora): one expert consultant asserts that it has the teeth and feeding preferences of a rodent, not those of a shrew; a meadow ssw of town (Lèts-nguîit [`meadow/clearing´ + `toy´]) is named for this species; boys used to trap them here;

24d) mzîn-mâch [`mouse/rat´ + `male<sp>´]; Rodentia sp.; rata; rat, large with a long tail, brown, coastal;

24e) mzìn-bèed [`mouse/rat´ + `dirty´]; Mus musculus; ratón sucio; house mouse: introduced; said to be distinct from the pocket mouse, mzìn-bèd [`mouse/rat´ + `pouch´], see above.

25) ndzǐz [X] ^[[SndMhpSci1]]; Sciuridae; ardilla; squirrel, gray and flying squirrels: common in pine forests above town; the “regular” type is hunted and eaten:

25a) ndzǐz[-0] [`squirrel´, unmarked prototype]: Sciurus aureogaster; ardilla; squirrel; gray squirrel; common in pine forests above town; hunted and eaten;

25b) ndzǐz-rsìbê [`squirrel´ + flying´]; Glaucomys volans; ardilla volante; flying squirrel.

26) ngòl-bèdz [`old/big´ + `fierce wild beast´?] (= tlàcuâch [`opossum<sp/Nahuatl>´]) ^[[SndMhpOpp1]]; Didelphis marsupialis; tlacuache < Nahuatl; opossum: common in San Juan Gbëë; hunted and eaten; not a medicine; the prefix ngòl- [`old/big´ + ] also occurs in ngòl-bzhiè `raccoon´, below.

27) ngòl-bzhiè [`old´ + X] (= màpâch [`raccoon<sp/Nahuatl>´) ^[[SndMhpPro1]]; Procyon lotor ^[[VerMamPro1]]; mapache < Nahuatl; raccoon: common in San Juan Gbëë; hunted and eaten; the prefix ngòl- [`old/big´ + ] also occurs in ngòl-bèdz `opossum´, above.

28) ngǒn [`planter´] (= mâ-guìstòo [`animal´ + `Miahuatlán]) ^[[SndMhpBos1]]; Bos taurus; toro, vaca, buey; bull, cow, ox, oxen: introduced; teams of oxen draw iron-tipped plows ^[[SceAgrPlo0]], ^[[SceAgrPlo1]], ^[[SceAgrPlo2]], ^[[SceAgrPlo3]], ^[[SceAgrPlo4]]; oxen are obtained by purchase, being bred elsewhere in the region, e.g., in San Juan Ozolotepec and Santa Catarina Quioquitani, though some San Juaneros know how to castrate bulls; there are about 40 teams in San Juan, so many families must either rent them or borrow them “a medias,” that is, exchange their use for half the crop; several color varieties may be recognized:

28a) ngǒn-ngǎs [`planter´ + `black´]; Bos taurus var.; black ox;

28b) ngǒn-nguěts [`planter´ + `yellow´]; Bos taurus var.; yellow ox;

28c) ngǒn-nìzhniê [`planter´ + `red´]; Bos taurus var.; red ox;

28d) ngǒn-mòr [`planter´ + `gray<sp>´]; Bos taurus var.; gray ox;

28e) ngǒn-bàrôs [`planter´ + `clay-colored<sp>´]; Bos taurus var.; clay-colored ox;

28x) ngǒn-vâc [`planter´ + `cow<sp>´]; Bos taurus female; vaca; cow;

28x) ngǒn-nòvî [`planter´ + `castrated bull<sp>´] (= mâ-wí [`animal´ + Y]); Bos taurus male, castrated; novillo, buey; castrated bull;

28x) ngǒn-tôr [`planter´ + `bull<sp>´]; Bos taurus, male, uncastrated; toro; bull;

28x) ngǒn-yèen̲ [`planter´ + `juvenile´]; Bos taurus, juvenile; becerro; calf.

29) nguǐd-bzîn [`butterfly/moth´ + `mouse/rat´] ^[[SndMhpChi1]]; Chiroptera, of which up to 36 species may occur locally; murciélago; bats in general: only one type recognized; all presumed to feed on blood of animals, such as donkeys and oxen; nguǐd is a derivative of méguǐd, a term still used in San Pedro Gbëë for `butterfly/moth´, though this has been replaced recently in San Juan by the Spanish loan pàlòmît < palomita `moth´; bzîn is mzîn `mouse/rat´ with the initial consonant de-nasalized following “d”.

*24c) mzín-nguìt [`mouse/rat´ + `toy´] (= nguìt); Cricetidae spp. (Rodentia); ratoncito; a small rodent or, perhaps, a shrew (Sorex spp., Soricidae, Insectivora): one expert consultant asserts that is has the teeth and feeding preferences of a rodent, not those of a shrew; a meadow ssw of town (Lèts-nguîit [`meadow/clearing´ + `toy´]) is named for this species; boys used to trap them here.

30) ngùp [X] ^[[SndMhpDas1]]; Dasypus novemcinctus; armadillo; armadillo: common in pine forests above town, though most abundant in coffee plantations and more tropical country; hunted and eaten, but less so than formerly, as cooking oil has replaced the fat previously rendered from the meat; three flavors of meat; two “species” are distinguished by size:

30a) ngùp[-0] [`armadillo´, unmarked prototype]; Dasypus novemcinctus in part; the typical armadillo;

30b) ngùp-làs [`armadillo´ + `small/slender´]; Dasypus novemcinctus in part: said to be a distinct species, living separately from the “regular” armadillo.

31) ngǔts [X, perhaps originally `peccary´] (= cǔch [`pig<sp>´], ngǔts-ró-yù [`pig´ + `at the house´], ngǔts[-0] [`pig´, unmarked prototype) ^[[SndMhpSus1]]; Sus scrofa; puerco, cerdo, cochino, marrano; hog, pig: introduced; now rarely kept in San Juan Gbëë, though there are quite a few at Rancho Conejo, a ranchería affiliated with San Pedro Gbëë; some San Juaneros report that stories of pigs eating human remains has discouraged their husbandry; however, there is no aversion to eating pork; two varieties are recognized;

31a) ngǔts-cuîn [`pig´ + `fine<sp>´]; Sus scrofa; puerco fino; pig with short snout, fattens readily;

31b) ngǔts-yâg [`pig´ + `tree/pole´]; Sus scrofa; puerco flaco; pig with a long snout, doesn´t fatten readily;

31x) ngǔts-yèen̲ [`pig´ + `juvenile´]; Sus scrofa; cochinito; piglet.

32) ngúts-guìx [`pig´ + `of the bush´] (= cǔch-guìx [`pig<sp>´ + `of the bush´], ngúts-quiè [`pig´ + `rock/cliff´]); Tayassu tajacu; jabalí, puerco de monte; peccary: occurs rarely in San Juan; the term ngǔts `pig´ may have originally applied to the native peccaries.