A Zapotec Natural History, Part 2:
Data, Commentary, and Images in Digital Format


  1. Preface to the CD
  2. Illustrations and Tables from Part 1
  3. Background
  4. The Ethnoflora
  5. The Ethnofauna
  6. Fungi
  7. Plant Species Index
  8. English/Latin Name Index
  9. Spanish/Latin Name Index
  10. Zapotec/Latin Name Index
  11. Index of Images
  12. Index of Sounds

B. Figures, Maps, and Tables by Chapter

Chapter I ^[Chapter1]Chapter II ^[Chapter2]Chapter III ^[Chapter3]
Chapter IV ^[Chapter4]Chapter V ^[Chapter5]Chapter VI ^[Chapter6]
Chapter VII ^[Chapter7]Chapter VIII ^[Chapter8]Tables ^[Tables]


Table P.1. Gbëë Zapotec phoneme inventory in the practical orthography, consonants. ^[TabPreOne1]

Table P.2. Gbëë Zapotec phoneme inventory in the practical orthography, vowels. ^[TabPreTwo1]

Chapter I

Figure 1.1. Marielena. ^[[PeoCruMar1]]

Figure 1.2. Lilia. ^[[PeoSanLil1]]

Figure 1.3. Roselía and Cándido. ^[[PeoHerRos1]]

Figure 1.4. Eucario. ^[[PeoHerEuc1]]

Figure 1.5. Valentín. ^[[PeoMarVal1]]

Figure 1.6. Pedro. ^[[PeoMigPed1]]

Figure 1.7. Pánfilo. ^[[PeoSanPan1]]

Figure 1.8. Raúl. ^[[PeoMigRau1]]

Figure 1.9. Hermilo. ^[[PeoSilHer1]]

Chapter II

Figure 2.1. San Juan Gbëë from the air. ^[[SceSjmAer1]]

Figure 2.2. Ridge with ancient terraces and evidence of Classic Period occupation, 1 km nne of San Juan Gbëë. ^[[SceSjmAer2]]

Figure 2.3. San Juan backed by the cloud-draped summits of the Sierra de Miahuatlán. ^[[SceSjmVis1]]

Figure 2.4. Hermeneguildo taking a break to greet the gringo. ^[[PeoHerHer1]]

Figure 2.5. San Juan telesecundaria graduates (boys). ^[[PeoSchSec1]]

Figure 2.6. Donato Acuca on the summit of Cerro Nube Flan. ^[[PeoAcuDon2]]

Figure 2.7. El bicho rojo at El Portillo, gateway to San Juan. ^[[ScePorBic1]]

Figure 2.8. C. Hermilo Silva, Presidente Municipal, San Juan, 1996-1999. ^[[PeoSilHer3]]

Figure 2.9. C. Florentino Hernández, Presidente Municipal, San Juan, 1999-2002. ^[[PeoHerFlo1]]

Figure 2.10. Pánfilo Santiago, key consultant. ^[[PeoSanPan2]]

Figure 2.11. Rosa Cervantes. ^[[PeoCerRos1]]

Figure 2.12. Roger Reeck visiting with friends in San Juan. ^[[PeoReeRog1]]

Figure 2.13. Pedro, Bernardina, and Araceli, Todos Santos. ^[[PeoMigPed2]]

Figure 2.14. Cerro San Isidro, gateway to the gods, from Ro-cta. ^[[SceSanIsi1]]

Figure 2.15. The sacred grove on the summit of Cerro San Isidro. ^[[CerSanIsi3]]

Figure 2.16. Playing house at the Fiesta de la Santa Cruz on the summit of Cerro San Isidro. ^[[CerSanIsi1]]

Figure 2.17. Procession to the cemetery for an Acabo del Año memorial. ^[[CerAcaAno1]]

Figure 2.18. Chano racing on a borrowed horse at the Fiesta de San Juan. ^[[PeoMarFel1]]

Figure 2.19. Riding the “bulls” at the jaripeo, Primer Viernes. ^[[CerPriVie1]]

Figure 2.20. Patriotic displays at the clausura. ^[[PeoSchKin1]]

Figure 2.21. El Palacio Municipal. ^[[SceSjmPla3]]

Figure 2.22: Schedule of fines posted by San Juan authorities. ^[[ScePolFin1]]

Figure 2.23. Silvino and Vírgen at their storefront. ^[[PeoMigMar1]]

Chart 2.1. Rainfall data from three regional stations, 1961-2003. ^[[LinGraRai4]]

Chart 2.2. Temperature data from three regional stations, 1961-2003. ^[[LinGraTem2]]

Chart 2.3. Census summary for San Juan Mixtepec, 2000. ^[[LinCenSjm1]]

Map 2.1. Mexico and the state of Oaxaca. ^[[LinMapMex1]]

Map 2.2. Major mountain ranges and rivers in Oaxaca. ^[[LinMapOax1]]

Map 2.3. The 571 municipios of Oaxaca. ^[[LinMapOax2]]

Map 2.4. The INEGI 1:50,000 topographical map of the San Juan region. ^[[LinMapSjm1]]

Map 2.5. A sketch map of San Juan Gbëë and vicinity. ^[[LinMapSjm2]]

Map 2.6. A sketch map of the town. ^[[LinMapSjm3]]

Sound Clip 2.1. Las Mañanitas by Pedro Infante. ^[[SndLasMan1]]

Sound Clip 2.3. Dos Pueblos Conocidos by El Dueto Monterubio. ^[[SndDosPue1]]

Sound Clip 2.4. Morning chorus in San Juan Gbëë. ^[[SndSjmAmc1]]

Sound Clip 2.5. Church bells, San Juan Gbëë. ^[[SndSjmBel1]]

Chapter III

Figure 3.1. Brahea dulcis, the local palm. ^[[AreBraDul1]]

Figure 3.2. View back west from the climb above San Cristóbal Amatlán. ^[[SceScrVis1]]

Figure 3.3. View from the road of San Agustín Gbëë. ^[[SceSagVis1]]

Figure 3.4. View northeast past the Cliff of San Andres. ^[[SceSanVis1]]

Figure 3.5. Trail cross guarding the town. ^[[SceTraCru1]]

Figure 3.6. Corral constructed for the jaripeo, Primer Viernes. ^[[CerPriVie2]]

Figure 3.7. The bus stop entering town. ^[[SceSjmBus1]]

Figure 3.8. View from the market up to the plaza. ^[[SceSjmPla1]]

Figure 3.9. Zhey Juan, 94 years young. ^[[PeoZheJua1]]

Figure 3.10. Agave angustiarum. ^[[AgaAgaAng2]]

Figure 3.11. Agave angustiarum in a living fence. ^[[AgaAgaAng4]]

Figure 3.12. Leaves of Agave angustiarum soaking in preparation for making ixtle. ^[[AgaAgaAng3]]

Figure 3.13. Love letter carved in the leaf of a maguey. ^[[AgaAgaAme2]]

Figure 3.14. Deeply carved trail crossing limestone flat at Lèts-guièr `pine flat´. ^[[SceTraNor1]]

Figure 3.15. Guì-ndzàg on the trail north from town; an ancient village site. ^[[SceTraNor4]]

Figure 3.16. Ancient cave dwellings in the Cliffs of San Andrés. ^[[SceSanCav1]]

Figure 3.17. Ancient cave dwellings in the Cliffs of San Andrés. ^[[SceSanCav2]]

Figure 3.18. Traces of an ancient ball court. ^[[SceBalCrt1]]

Figure 3.19. Ancient terraces below the San Andrés cliffs. ^[[SceSanTer1]]

Figure 3.20. Dr. Marcus Winter documenting cave dwellings in the Cliffs of San Andrés. ^[[PeoWinMar1]]

Figure 3.21. San Juan´s only lake, X-làgûn-dây. ^[[SceHabWet1]]

Figure 3.22. View north after the harvest. ^[[SceTraNor2]]

Figure 3.23. Ferocactus latispinus var. greenwoodii. ^[[CacFerLat1]]

Figure 3.24. Pilosocereus chrysacanthus. ^[[CacCepChr1]]

Figure 3.25. Pseudomitrocereus fulviceps. ^[[CacMitFul1]]

Figure 3.26. Opuntia pilifera. ^[[CacOpuPil1]]

Figure 3.27. View north from Zhey Uc´s rancho towards Santa Catarina Quie Gdan. ^[[SceScaVis1]]

Figure 3.28. Crossing the Río Calabazar; note the skull rock. ^[[SceRioCal1]]

Figure 3.29. A family on the trail to San Juan. ^[[SceTraNor3]]

Figure 3.30. Agave potatorum. ^[[AgaAgaPot1]]

Figure 3.31. Agave americana var. oaxacana. ^[[AgaAgaAme1]]

Figure 3.32. Agave marmorata, rosette. ^[[AgaAgaMar2]]

Figure 3.33. Agave marmorata, in flower. ^[[AgaAgaMar1]]

Figure 3.34. Stenocereus pruinosus. ^[[CacStePru2]]

Figure 3.35. Pseudosmodingium multifolium. ^[[AnaPseMul1]]

Figure 3.36. Bursera galeottiana. ^[[BrsBurGal2]]

Figure 3.37. Rhus oaxacana. ^[[AnaRhuOax4]]

Figure 3.38. Rhus mollis. ^[[AnaRhuMol1]]

Figure 3.39. Quercus sebifera. ^[[FagQueSeb1]]

Figure 3.40. Coffea arabica. ^[[RubCofAra1]]

Figure 3.41. Taxodium mucronatum. ^[[TxoTaxMuc1]]

Figure 3.42. Roselía, Inez, Justina, and Griselda hiking to their milpa. ^[[PeoCruFam1]]

Figure 3.43. Participant observation; the anthropologist tries his hand at weeding. ^[[SceAgrMil1]]

Figure 3.44. Griselda and Lilia plant their milpita. ^[[PeoSanLil4]]

Figure 3.45. Pedro measures Pinus douglasiana. ^[[PinPinDou1]]

Figure 3.46. Pinus ayacahuite. ^[[PinPinAya1]]

Figure 3.47. Quercus castanea, outstanding in its field. ^[[FagQueCas4]]

Figure 3.48. Quencus conzattii, young leaves. ^[[FagQueCon1]]

Figure 3.49. Quercus glaucoides. ^[[FagQueGla1]]

Figure 3.50. Quercus magnoliifolia. ^[[FagQueMag1]]

Figure 3.51. Quercus acutifolia. ^[[FagQueAcu1]]

Figure 3.52. Quercus obtusata. ^[[FagQueObt1]]

Figure 3.53. Quercus crassifolia. ^[[FagQueCra1]]

Figure 3.54. “Church Rock” on the trail high above San Juan. ^[[SceTraSou1]]

Figure 3.55. San Juan´s water intake in cloud forest. ^[[SceHabFor3]]

Figure 3.56. Cheiranthodendron pentadactylon. ^[[StrChePen1]]

Figure 3.57. Pinus hartwegii forest on the high ridge above San Juan. ^[[SceHabFor1]]

Chapter IV

Figure 4.1. Bryophyllum [Kalanchoe] pinnatum. ^[[CrsBryPin1]]

Figure 4.2. Acacia cochliacantha. ^[[FabAcaCoc1]]

Figure 4.3. San Juan Gbëë plant life forms. ^[[LinLfrPla2]]

Figure 4.3b. San Juan Gbëë animal life forms. ^[[LinLfrAnm1]]

Figure 4.4. Garter snake, Thamnophis sp. ^[[VerSnaTha1]]

Figure 4.5. Black-headed snake, Tantilla sp. ^[[VerSnaTan1]]

Figure 4.6. Turtle, Chelopus rubidus rubidus. ^[[VerTurChe1]]

Figure 4.7. Spiny lizard, Sceloporus mucronotus omiltemanus. ^[[VerLizSce5]]

Figure 4.8. Spiny lizard, Sceloporus spinosus. ^[[VerLizSce1]]

Figure 4.9. Spiny lizard, Sceloporus siniferus. ^[[VerLizSce4]]

Figure 4.10. Spiny lizard, Sceloporus formosus. ^[[VerLizSce8]]

Figure 4.11. Spiny lizard, Sceleporus jalapae. ^[[VerLizSce6]]

Figure 4.12. Anole lizard, Norops (Anolis) sp. ^[[VerLizNor1]]

Figure 4.13. Whiptail lizard, Aspidoscelis (Cnemidophorus) sp. ^[[VerLizAsp1]]

Figure 4.14. Ameiva lizard, Ameiva undulata. ^[[VerLizAme1]]

Figure 4.15. Alligator lizard, Gerrhonotus liocephalus juvenile. ^[[VerLizGer1]]

Figure 4.16. Horned lizard, Phrynosoma braconnieri. ^[[VerLizPhr1]]

Figure 4.17. Robber frog, Eleutherodactylus sp. ^[[VerAmpEle1]]

Figure 4.18. Toad, Bufo sp. ^[[VerAmpBuf1]]

Table 4.1. Gbëë Zapotec Taxonomic Hierarchy. ^[TabFouOne1]

Table 4.2. Numbers (Percentages) of Alternative Life-form Assignments. ^[TabFouTwo1]

Table 4.3. Numbers (Percentages) of Multiple Life-form Assignments. ^[TabFouThr1]

Table 4.4. San Juan Zapotec pines (Pinus). ^[TabFouFou1]

Table 4.5. San Juan Zapotec oaks (Quercus). ^[TabFouFiv1]

Table 4.6. A Summary of San Juan Zapotec Plant Taxa. ^[TabFouSix1]

Table 4.7. Statistical summaries of mammal names by type and taxonomic rank. ^[TabFouSev1]

Table 4.8. Mammal species reported from the Sierra de Miahuatlán and vicinity. ^[TabFouEig1]

Table 4.9. Reptiles, amphibians, and fish recognized in San Juan Gbëë. ^[TabFouNin1]

Table 4.10. San Juan Gbëë Birds: Correspondence to Western Scientific Species. ^[TabFouTen1]

Table 4.11. Statistical summaries of invertebrate names by type and taxonomic rank. ^[TabFouEle1]

Table 4.12. Statistical summaries of invertebrate names by prefix. ^[TabFouTwe1]

Table 4.13. Edible invertebrates. ^[TabFouThi1]

Table 4.14. Medicinal invertebrates. ^[TabFouRtn1]

Table 4.15. Good luck charms and other useful invertebrates. ^[TabFouVtn1]

Table 4.16. Noxious invertebrates. ^[TabFouStn1]

Table 4.17. Fungi Recorded from San Juan Gbëë. ^[TabFouStn1]

Chapter V

Figure 5.1. Corn field, in the early stages, dòoz. ^[[PoaZeaMay4]]

Figure 5.1. Corn field, well grown, wgàa. ^[[PoaZeaMay5]]

Figure 5.3. The common bean, first leaves, lbæ̀-bziàa. ^[[FabPhaVul2]]

Figure 5.4. The common bean, in flower, lbæ̀-bziàa. ^[[FabPhaVul1]]

Figure 5.5. The calabaza squash, guìt-wèts, Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo. ^[[CucCucPep3]]

Figure 5.6. The chilacayote squash, guìt-wěedz, Cucurbita ficifolia. ^[[CucCucFic1]]

Figure 5.7. The chayote, a vining cucurbit, variety with “spiny” fruits, Sechium edule, yàp-guièts. ^[[CucSecEdu1]]

Figure 5.8. Fava beans, Vicia faba, bziàa-xtîl. ^[[FabVicFab1]]

Figure 5.9. Peas, Pisum sativum, bziàa-lbêrg. ^[[FabPisSat1]]

Figure 5.10. Chilis, guìin, Capsicum annuum and C. pubescens, in the garden. ^[[SolCapAnn2]]

Figure 5.11. Contour plowing. ^[[SceAgrMil2]]

Figure 5.12. Manure placed for preparatory plowing. ^[[SceAgrFer2]]

Figure 5.13. A San Juan home garden. ^[[SceHabGar1]]

Figure 5.14. Coriander, cilantro, a garden herb. ^[[ApiCorSat2]]

Figure 5.15. Basil, albahaca, Ocimum basilicum, a garden herb. ^[[LamOciBas1]]

Figure 5.16. Husk tomato, miltomate, Physalis philadelphica, yàg-pchǔux-guìx. ^[[SolPhyPhi1]]

Figure 5.17. Guajes, Leucaena pallida, yàg-nlìbâd. ^[[FabLeuPal1]]

Figure 5.18. Avocado, Persea americana, ngùd-guièx-pèlôt. ^[[LauPerAme1]]

Figure 5.19. Avocado, Persea americana, ngùd-guièx-ziôol. ^[[LauPerAme2]]

Figure 5.20. Banana, plátano, Musa sapientum, yàg-bdiò. ^[[MusMusSap1]]

Figure 5.21. Apple, manzana, Malus domestica, yàg-mànzân. ^[[RosMalDom1]]

Figure 5.22. Peach, durazno, Prunus persica, yàg-drâz. ^[[RosPruPer3]]

Figure 5.23. Citron, Citrus medica, yàg-sîdr. ^[[RutCitMed1]]

Figure 5.24. Oxalis cf. hernandezii, a weedy wildflower with an edible bulb. ^[[OxlOxaHer3]]

Figure 5.25. Epazote, “purple” variety, Chenopodium ambrosioides, ptiè-mòrâd, a quelite. ^[[ChnCheAmb1]]

Figure 5.26. Amaranth, Amaranthus hybridus, guìzbæ̀, a quelite from the garden. ^[[AmaAmaHib2]]

Figure 5.27. Palo de chile, Salmea scandens, yàg-guìin. ^[[AstSalSca1]]

Figure 5.28. Agave angustiarum, flower scape. ^[[AgaAgaAng1]]

Figure 5.29. Custard apple, Annona cherimolia, guiél̲. ^[[AnnAnnChe1]]

Figure 5.30. Phytolacca icosandra, x-quìzh-bziě, a quelite of roadsides. ^[[PhtPhyIco2]]

Figure 5.31. Crotalaria cf. mollicula, chepíl, ncuàan-yè, with edible flowers and foliage. ^[[FabCroMol1]]

Figure 5.32. A newly burned swidden on a steep slope in San Agustín Gbëë. ^[[SceAgrBur2]]

Figure 5.33. Century plant terracing in fields. ^[[SceAgrTer2]]

Figure 5.34. Mulberry tree, Morus celtidifolius, yàg-bzà, spared in a milpa. ^[[MorMorCel3]]

Figure 5.35. A newly-burned swidden field in pine forest, Rancho Conejo, municipio of San Pedro Gbëë. ^[[SceAgrMil6]]

Figure 5.36. New swidden in pine forest above town at 2400 m. ^[[SceAgrBur1]]

Figure 5.37. Careful application of chemical fertilizer. ^[[SceAgrFer1]]

Figure 5.38. Cleofas cultivating with the coa. ^[[PeoSanCle1]]

Figure 5.39. Father and son plowing. ^[[SceAgrPlo1]]

Figure 5.40. León and his son Fernando plowing. ^[[SceAgrPlo2]]

Figure 5.41. Oxen straining at the yoke. ^[[SceAgrPlo3]]

Figure 5.42. Following the plow. ^[[SceAgrPlo5]]

Figure 5.43. Guiding the plow. ^[[SceAgrPlo8]]

Figure 5.44. Planting. ^[[SceAgrPla1]]

Figure 5.45. Weeding. ^[[SceAgrWee1]]

Figure 5.46. Weeding; a family affair. ^[[SceAgrWee3]]

Figure 5.47. Weeding; for all ages. ^[[SceAgrWee2]]

Figure 5.48. Gathering the corn harvest. ^[[SceAgrHar1]]

Figure 5.49. Corn stalks stored in the rafters. ^[[SceAgrHar2]]

Figure 5.50. Meynarda shelling maize. ^[[SceAgrShe1]]

Figure 5.51. Sofía sorting maize. ^[[SceAgrShe2]]

Figure 5.52. Varieties of creole maize in San Juan. ^[[PoaZeaMay1]]

Figure 5.53. `Black´ corn may be recognized by the color of the tassels. ^[[PoaZeaMay2]]

Figure 5.54. Rosa making black corn tortillas, guièt-ngǎs. ^[[PeoCerRos2]]

Figure 5.55. Ruins of the old flour mill below San Juan. ^[[SceSjmRui1]]

Figure 5.56. Bean varieties from a single family´s harvest, top to bottom and left to right: bziàa-dùuzh-pînt-ngǎs, bziàa-làs, bziàa-dùuzh-nìzhniê, bziàa-bǎy, bziàa-dùuzh-nguěts, bziàa-nquǐts, bziàa-guiès. ^[[FabPhaVul3]]

Figure 5.57. Zucchini, a new variety of squash, Cucurbita pepo var. pepo, guìt-tàliân. ^[[CucCucZuc1]]

Figure 5.58. Squash flower, Cucurbita pepo var. pepo, mziè. ^[[CucCucPep4]]

Figure 5.59. Wild squash, Cucurbita radicans, guìt-lǎ. ^[[CucCucRad1]]

Figure 5.60. Sweet potato leaf, Ipomoea batata, gù-blâg. ^[[CnvIpoBat1]]

Figure 5.61. Potatoes in flower, Solanum tuberosum, gù-lbæ̀. ^[[SolSolTub2]]

Figure 5.62. Potato tubers, Solanum tuberosum, . ^[[SolSolTub4]]

Figure 5.63. Oca, Oxalis tubers, gù-bè, a Andean cultivar grown at the highest elevations. ^[[OxlOxaTub1]]

Figure 5.64. Chicken, Gallus gallus, nguǐd. ^[[VerAveGal1]]

Figure 5.65. Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, mèr, in Brugmansia x candida. ^[[VerAveMlg1]]

Figure 5.66. Goat. Capris hircus, chîv. ^[[VerMamCap1]]

Figure 5.67. A herd of goats on the trail. ^[[VerMamCap3]]

Figure 5.68. Lilia with her baby goat. ^[[PeoSanLil5]]

Figure 5.69. Caring for the goats. ^[[VerMamCap2]]

Figure 5.70. Roselía spinning. ^[[SceTecWea2]]

Figure 5.71. María weaving on the back-strap loom. ^[[SceTecWea1]]

Figure 5.72. Medardo plowing with his yunta de burro. ^[[SceAgrPlo9]]

Figure 5.73. Eucario´s burro oficial. ^[[VerMamEqu1]]

Figure 5.74. Horse racing for La Fiesta de San Juan. ^[[CerSanJua1]]

Figure 5.75. A local dog, Canis familiaris, mæ̀cw. ^[[VerMamCan1]]

Figure 5.76. Chart showing the distribution of goats across families in San Juan. ^[[LinGraGoa1]]

Figure 5.77. Agave salmiana. ^[[AgaAgaSal1]]

Figure 5.78. Baking Agave karwinskii piñas to make mezcal. ^[[SceTecMez1]]

Figure 5.79. Agave seemanniana. ^[[AgaAgaSee1]]

Figure 5.80. Agave karwinskii. ^[[AgaAgaKar2]]

Figure 5.81. Agave angustifolia as a field divider. ^[[AgaAgaAgf3]]

Figure 5.82. The valley guaje, Leucaena esculenta, yàg-nlìbâd-ts{o:}. ^[[FabLeuEsc1]]

Figure 5.83. Nest of leaf-cutter ants (Atta sp., miòb) shortly before the mating flight of the chicatanas. ^[[ArtHymFor2]]

Figure 5.84. Chicatanas, edible ants, miàdz (Atta sp.). They swarm near El Día de San Juan, June 24. ^[[ArtHymFor1]]

Figure 5.85. Boletus aff. pinicola, edible `bread mushroom´, hongo de pan, měy-guièt-xtîl. ^[[FunBolPin1]]

Figure 5.86. Hypomyces lactiflourum, edible `chili mushroom´, měy-guìin, with Ramaria sp. ^[[FunHypLac2]]

Figure 5.87. Agaricus cf. sylvaticus, edible mushroom `wool mushroom´, měy-lân. ^[[FunAgaSyl1]]

Figure 5.88. Neolentinus sp., edible `pine mushroom´, měy-yàg-guièr. ^[[FunNeoSpc1]]

Figure 5.89. Polyporus cf. tuberaster, edible `earth mushroom´, měy-yù. ^[[FunPolTub1]]

Figure 5.90. Amanita cesarea, edible mushroom, měy-yùp. ^[[FunAmaCes1]], ^[[PeoSanVer1]]

Figure 5.91. Guillermo going hunting. ^[[PeoMarGui1]]

Figure 5.92. Tracks in the mud, raccoon, mapache, ngòl-bziè. ^[[VerMamPro1]]

Figure 5.93. A distinctive local architectural detail, cuñas of Pinus teocote. ^[[SceTecHou1]]

Figure 5.94. Modern cement-block construction in San Juan. ^[[SceTecHou2]]

Figure 5.95. Plow detail showing the beam (tòmî) talera (tàlêl), and plow share (rrâd). ^[[SceTecPlo1]], ^[[SceTecPlo2]]

Figure 5.96. Oxen yoked to the plow. ^[[SceTecPlo3]]

Figure 5.97. Jatropha cf. cordifolia, yàg-bcuæ̀. The hard seeds are used to make tops. ^[[EupJatCor1]]

Figure 5.98. Coral bean, a.k.a. yàg-píp, Erythrina americana, flowers made into impromptu toy pipes. ^[[FabEryAme1]]

Figure 5.99. Crane´s-bill seedpods, guìzh-gùzh `needle herb´, made into impromptu toy swords. ^[[GerEroCic1]]

Table 5.1. San Juan Gbëë cultivated food plants, native. ^[TabFivOne1]

Table 5.2. San Juan Gbëë cultivated food plants, introduced. ^[TabFivTwo1]

Table 5.3. Cultivated food plants known in San Juan Gbëë but grown elsewhere. ^[TabFivThr1]

Table 5.4. Corn varieties Named in San Juan Gbëë. ^[TabFivFou1], ^[[LinTaxZea1]]

Table 5.5. Specialized San Juan Gbëë corn terminology (in part from Reeck 1991). ^[TabFivFiv1]

Table 5.6. Bean varieties named in San Juan Gbëë. ^[TabFivSix1], ^[[LinTaxPha1]]

Table 5.7. Squash varieties named in San Juan Gbëë. ^[TabFivSev1]

Table 5.8. Pests of San Juan Gbëë crops. ^[TabFivEig1]

Table 5.9. San Juan Gbëë cultivated tubers. ^[TabFivNin1]

Table 5.10. San Juan Gbëë tree species cultivated in the riparian zone orchards. ^[TabFivTen1]

Table 5.11. San Juan Gbëë food plants, including condiments and beverage plants (41 families / 93 genera / 144 species). ^[TabFivEle1]

Table 5.12. Edible weedy greens of local fields and roadsides (quelites). ^[TabFivTwe1]

Table 5.13. San Juan Gbëë fodder plants (26 families / 63 genera/ 95 species). ^[TabFivThi1]

Table 5.14. San Juan Gbëë firewood plants (25 families/ 46 genera/ 70 species). ^[TabFivRtn1]

Table 5.15. Number of genera and species reportedly used in support of particular functions of San Juan Gbëë agricultural production by select plant families. ^[TabFivVtn1]

Table 5.16. Varieties of chickens (Gallus gallus) recognized in San Juan Gbëë. ^[TabFivXtn1]

Table 5.17. Domestic animal statistics for San Juan Gbëë, 2003. ^[TabFivStn1]

Table 5.18. Goat statistics for San Juan Gbëë, 2003. ^[TabFivEtn1], ^[[LinGraGoa1]]

Table 5.19. Edible invertebrates harvested in San Juan Gbëë. ^[TabFivNtn1]

Table 5.20. Mammal and bird species named as potential prey by San Juan Gbëë hunters. ^[TabFivTwn1]

Table 5.21. Terms for plowing and parts of the plow in San Juan Gbëë. ^[TabFivTon1]

Chapter VI

Figure 6.1. San Pedro medicinal plant forum, left rear, Eugene Hunn, Oscar Barrera-Nuñez, front row from left, Sofía Fabián Cruz, Sabina Antonio Mendez, Donato Acuca Vásquez, Miguel Ángel Espinosa, Alejandro Fabián López, Graciano Mendoza López. ^[[PeoSpmMed1]]

Figure 6.2. San Juan medicinal plant expert panel: from left, Elia Jarquín Hernández, Agripina Martínez Cruz, Ranulfo Cruz López, Pedro Hernández Miguel. ^[[PeoSjmMed1]]

Figure 6.3. Health advisories on San Juan walls: “Don´t smoke. Smoking is the road to the cemetery.” ^[[SceSjmMed1]]

Figure 6.4. yàg-yàaz-nguěts (Barkleyanthus salicifolium), remedy for fevers; it is considered to be “cold.” ^[[AstBarSal2]]

Figure 6.5. yàg-yàaz-nquǐts (Baccharis salicifolia), remedy for stomach ache; it is considered to be “hot.” ^[[AstBacSal2]]

Figure 6.6. yàg-guídz-zân (Solanum lanceolatum), used for bathing a woman who has just given birth; it is considered “hot,” thus facilitates heating the womb, left cold by the birth. ^[[SolSolLan3]]

Figure 6.7. x-pàan-ngùtsiěts `iguana´s tail´ (Equisetum myriochaetum, cola de caballo, horsetail fern) is an important medicine for kidney problems, including kidney stones (guìdz-riân). ^[[EquEquMyr1]]

Figure 6.8. yàg-lgâzh, Abies guatemalensis, abieto, Guatemalan fir. ^[[PinAbiGua1]]

Figure 6.9. yàg-bèch-mbǎr (Rhus oaxacana and allied species, zumaque, sumac). The dried and powdered leaves are applied for diaper rash; the seeds are chewed for canker sores. ^[[AnaRhuOax3]]

Figure 6.10. guìzh-mîrt (Salvia microphylla, mirto) used in concert with a variety of other mostly introduced herbs to treat “cold” conditions, particularly post-partum hemorrhaging. ^[[LamSalMic1]]

Figure 6.11. guièe-sàntàmàrî (Tanacetum parthenium, flor de Santa María, feverfew) is used in combination with a variety of other herbs to bathe a woman who has just given birth. ^[[AstTanPar1]]

Figure 6.12. blâg-bnù (Ipomoea intrapilosa), a headache remedy. ^[[CnvIpoInt3]]

Figure 6.13. dòb-xtîl `aloe vera´, Aloe barbadense, sávila. The sap is applied to burns. ^[[AspAloBar2]]

Figure 6.14. guìzh-biè `cataract herb´ (Euphorbia hyssopifolia and/or E. heterophylla), tiny, prostrate weeds of roadsides in town. The caustic milky sap is dropped in the eye for cataracts. ^[[EupEupHys1]]

Figure 6.15. měy-dòop `fart mushroom´, Lycoperdon cf. perlatum, puffball. ^[[FunLycPer1]]

Figure 6.16. lùdz-mdzìn `deer´s-tongue´ (Elaphoglossum sp.), for bloody dysentery. ^[[ElpElaSpc1]]

Figure 6.17. yàg-yàaz-ngǎs `black chamizo´, cihuapatli, Montanoa tomentosa, to facilitate childbirth. ^[[AstMonTom1]]

Figure 6.18. bàz (Phlebodium aureolatum) is “cold” and thus appropriate for treating “hot” or bloody diarrheas. ^[[PlpPhlAur2]]

Figure 6.19. guìzh-nìzh, literally `anise herb´ (Tagetes filifolia), a gentle remedy for a child´s diarrhea. ^[[AstTagFil1]]

Figure 6.20. bâr-dòo-lǎ `very bitter stalk´ (Tithonia tubaeformis), a bitter remedy for stomach upset. ^[[AstTitTub1]]

Figure 6.21. guìzh-màrrûb `horehound´ (Marrubium vulgare) is drunk for a “bilious stomach” ^[[LamMarVul1]]

Figure 6.22. ptiè (Chenopodium ambrosioides) a vermifuge, particularly to rid the patient of parasitic roundworms. ^[[ChnCheAmb2]]

Figure 6.23. yàg-blâg-bìdz `dry-leaf tree/shrub´, Dodonaea viscosa. ^[[SapDodVis1]]

Figure 6.24. guìzh-guièe-rò `cough flowering herb´ or estafiate (Mexican wormwood, Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. mexicana). It is bitter and “hot.” Combined with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) it is recommended for tos pasmado `spasmatic cough´. ^[[AstArtLud1]]

Figure 6.25. guìzh-rquiá-yàn̲ `sore-throat herb´, Eupatorium petiolare. ^[[AstEupSpc1]]

Figure 6.26. guièe-sàntàmàrî-mòntês `Saint Mary´s flower of the mountains´ (Helenium mexicanum), inhaled for `stuffy nose´. ^[[AstHelMex1]]

Figure 6.27. guièe-zhàn̲-biǎa `flower beneath the prickly-pear´ (Oenothera rosea) is inserted in the nostril to treat a bloody nose. ^[[OnaOenRos1]]

Figure 6.28. yàg-yàaz-làs `small/slender chamizo´, Baccharis cf. mexicana. ^[[AstBacMex1]]

Figure 6.29. guìzh-lây `tooth herb´ or guìzh-měy `fungus herb´ (Asclepias curassavica), for toothache. ^[[AscAscCur1]]

Figure 6.30. yàg-guièts-zhìg (ocotillo, Fouquieria formosa), this is the remedy of choice for cold sores; one should chew the buds or flowers. ^[[FoqFouFor1]]

Figure 6.31. ncuàan-yâas `black medicine´ (Heimia salicifolia) is used for an illness called bæ̌æl-yâas `black meat´, characterized by manchas negras `black spots´ and sore bones. ^[[LytHeiSal1]]

Figure 6.32. còrdèvân (e.g., Pedilanthus cf. tomentellus). Traumatic injuries (golpes) may be treated by a topical application to the part affected. ^[[EupPedTom1]]

Figure 6.33. guièe-ló-yâg-guièts, Cladocolea cf. andrieuxii and/or Psittacanthus auriculatus), a species of mistletoe parasitic on acacias (particularly Acacia pennatula), is also recommended for headaches. ^[[LorPsiAur1]]

Figure 6.34. Leaves of Baccharis salicifolius and Barkleyanthus salicifolium compared. ^[[AstBacSal1]]

Figure 6.35. blâg-rzûdz `jimsonweed´ or toloache (Datura stramonium), notorious hallucinogen, used in San Juan primarily to treat swelling or inflammation (guì) due to aire or sore feet due to chaneque. ^[[SolDatStr2]]

Figure 6.36. guièe-pûnt `angel´s-trumpet´ or floripondio (Brugmansia cf. versicolor is shown here), used also to treat swelling or inflammation (guì) due to aire. ^[[SolBruSan1]]

Figure 6.37. lbæ̀-blâg-pâsm `pasmo leaf vine´ (Cissus sicyoides), prescribed for pâsm `pasmo´, characterized by chills and fever, sore joints, and swelling with skin eruptions. ^[[VitCisSic1]]

Figure 6.38. yàg-blæ̀æ or pingüica (Arctostaphylos pungens), to treat a variety of kidney ailments. ^[[EriArcPun1]]

Figure 6.39. guièe-dzùu, pericón, Tagetes lucida. ^[[AstTagLuc1]]

Figure 6.40. guièe-ròsà-côl, the `cabbage rose´ (Rosa cf. chinensis), too `hot´ to handle. Avoided by pregnant women. ^[[RosRosChi1]]

Figure 6.41. yàg-læ̀, alcornoque, Acacia angustissima. [[FabAcaAng1]]

Figure 6.42. guìzh-nàad `sticky herb´, Mentzelia hispida. ^[[LoaMenHis1]]

Figure 6.43. ncuàan-dzéb-zhòmbrêl, literally `sombrero fright medicine´, Aristolochia cf. pentandra. ^[[ArsAriPen1]]

Figure 6.44. ncuàan-dzéb-cônch `conch fright medicine´, Glandularia spp., Verbena spp. ^[[VrbGlaBip1]]

Figure 6.45. yàg-guièe-zhǐn `rotten-flower tree´, botón zhiwite, Cestrum dumetorum. ^[[SolCesDum1]]

Figure 6.46. ncuàan-dzéb-guièel `night-fright medicine´, Pellaea ovata, is particularly widely recognized as a treatment for `night fright´. ^[[AdiPelOva1]]

Figure 6.47. ncuàan-dzéb-còrâl-zhùs `female coral fright medicine´, Anagalis arvensis ssp. arvensis. ^[[PrmAnaArv1]]

Figure 6.48. ncuàan-dzéb-còrâl-zhèy `male coral fright medicine´, Anagalis arvensis ssp. cerulea. ^[[PrmAnaArv2]]

Figure 6.49. guìzh-zhì-wìin `herb for their weeping´, Stachys coccinea. An infusion is prescribed for a child´s separation anxiety. ^[[LamStaCoc1]]

Figure 6.50. sièmprvîv <Sp. `live forever´, Selaginella lepidophylla. ^[[SelSelLep1]]

Figure 6.51. blàg-wì[-nzhên] `broad[-leaved] butterfly bush´ (Buddleia sessiliflora), an important treatment for chaneque. ^[[LogBudSes1]]

Figure 6.52. blâg-zhnâzh `Virgin´s leaf´, Croton ciliato-glanduliferum. ^[[EupCroCil1]]

Figure 6.53. zhì-ncuàan-ná-zhnâzh `Virgin Mother´s medicine´ a.k.a. ololiuqui or piule, the famed hallucinogenic morning-glory of the Aztecs, (Ipomoea cf. bicolor). The seeds are eaten to divine the cause of a “fright” suffered while far from home, likely attributable to the anger of a stranger. ^[[CnvIpoBic1]]

Figure 6.54. guìzh-yêrb `herb herb´, Roldana sp. or Senecio canecida. ^[[AstSenCan1]]

Figure 6.55. guìzh-ncuàan `poison herb´, Rigidelia orthantha. ^[[IriRigOrt1]]

Figure 6.56. yàg-guièe-guiâ, cuatle, Eysenhardtia polyastachea. ^[[FabEysPol1]]

Figure 6.57. blâg-wè, hoja de San Pablo, Wigandi urens. ^[[HydWigUre1]]

Table 6.1. Medicinal plant species by origin (native to Mexico or introduced from elsewhere) and management status (cultivated, wild, both, or market herbs). ^[TabSixOne1]

Table 6.2. Non-cultivated medicinal plant species (including those that occur both cultivated and non-cultivated) by association with human disturbance. ^[TabSixTwo1]

Table 6.3. Summary of types of medicinal plant treatments in San Juan Gbëë. ^[TabSixThr1]

Table 6.4. Examples of terms with the prefix guièl̲- (Reeck 1991). ^[TabSixFou1]

Table 6.5. Examples of diseases with the suffix -guîdz. ^[TabSixFiv1]

Table 6.6. Medicinal Herbs Characterized as to “Hot” or “Cold” by Linares, Bye, and Flores (1999), with San Juan Gbëë Correspondences. ^[TabSixSix1]

Table 6.7. Some examples of plant parts used in San Juan remedies. ^[TabSixSev1]

Table 6.8. Some examples of San Juan medicinal plants restricted by habitat. ^[TabSixEig1]

Table 6.9. Examples of limpias employed in San Juan Gbëë. ^[TabSixNin1]

Table 6.10. Gastrointestinal remedies. ^[TabSixTen1]

Table 6.11. Remedies for complaints of the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and throat. ^[TabSixEle1]

Table 6.12. Remedies for skin problems, wounds, etc. ^[TabSixTwe1]

Table 6.13. Remedies for bodily pains and fevers. ^[TabSixThi1]

Table 6.14. Remedies for urinary tract problems. ^[TabSixRtn1]

Table 6.15. Remedies related to childbearing. ^[TabSixVtn1]

Table 6.16. Remedies for fright. ^[TabSixXtn1]

Table 6.17. Remedies for emotional distress. ^[TabSixStn1]

Table 6.18. Remedies for spiritual maladies. ^[TabSixEtn1]

Table 6.19. Remedies for conditions afflicting animals. ^[TabSixNtn1]

Table 6.20. Comparison of large plant families by medicinal salience. ^[TabSixTwn1]

Table 6.21. Statistical comparison of several regional floras (cf. Moerman et al. 1999); for San Juan in raw numbers of medicinal species, for the rest in terms of the proportion of the total number of local species of the family; italicized numbers indicate rank from the bottom. ^[TabSixTon1]

Chapter VII

Figure 7.1. Women climbing Cerro San Isidro with frangipani a.k.a. flor de mayo, to offer ngùzì `god of thunder´ to bring the rains. ^[[CerSanIsi6]]

Figure 7.2. Lilia packing flowers home. ^[[PeoSanLil3]]

Figure 7.3. Floral arch for Todos Santos, giant reed (gòob-guì) with marigolds (guièe-cǒb). ^[[PeoSanLil6]]

Figure 7.4. Church entry decorated for Christmas with “Spanish moss” (Tillandsia usneoides, bzhǎazh-nquǐts) and Dasylirion “stars” (mèl-ptsìis). ^[[DrcDasSer1]]1

Figure 7.5. Wedding corsage, guièe-niè `hand flower´: fangipani flower (Plumeria rubra, guièe-yǎl) in citrus leaves. ^[[ApoPluRub4]], ^[[ApoPluRub5]]

Figure 7.6. Floral cross at acabo del año memorial service. ^[[CerAcaAno2]]

Figure 7.7. guìzh-dǐp-guièe `flowery grass´, Melinus repens. ^[[PoaMelRep1]]

Figure 7.8. Two varieties of the cultivated marigold, Tagetes erecta, `male´, guièe-cǒb-yàg, and `female´, guièe-cǒb-mzhìg. ^[[AstTagEre3]]

Figure 7.9. Marigolds, Tagetes patula (guièe-cǒb-guìin) with Tagetes erecta in the foreground (guièe-cǒb-mzhìg). ^[[AstTagPat1]]

Figure 7.10. A “false” marigold, Dyssodia tagetifolia (guièe-cǒb-gǒn). ^[[AstDysTag1]]

Figure 7.11. Tagetes cf. lunulata (guièe-cǒb-làs). ^[[AstTagLun1]]

Figure 7.12. Stick-tight, Bidens cf. pilosa (guièe-t{i:}-nquǐts). ^[[AstBidPil3]]

Figure 7.13. Stick-tight, Bidens cf. aurea (guièe-t{i:}-nguěts). ^[[AstBidAur1]]

Figure 7.14. Stick-tight, Bidens cf. ostruthioides (guièe-t{i:}-dán). ^[[AstBidOst1]]

Figure 7.15. Simsia amplexicaulis (guièe-bnîil̲-guièts-nguěts). ^[[AstSimAmp1]]

Figure 7.16. Simsia sanguinea (guièe-bnîil̲-guièts-mòrâd). ^[[AstSimSan2]]

Figure 7.17. Tithonia diversifolia (guièe-bnîil̲-zhǐil). ^[[AstTitDiv1]]

Figure 7.18. Cosmos bipinnatus (guièe-dâl-làs). ^[[AstCosBip1]]

Figure 7.19. Dahlia coccinea (guièe-dâl-mrùux, guièe-dâl-nìzhniê). ^[[AstDahCoc2]]

Figure 7.20. Dahlia australis var. australis (guièe-dâl-mrùux). ^[[AstDahAus2]]

Figure 7.21. Cosmos crithmifolius (guièe-dâl-mrùux). ^[[AstCosCri1]]

Figure 7.22. Cosmos diversifolius (guièe-dâl-mrùux, guièe-dâl-nquǐts). ^[[AstCosDiv1]]

Figure 7.23. Dahlia pinnata Decorative Flower Group, peach-colored doubled flower (guièe-dâl-mzhìg). ^[[AstDahHor1]]

Figure 7.24. Dahlia excelsa, flower (guièe-dâl-mòrâd). ^AstDahExc1

Figure 7.25. Dahlia excelsa, stalk (guièe-dâl-mòrâd). ^[[AstDahExc2]]

Figure 7.26. The wild Zinnia peruana (guièe-bgùs). ^[[AstZinPer1]]

Figure 7.27. Stevia cf. salicifolia (guièe-nziù). ^[[AstSteSal1]]

Figure 7.28. Euphorbia pulcherima, flor de navidad, poinsettia (guièe-chên). ^[[EupEupPul1]]

Figure 7.29. Euchile citrina (guièe-dzîl-nzhíxtò). ^[[OrcEucCit1]]

Figure 7.30. Rhynchostele cervantesii (guièe-dzîl-ndzǐi). ^[[OrcLemCer1]]

Figure 7.31. Laelia furfuracea (guièe-dzîl-cònêf). ^[[OrcLaeFur1]]

Figure 7.32. Govenia capitata (guièe-dzîl-dán). ^[[OrcGovLil1]]

Figure 7.33. Cyprepedium molle (guièe-dòoz). ^[[OrcCypIra1]]

Figure 7.34. Lobelia laxiflora (guièe-dzǐn̲g). ^[[CamLobLax1]]

Figure 7.35. Salvia cf. elegans (guièe-dzǐn̲g). ^[[LamSalEle1]]

Figure 7.36. Cuphea aequipetala (guièe-dzǐn̲g). ^[[LytCupAeq2]]

Figure 7.37. Castilleja tenuiflora (guièe-dzǐn̲g). ^[[OroCasTen2]]

Figure 7.38. Lamourouxia rhinanthifolia (guièe-dzǐn̲g). ^[[ScrLamRhi1]]

Figure 7.39. Penstemon campanulatus (guièe-dzǐn̲g or guièe-měets). ^[[ScrPenCam1]]

Figure 7.40. Castilleja arvensis (guièe-dzǐn̲g or x-côl-mæ̀cw-zhǐil). ^[[OroCasArv1]]

Figure 7.41. The azucena, Milla biflora (guièe-xtsèe `evening flower´), Oaxaca´s state flower. ^[[AllMilBif1]]

Figure 7.42. A weedy evening-primrose, Oenothera laciniata ssp. pubescens (guièe-xtsèe `evening flower´) , with white- and yellow-flowered forms. ^[[OnaOenLac1]]

Figure 7.43. Morning-glories, Ipomoea spp. (guièe-rrè `vase flower´). ^[[CnvIpoSpp1]]

Figure 7.44. Sedum praealtum (guièe-yùzh `sand flower´). ^[[CrsSedPra1]]

Figure 7.45. Echeverria sp. (guièe-yùzh `sand flower´). ^[[CrsEchSpc1]]

Figure 7.46. Nothoscordum striatum (nlěch-bæ̀z `fox onion´). ^[[AllNotStr1]]

Figure 7.47. Bomarella hirtella (guièe-còrôn-côp `cup crown flower´). ^[[AlsBomHir1]]

Figure 7.48. Echeandia cf. reflexa (x-tòoz-péch `turkey vulture´s milpa´). ^[[AthEchSpc1]]

Figure 7.49. Commelinaceae sp. (x-tòoz-ngǎ `raven´s milpa). ^[[CmmGenSpc1]]

Figure 7.50. Tinantia erecta (guièe-nìt `sugarcane flower´). ^[[CmmTinEre1]]

Figure 7.51. Erygium cf. gracile (guièe-guìib `metal flower´). ^[[ApiEryGra1]]

Figure 7.52. Anoda cristata (guìzh-quês `cheese plant´). ^[[MlvAnoCri1]]

Figure 7.53. Pinguicula moranensis (diàg-cûch `pig´s ear´). ^[[LntPinMor1]]

Figure 7.54. Pinaropappus roseus (guièe-mòrâd). ^[[AstPinRos1]]

Figure 7.55. Calendula officinalis (guièe-nguěts). ^[[AstCalOff1]]

Figure 7.56. Aster moranensis (guièe-nquǐts). ^[[AstAstMor1]]

Figure 7.57. Plumeria rubra f. acutifolia (yàg-guièe-yǎl). ^[[ApoPluRub3]]

Figure 7.58. Mosses, lichens, and bromeliads (Tillandsia usneoides) for sale before Christmas in Oaxaca. ^[[SceOaxMar1]]

Figure 7.59. Tillandsia macdougalli in flower (bliòo). ^[[BmlTilMac2]]

Figure 7.60. Floral offerings at the shrine on Cerro San Isidro. ^[[CerSanIsi4]]

Figure 7.61. Pteridium aquilinum, bracken fern (guìzh-crûz prototype). ^[[DstPteAqu1]]

Figure 7.62. Cyperus cf. flavus, a sedge (guìzh-dǐp-crûz). ^[[CypCypFla1]]

Figure 7.63. The floral cross at the Acabo del Año. ^[[CerAcaAno2]]

Figure 7.64. Calla lily, cartucho (guièe-càrtûch), Zantedeschia aethiopica. ^[[AraZanAet2]]

Figure 7.65. Canna indica (guièe-blâg-bdiò). ^[[CnnCanInd1]]

Figure 7.66. Mirabilis jalapa (guièe-màràvî). ^[[NycMirJal1]]

Figure 7.67. Amni majus (guièe-ncâj). ^[[ApiAmnMaj2]]

Figure 7.68. Nerium oleander, oleander (yàg-guièe-rôs-laùrêl). ^[[ApoNerOle2]]

Figure 7.69. Leonotis nepetaefolia (guièe-guièts `spiny flower´). ^[[LamLeoNep1]]

Figure 7.70. Tropaeolum majus, maltuerso, nasturtium (guièe-màltuêrs). ^[[TrpTroMaj1]]

Table 7.1. Garden Summaries. ^[TabSevOne1]

Chapter VIII

Figure 8.1. Griselda and Lilia playing milpa. ^[[PeoSanLil4]]

Figure 8.2. A play altar in the garden decorated for Todos Santos. ^[[PeoCruFam2]]

Figure 8.3. Altar on Cerro San Isidro. ^[[CerSanIsi2]]

Figure 8.4. Miniature milpa for La Fiesta de la Santa Cruz on Cerro San Isidro. ^[[CerSanIsi5]]

Figure 8.5. Tending pine cone animals for La Fiesta de la Santa Cruz on Cerro San Isidro. ^[[PeoSanLil7]]

Figure 8.6. Interviews along the næ̀z-guìzh or plant trail. ^[[SceNezGui1]]

Table 8.1. Acquisition of botanical terminology in three communities. ^[TabEigOne1]

Table 8.2. Summary statistics on individual plant name inventories. ^[TabEigTwo1]

Table 8.3. Lilia´s plant inventory of 12 September 2000, San Juan Gbëë, Oaxaca, Mexico. ^[TabEigThr1]

Table 8.4. Plant trail species by life form, origin, cultivation, and use value. ^[TabEigFou1]

Table 8.5. Plant trail participants, San Juan Gbëë, 2001-2002. ^[TabEigFiv1]

Table 8.6. Scores of plant trail interviewees by sex, age, and schooling. ^[TabEigSix1]

Chart 8.1. Scatterplot of plant trail recognition scores by age for all children (N = 36). ^[[LinNezGui1]]

Chart 8.2. Scatterplot of plant trail recognition scores by school grade for all children (N = 36). ^[[LinNezGui3]]

Chart 8.3. Correlation of plant trail recognition scores by sex, female on the left. ^[[LinNezGui5]]

Table P.1. Gbëë phoneme inventory in the practical orthography, consonants.

—fortispt-c, qu, kcu, cw
—lenisbd-g, gugu, gü, gw
—fortis-rr, r̲---

This chart is adapted from Reeck (1991:262-70). Symbols in brackets are found only in Spanish loans. Sounds with multiple spellings follow Spanish orthographic rules.

Table P.2. Gbëë Zapotec Phoneme Inventory in the Practical Orthography: Vowels.

-front simplefront glottalizedback simpleback glottalized
highí, ì, î, ǐíi, ìi, îi, ǐiú, ù, û, ǔúu, ùu, ûu, ǔu
midé, è, ê, ěée, èe, êe, ěeó, ò, ô, ǒóo, òo, ôo, ǒo
lowǽ, æ̀, æ̂, æ̌ǽæ, æ̀æ, æ̂æ, æ̌æá, à, â, ǎáa, àa, âa, ǎa
-íe, íæíu, ío, íaúi, úe, úæúo, úa
-ìe, ìæìu, ìo, ìaùi, úe, ùæùo, ùa
-îe, îæîu, îo, îaûi, ûe, ûæûo, ûa
-ǐe, ǐæǐu, ǐo, ǐaǔi, ǔe, ǔæǔo, ǔa

Tones are listed in sequence: high, low, falling (high to low), rising (low to high).

Table 4.1. Gbëë Zapotec Taxonomic Hierarchy.

unique beginner / life-form folk generic folk specific
yâg `tree´ yàg-pxù `glaucous-leaved oak´ yàg-pxù-làs `slender glaucous-leaved oak´
guièe `flower´ guièe-cǒb `zempasuchil´ guièe-cǒb-gòn `fallow field zempasuchil´
guìzh `herbaceous plant´ guìzh-ncuàan-dzéb `fright medicinal herb´ guìzh-ncuàan-dzéb-guièel `night fright medicinal herb´
dòb `maguey´ dòb-guièdz `fiber maguey´-
měy `fungus´ měy-yàg `tree fungus´ měy-yàg-guièr `pine tree fungus´*-
mguîn `bird´ cuǐl `jay´ cuǐl-guì `Steller´s jay´
`animal´ [kingdom] ngurǎgw `lizard´ ngurǎgw-zhòy `spiny-lizard sp.´
`animal´ [kingdom] ngudzìi `spider´ ngudzìi-zhàb `tarantula´
`animal´ [kingdom] mâ-dòozhêr `scissor animal´, i.e., earwig mâ-dòozhêr-nrôob `large earwig´

měy-yàg-guièr `pine tree fungus´ is not a kind of měy-yàg `tree fungus´, so it is not a folk specific but rather a folk generic in its own right

Table 4.2. Numbers (Percentages) of Alternative Life-form Assignments.

- Total cases guìzh guièe yâg blâg lbæ̀ Total overlaps
guìzh 144 - 26 (18%) 10 (7%) 4 (3%) 0 (0%) 40 (28%)
guièe 93 26 (28%) - 3 (3%) 4 (4%) 1 (1%) 34 (37%)
yâg 115 10 (9%) 3 (3%) - 3 (3%) 0 (0%) 16 (14%)
blâg 27 4 (15%) 4 (15%) 3 (11%) - 1 (4%) 12 (44%)
lbæ̀ 8 0 (0%) 1 (13%) 0 (0%) 1 (13%) - 2 (25)%

Adapted from Hunn 1998:45, Table 5.

Table 4.3. Numbers (Percentages) of Multiple Life-form Assignments.

- Total cases guìzh guièe yâg blâg lbæ̀ Total overlaps
guìzh 144 - 11 (8%) 1 (1%) 2 (1%) 0 (0%) 14 (10%)
guièe 93 0 (0%) - 3 (3%) 1 (1%) 1 (1%) 5 (5%)
yâg 115 1 (1%) 9 (8%) - 2 (2%) 0 (0%) 12 (10%)
blâg 27 2 (7%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) - 0 (0%) 2 (7%)
lbæ̀ 8 0 (0%) 1 (13%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) - 1 (13%)
Total overlaps - 3 (2%) 21 (23%) 4 (3%) 5 (19%) 1 (13%) 34

Adapted from Hunn 1998:45, Table 6. Life-form terms on the left precede those in the top row.

Table 4.4. San Juan Zapotec pines (Pinus).

Pinus ayacahuite Ehrenb. yàg-là = yàg-grètâd
Pinus devoniana Lindley yâg-guièr or yàg-guièr-dán-ptsæ̌æ
Pinus douglasiana Martínez yâg-guièr
Pinus hartwegii Lindley yâg-guièr
Pinus leiophylla Schl. et Cham. var. leiophylla yâg-guièr
Pinus maximinoi H. E. Moore yâg-guièr
Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schlechtendal var. trifoliata Martínez yâg-guièr
Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. var. pseudostrobus yâg-guièr
Pinus pseudostrobus Lindley var. apulcensis (Lindley) G. R. Shaw yâg-guièr
Pinus tecunumanii Equiluz & J. P. Perry yâg-guièr
Pinus teocote Schl. & Cham. yâg-guièr or yàg-guièr-quiè

Table 4.5. San Juan Zapotec oaks (Quercus).

Quercus acutifolia Née & Quercus laurina Humb. & Bonpl. yàg-lbìis
Quercus castanea Née yàg-yù = yàg-xìid[-làs]
Quercus obtusata Humb. & Bonpl. yàg-xìid-mběe = yàg-xìid-diè
Quercus glaucoides Mart. & Gal. yàg-pxû-0
Quercus liebmanii Oersted yàg-pxû-ngǎs
Quercus sebifera Trelease yàg-pxû-làs
Quercus peduncularis Née [> Quercus deserticola Trelease] yàg-pxù-yěets = yàg-pxû-diè
Quercus conzattii Trel. yàg-zhòg[-nquǐts]
Quercus crassifolia Humb. & Bonpl. [> Quercus laeta Liebm., Quercus rugosa Née yàg-zhòg-yàas = yàg-zhòg-diè
Quercus magnoliifolia Née yàg-rèdz

Table 4.6. A Summary of San Juan Zapotec Plant Taxa.

- Named Covert total
Life-form 6 0 6
Intermediate 2 - 2
Generic 452 0 452
polytypic [111 (25%)]- -
Specific 315 46 361
polytypic [8 (4%)]- -
Varietal 23 0 23
Terminal taxa 679 46 717
Total taxa 798 46 844

Table 4.7. Statistical summaries of animal names by type and taxonomic rank

- Tgen MonoG PolyG Spec Var TTerm TTax
Animals 253 198 54 203 2 403 461
Mammals 38 31 7 16 0 47 54
Birds 69 54 14 48 0 103 118
Herp/Fish 23 19 4 13 0 32 38
Inverts 123 94 29 126 2 221 251

Table 4.8. Mammal species reported from the Sierra de Miahuatlán and vicinity

Marsupialia Didelphidae Didelphis marsupialis ngòl-bèdz, tlàcuâch
Marsupialia Didelphidae Marmosa spp. (n = 2) tlàcuâch-bèd ? or 0
Insectivora Soricidae Sorex spp. (n = 3), Cryptotis spp. (n = 2), Notiosorex phillipsii 0
Chiroptera Emballonuridae 5 families, 23 genera, 36 species nguǐd-bzîn
Primates Cebidae Ateles geoffroyi má-chîn, mæ̌cw
Edentata Myrmecophagidae Tamandua tetradactyla [x] càtòrcè-fuêrz
Edentata Dasypodidae Dasypus novemcinctus ngùp [>2 forms]
Lagomorpha Leporidae Sylvilagus cunicularis cònêf-dán-ptsæ̌æ, cònêf-dán
Lagomorpha Leporidae Sylvilagus floridanus cònêf-yá-guì, cònêf-dán
Lagomorpha Leporidae Oryctolagus cuniculus cònêf-xtîl, cònêf-ró-yù
Lagomorpha Leporidae Lepus callotis callotis mliàn
Rodentia Sciuridae Sciurus aureogaster ndzǐz-0
Rodentia Sciuridae Glaucomys volans ndzǐz-rsìibê
Rodentia Geomyidae Orthogeomys grandis měy, tuz
Rodentia Heteromyidae Liomys spp. (n = 3) mzìn-bèd
Rodentia Cricetidae, Muridae 2 families, 10 genera, 24 species mzîn-0
Rodentia Cricetidae a particularly small field mouse mzîn-nguǐit
Rodentia Muridae Mus musculus mzîn-bèed ?
Rodentia Erithizontidae Coendou mexicanus [x?] 0
Carnivora Canidae Canis familiaris mæ̀cw
Carnivora Canidae Canis latrans bæ̌w, còyôt, bèedz-bæ̌w
Carnivora Canidae Canis lupus baileyi [x] 0
Carnivora Canidae Urocyon cinereoargenteus mæ̀z [>2 forms]
Carnivora Procyonidae Bassariscus astutus, B. sumichrasti mèedz-cuǐ
Carnivora Procyonidae Procyon lotor ngòl-bzhiè, màpâch
Carnivora Procyonidae Nasua narica mzhìidz [>2 forms]
Carnivora Procyonidae Potos flavus [x?] mârt ? or 0
Carnivora Mustelidae Mustela frenata mèebæ̀
Carnivora Mustelidae Eira barbara [x?] mârt ? or 0
Carnivora Mustelidae Spilogale putorius mèt-wǐin
Carnivora Mustelidae Mephitis macroura mèt-0, mèt-ngǎs
Carnivora Mustelidae Conepatus mesoleucus [x?] mèt-nquǐts ?
Carnivora Mustelidae Lutra annectens mǽcw-guiùu
Carnivora Felidae Felis cattus bǐch, mǐts
Carnivora Felidae Felis onca [x] mèedz-tîgr, tîgr
Carnivora Felidae Felis concolor mèedz-miè, leôn
Carnivora Felidae Felis pardalis, Felis wiedii [x?] mèedz-yâg, mèedz-cìlôt
Carnivora Felidae Felis yagouaroundi [x?] 0
Carnivora Felidae Lynx rufus mèedz-ràbôn, mèedz-bôn
Perissodactyla Equidae Equus asinus bûrr, bǔrr
Perissodactyla Equidae Equus asinus x caballus mùl, mâch; guây
Perissodactyla Equidae Equus caballus càbây, yêw
Artiodactyla Tayassuidae Tayassu tajacu ngǔts-guìx, ngǔts-quiè
Artiodactyla Suidae Sus scrofa ngǔts-0 [>2 forms]
Artiodactyla Cervidae Odocoileus virginianus mdzìn
Artiodactyla Cervidae Mazama americana mtság
Artiodactyla Bovidae Bos taurus ngǒn
Artiodactyla Bovidae Ovis aries mæ̀cw-xǐil
Artiodactyla Bovidae Capra hircus chǐv

Table 4.9. Reptiles, amphibians, and fish recognized in San Juan Gbëë

Pisces pez, pescado fish in general, animal and/or food mèl*
Pisces in part pez de los ríos de SJG fish, local rivers mèl-0
Pisces in part sardines sardines mèl-làs
Pisces in part lisa fish, one type sold in the market mèl-lîs
Pisces in part mojarro mojarro, type sold in the market mòjâr
Pisces in part sabalote kind of fish with spiny fins, sold in the market sàbàlôt
Pisces in part pescado cocinado fish, cooked mèl-yèeg
Pisces in part pescado asado fish, fried mèl-yé
Pisces in part pescado ensalado fish, salted mèl-zêd
Pisces in part pescado tostado fish, toasted mèl-guiěex
Anura- Hyla spp., Eleutherodactylus sp., Rana sp. mbîich*
Anura- tadpole mlôol*
Anura Bufonidae Bufo sp. měe-bědz*
- salamandra Pseudoeurycea, Bolitoglossa ngurǎgw-mèel 2*
- Crocodrilidae, Alligatoridae Crocodrilus acutus, Caiman fuscus měn* [= làgârt]
- Crocodrilidae, Alligatoridae Crocodrilus acutus, Caiman fuscus měn* [= làgârt]
- Crocodrilidae, Alligatoridae Crocodrilus acutus, Caiman fuscus měn* [= làgârt]
Ophidia serpiente, culebra snake, < Thamnophis sp., aff. Tantilla sp., Crotalus molossus nigrescens mèel* [= ràstrâd]
Ophidia Colubridae “deer snake” ngòoz-mdzìn, mèel-ngòoz-mdzìn
Ophidia Colubridae rat snake ngòoz-dzìn, mèel-ngòoz-dzìn
Ophidia culebra de mecate mythical giant water snake, “rain” snake mèel-dòo*
Ophidia culebra del cerro type of rattlesnake miàab, mèel-miàab
Ophidia cualquier serpiente venenosa any poisonous snake mèel-dǒx*
Ophidia corallilo, culebra cazador Micrurus browni, M. ephippifer, Lampropeltis sp. mziǒn, mèel-mziǒn
Ophidia Crotalidae tipo de culebra, crestita Ophyracus undulatus ? mèel-gây = mèel-ndiàg [San Pedro Gbëë]
Ophidia tipo de culebra type of snake mèel-yâg
Ophidia tipo de culebra venenosa type of poisonous snake miùung
Ophidia Crotalidae Crotalus durissus culminatus, C. molossus nigrescens, C. intermedius gloydi; Sistrurus ravus brunneus ngubìdz, mèel-ngubìdz
Ophidia Crotalidae Crotalus mollossus nigrescens ngubìdz-yàas, mèel-ngubìdz-yàas [+San Pedro Gbëë], mèel-ngubìdz-ngǎs
Ophidia Crotalidae Crotalus mollossus nigrescens ngubìdz-yěets, mèel-ngubìdz-yěets*
Ophidia Crotalidae rattlesnakes in general; Crotalus spp., vibora sorda mèel-nguâat
Ophidia Crotalidae Crotalus sp. mèel-ngutòo
Squamata lagartija lizard ngurǎgw* [= chòrǎgw]
Squamata Gekkonidae; Anolidae Norops (Anolis) sangrei ngùrǎgw-guìd, ngùrǎgw-guìd-rôj, ngùrǎgw-làs
Squamata lagartija lisa Ameiva sp., Aspidoscelis (Cnemidophorus) sp. ngurǎgw-mèel 1*
Squamata escorpión [o salamandra] Heloderma horridum, Gerrhonotus liocephalus mèel-nì
Squamata Iguanidae Iguana, Ctenosaura ngutsiěts*
Squamata Iguanidae Iguana iguana ngutsiěts-guièl*, ngutsiěts-vérd
Squamata Iguanidae Ctenosaura similis ngutsiěts-ngǎs
Squamata cameleón Phrynosoma braconnieri mdzîd
Squamata tipo de lagartija Sceleporus espinosus ngùrǎgw-zhòoy
Squamata lagartija verde Sceleporus formosus, S. jalapae ngùrǎgw-ngùzí, ngùrǎgw-nguiǎ, ngùrǎgw-vêrd, ngùrǎgw-yá-guì
Squamata lagartija de collar Sceloporus mucronotus omiltemanus ngùrǎgw-bǎy
Squamata lagartija negra o sucia Sceleporus siniferus ngùrǎgw-ngǎs, ngùrǎgw-bèed, ngùrǎgw-môr, ngùrǎgw-pînt, ngùrǎgw-mǽædz [San Pedro Gbëë]
Squamata lagartija de collar Sceleporus spp. juvenile ngùrǎgw-làs, ngurǎgw-yèen
Testudinata tortuga tortoise, turtle mæ̌gw*, tòrtû]g

Table 4.10. San Juan Gbëë Birds: Correspondence to Western Scientific Species.

- generic taxa terminal taxa
1:1 correspondence 49 (71%) 29 (58%)
underdifferentiated 20 (29%) 12 (24%)
overdifferentiated 0 (0%) 9 (18%)
Totals 69 (100%) 50 (100%)

Table 4.11. Statistical summaries of invertebrate names by type and taxonomic rank.

- Tgen MonoG PolyG Spec Var TTerm TTax %Tgen %global
Invertebrates 127 94 31 120 11 221 256 %Tgen %global
NonArthInvert 5 5 0 0 0 5 5 %Tgen %global
NonInsectArthr 14 10 4 29 2 40 45 %Tgen %global
Insects 108 79 27 91 9 176 206 %Tgen %global
Orthoptera 15 7 8 29 2 37 46 14% 3%
Hemiptera 12 10 2 5 0 15 17 11% 3%
Coleoptera 23 19 4 11 5 34 39 21% 41%
Lepidoptera 14 12 2 7 2 20 23 13% 16%
Diptera 8 4 4 15 0 19 23 7% 12%
Hymenoptera 16 11 5 20 0 31 36 15% 15%

TGen = total folk generic taxa; MonoG = monotypic generics; PolyG = polytypic generics; Spec = total folk specific taxa; Var = total varietal taxa; TTerm = total terminal taxa; TTax = total taxa at all ranks.

Table 4.12. Statistical summaries of invertebrate names by prefix.

invertebrates LF gen! gen GEN spec! spec SPC gnonce snonce totals
má- 1 8 29 37 0 2 2 22 0 62
m- 0 27 10 37 20 49 69 0 0 106
mé-/měe- 0 9 1 10 1 11 12 0 0 22
mèel- 0 7 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 7
mèl- 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
mèedz- 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
mèr- 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
total m- 0 47 13 60 21 60 81 0 0 141
ngu- 0 14 1 15 9 51 60 0 1 76
total animate 1 69 43 112 30 113 143 22 1 279
Spanish 0 4 17 21 1 4 5 0 33 59
other 0 6 5 11 3 15 18 0 0 29
totals 1 79 65 144 34 132 166 22 34 367

“LF” is the life form; “gen!” are generic level naming responses that have been independently verified; “spec!” are specific level naming responses with independent verification; “gnonce” are nonce forms at the generic level; “snonce” are nonce forms at the specific level; total m- include m-, mé-/měe-, mèel-, mèl-, mèedz-, mèr-. The “other” response includes the following: niilye, zhweecw, ndzuc-duent, ngooz-gui, ndxex, xtob, dzing-guieel, ndzeets, ndun, zhingaang, ncueets, ndzin.

Table 4.13. Edible invertebrates.

mèl-biù Crustacea: Penaida crayfish
nguzhánch Orthoptera: Acrididae grasshopper
měetsǒ Orthoptera: Acrididae locust
ngùsùuguièr Orthoptera: Acrididae grasshopper
ngùsôoc Orthoptera: Acrididae, Sphenarium grasshopper
níil-yě Orthoptera: Acrididae grasshopper
měextíl Orthoptera: Tettigonidae katydid
xtǒb-guiě Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Strategus dung beetle
mtàadz Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Strategus, larval cutworm; some varieties eaten
mtsàn-blàg-wè Lepidoptera: Cossidae maguey worm
mèel-dòb Lepidoptera: Cossidae: Cossus redtenbanci maguey worm
miàdz Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Atta mexicana chicatana
mæ̀z-ncuěets Hymenoptera: Vespoidea wasp
nguxǒy Hymenoptera: Apoidea sweat bee
mzhòodz-dzìn Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apis mellifera honey bee
mzhòodz-guie Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Bombus sp. bumblebee
mzhòodz-ngǎs Hymenoptera: Apoidea carpenter bee
mbîdz-guièt Hymenoptera: Apoidea bee

Table 4.14. Medicinal invertebrates.

erizo del mar Echinodermata sea urchin
mèl-pchôg Crustacea crab; for whooping cough
ngulǎdz Orthoptera: Acrididae band-winged grasshopper
ngulǎdz-còlět Insecta, Orthoptera: Acrididae wingless grasshopper; for teething babies
mdiǒl Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Gryllus sp cricket; for stomach pain
mzhudzh Insecta, Coleoptera: Meloidae: Meloe oil beetle; for warts
má-nìs-rùdz Insecta, Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Zopherus for drooling babies
mrêg Insecta, Neuroptera Myrmeleontidae antlion; for teething babies
mèegù Arthropoda, Arachnida: Scorpionida scorpion

Table 4.15. Good luck charms and other useful invertebrates.

ngúbéch-yâg Insecta, Orthoptera, Phasmatodea charm that defines character
méy, mêy Insecta, Homoptera, Dactylopidae, Dactylopus spp. cochineal insect; produces cochineal dye
dzǐn̲g-guièel Insecta, Lepidoptera, Sphingidae mends broken pots
mèel-zhêl Insecta, Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, larval silk worm; produces silk for weaving
má-zhiân Insecta, Hymenoptera, Mutillidae wasp (“velvet ant”); may bring good luck
měeguěts Arachnida: Phalangida harvestman; good luck charm

Table 4.16. Noxious invertebrates.

lombriz Platyhelminthes; Nematomorpha intestinal parasite
mèel-yàas Arthropoda, Diplopoda stings, some say
mégǎl Arthropoda, Chilopoda stings
mâ-guì Arthropoda, Insecta, unidentified causes burning rash
měets Insecta, Mallophaga louse; sucks blood
mèdòo Insecta, Mallophaga bird louse; attacks poultry
mdiǒl Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Gryllus sp cricket; ill omen if enters house; also medicinal
mtǐit Insecta, Hemiptera, Cimicidae, Cimex lectularis bed bug; bites
ngutǐp Insecta, Hemiptera, Coreidae may eat squash blossoms
mèzh or (d)xgìr-gìdzá Insecta, Hemoptera, Aphididae crop pest, e.g., of faba beans
ngusiôog-lô Insecta, Homoptera, Fulgoridae hairs may cause blindness
má-bziàa Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae crop pest
má-bziàa-las Insecta, Coleoptera crop pest
má-lo-bziàa-xtîl Insecta, Coleoptera crop pest
má-lo-guièe-bziàa Insecta, Coleoptera crop pest
mrǔux Insecta, Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Phyllophaga sp. june bug; larvae are crop pests
mtsàn-0 Insecta, Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Phyllophaga sp. gallina ciega ; crop pest
má-siêrr Insecta, Coleoptera, Cerambycidae long-horned beetle; kills guaje trees by girdling
ngùxôg Insecta, Coleoptera, Curculionidae weevil; crop pest
pàlòmít-guiělgùt; méguǐd-guiělgùt Insecta, Lepidoptera, moth; foretells death
mxìl Insecta, Lepidoptera, moth; infests grain, eats clothing
ngùliá Insecta, Lepidoptera, larval caterpillar; stings
ngùliá-dùr Insecta, Lepidoptera, larval caterpillar; stings
x-pæ̀cw[-diôs] Insecta, Lepidoptera, larval caterpillar; stings
nguliá-nzép Insecta, Lepidoptera, larval caterpillar; stings
mèel-ziè Insecta, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Helicoverpa sp., larval crop pest
mèel-bèn uncertain eats clothing ?
má-zhǒb Insecta, crop pest
ngurǔdz-0 Insecta, Diptera, Simuliidae black fly; bites
mèedz-gǒn Insecta, Diptera, Simuliidae black fly; bites
mlènts-0 Insecta, Diptera, Culicidae mosquito; bites
còrtà-trîp Insecta, Diptera, Culicidae, larval mosquito larvae;
mtěed Insecta, Diptera, Tabanidae horsefly; bites people and animals
nguládz-yè Insecta, Diptera, Calliphoridae bottle fly; infects meat
mzióg Insecta, Diptera, Calliphoridae, larval maggot; infects meat
mguìd-riàaz Insecta, Siphonaptera ? flea; attacks poultry
mguìd Insecta, Siphonaptera flea; bite
mrè-yěets Insecta, Hymenoptera, Formicidae ant; stings
ndùn Insecta, Hymenoptera, Formicidae ant; stings
má-zhiân Insecta, Hymenoptera, Mutillidae wasp (“velvet ant”); stings; also may bring good luck
mæ̀z-ncuěets Insecta, Hymenoptera, Vespoidea wasp; stings; also makes honey and edible larvae
zhíngàang Insecta, Hymenoptera, Pompilidae & Vespidae wasps; several varieties sting
ndzìn-yû] Insecta, Hymenoptera, Vespoidea wasp; stings
mèegù Arthropoda, Arachnida, Scorpionida scorpion; stings
mèd Arthropoda, Parasitiformes, Acarina, Ixodidae, Argasidae tick; sucks blood
mèx Arthropoda, Parasitiformes, Acarina chigger; burrows under skin
ngùdzǐi-còrâl Arthropoda, Arachnida, Araneida, Theridiidae, Latrodectus sp., black widow spider; bites
ngùdzìi-zhàb Arthropoda, Arachnida, Araneida, Theraphosidae tarantula; bites animals

Table 4.17. Fungi Recorded from San Juan Gbææ.

BasidiomycotaGasteromycetesLycoperdalesNidulariaceaeCyathusaff. striatusx-chob-guiet-li
BasidiomycotaHymenomycetesAgaricalesHygrophoraceaeHygrocybecf. psittacinamey
BasidiomycotaHymenomycetesAgaricalesLepiotaceaeLepiotaaff. clypeolariamey
BasidiomycotaHymenomycetesAgaricalesPleurotaceaeNeolentinusaff. lepideusmey
BasidiomycotaHymenomycetesAgaricalesPleurotaceaePleurotiscf. ostreatusmey guier
BasidiomycotaHymenomycetesAgaricalesStrophariaceaeStrophariaaff. semiglobatamey
BasidiomycotaHymenomycetesAgaricalesTricholomataceaeCollybiaaff. dryophilamey
BasidiomycotaHymenomycetesAphyllophoralesRamariaceaeRamariaaff. formosaxin-mey-duuzh
BasidiomycotaHymenomycetesAphyllophoralesRamariaceaeRamariaspp. complexxin-mey-duuzh
BasidiomycotaHymenomycetesBoletalesBoletaceaeBoletusaff. pinicolamey-guiet-xtil
BasidiomycotaHymenomycetesBoletalesGomphidiaceaeGomphidiussp.mey-guier ?
BasidiomycotaHymenomycetesBoletalesRussulaceaeRussulaaff. luteamey

Table 4.17 lists 74 species of 53 genera representing 32 fungi families.

Table 5.1. San Juan Gbëë cultivated food plants, native.

Agave americana L. var. oaxacana Gentry century plant
Agave angustiarum Trel. century plant
Agave angustifolia Haw. century plant
Agave karwinskii Zucc. century plant
Agave potatorum Zucc. century plant
Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck century plant
Agave seemanniana Jacobi century plant
Amaranthus hybridus L. amaranth (3 varieties)
Annona cherimola Mill. custard apple
Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) H. B. K.-
Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum chili pepper (9 varieties)
Capsicum pubescens L. chili pepper
Chenopodium ambrosioides L. amaranth (2 varieties)
Crataegus mexicana Moc. et Sesse hawthorn
Crataegus pubescens (H. B. K.) Steud. hawthorn
Cucurbita ficifolia Bouche squash
Cucurbita pepo L. ssp pepo var 1 squash
Cucurbita pepo L. ssp pepo var 2 zucchini
Erythrina americana Mill. coral bean
Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britton & Rose-
Ipomoea cf. orizabensis (Pell.) Led. ex Standl. sweet potato
Leucaena esculenta (Moc. & Sess.) Benth.-
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit ssp. glabrata (Rose) S. Zárate-
Leucaena pallida Britton & Rose-
Litsea glaucescens Kunth-
Lycopersicon esculentum Miller tomato
Mentha sp.-
Micromeria chamissonis (Benth.) E. Greene-
Opuntia (Nopalea) auberi (Pfeiffer) Salm.-Dyck-
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. prickly-pear cactus
Opuntia robusta Wendland. var. larreyi (Weber) Bravo prickly-pear cactus
Pachycereus marginatus (de Candolle) Buxbaum-
Parmentiera edulis DC. tree cucumber
Persea americana Mill. avocado (3 varieties)
Phaseolus vulgaris L. common bean (9 varieties)
Physalis philadelphica Lam. husk tomato
Piper auritum H. B. K. black pepper
Prunus serotina ssp calpuli Ehrh. cherry (4 varieties)
Psidium guajava L. guava
Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. chayote squash
Stenocereus treleasei (Vaupel) Britton & Rose-
Zea mays L. corn (6 varieties)

41 species + 26 varieties = 67 types; of 29 genera of 17 families

Table 5.2. San Juan Gbëë cultivated food plants, introduced.

Allium cepa L. onion
Allium sativum L. garlic
Anethum graveolens L. dill
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. cinnamon
Citrus aurantium L. sour orange
Citrus limetta Risso sweet lime
Citrus reticulata Blanco mandarin orange
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck sweet orange
Citrus x limonia Osbeck lemon-lime
Coffea arabica L. coffee
Coriandrum sativum L. coriander
Cydonia oblonga Mill. quince
Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Staplemon grass
Eriobotrya japonica Lind. loquat
Ficus carica L. fig
Foeniculum vulgare L. fennel
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. sweet potato
Lactuca sativa L. lettuce
Malus domestica Mill. apple (4 varieties)
Mangifera indica L. mango
Musa sapientum L. banana (3 varieties)
Ocimum basilicum L. basil (3 varieties)
Origanum marjorana L. marjoram
Origanum vulgare L. oregano
Petroselinum sativum L. parsley
Pimpinella anisum L. anise
Pisum sativum L. pea
Prunus armeniaca L. apricot
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. peach (2 varieties)
Punica granatum L. pomegranate
Raphanus sativus L. radish (2 varieties)
Rosmarinus officinalis L. rosemary
Saccharum officinarum L. sugar cane
Solanum tuberosum L. potato (2 varieties)
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench sorghum
Thymus vulgaris L. thyme
Triticum aestivum L. wheat
Verbena officinalis L. vervain
Vicia faba L. fava bean
Vitis vinifera L. grape

40 species plus + 10 varieties = 50 types; of 33 genera of 19 families

Table 5.3. Cultivated food plants known in San Juan Gbëë but grown elsewhere.

Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill pineapple
Annona muricata L. guanabana
Apium graveolens L. celery
Carica papaya L. papaya
Cicer arietinum L. chickpea/garbanzo
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumura & Nakai watermelon
Cucumis melo L. ssp. melo var. dudaim (L.) Naudin cantaloup
Cucurbita moschata var. 1 Duch. pumpkin (2 varieties)
Daucus carota L. carrot
Diospyros digyna Jacq. black zapote
Fragaria sp. strawberry
Manihot esculenta Crantz manioc
Manilkara zapota (Miller) Fosberg-
Oxalis tuberosa Molina oca
Pachyrrhysus erosus (L.) Urb.-
Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn-
Pyrus communis L. pear
Spondias purpurea L.-
Theobroma cacao L. cocoa
Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cowpea/blackeyed pea

20 species + 1 variety = 21 types; of 20 genera of 14 families

Table 5.4. Corn Varieties Named in San Juan Gbëë.

zhób-bziòw [= zhób-ngǎs]* Zea mays L., black variety adapted to higher elevations
zhób-ngôo [= zhób-nguěts] Zea mays L., yellow variety PMZ planted a foreign variety of this type in 1997
zhób-nquǐts * Zea mays L., white variety
zhób-pòblân Zea mays L., a type of white maize recently introduced from Puebla
zhób-pînt Zea mays L., mottled or pinto adapted to higher elevations
zhób-cònêf [= zhób-mòchîtò] Zea mays L., “rabbit corn” most in SJG planted this near town 1998 due to late rains; MGM planted this mid-june 1998; had elotes by October
zhób-cònàsûp[= zhób-îbrìdò] Zea mays L., commercial or hybrid maize takes six months to mature
zhób-xtîl* Triticum aestivum L. wheat

Table 5.5. Specialized San Juan Gbëë corn terminology (in part from Reeck 1991).

Plant and milpa when young dòoz
Plant and milpa when grown wgàa
Corn, dried corn, corn kernel zhǒb
Corn plant guiêl
Corn silks guièl̲-guìts
Planting (of corn) guièl̲-gòn
Harvest (of corn) guièl-nzàac
Food, meal, eating guièl̲-wâgw
Green corn, fresh corn on the cob ziè
Male inflorescence (tassel) of maize
Corn husk pcuêl
Ear of dried corn nîz
Corn cob, cob [after kernels removed] yàan
Root of corn plant lòguiêl
Corn smut, i.e., maize fungus méy-guièl
Tortilla guièt
Soft tortilla guièt-ngǔudz
z Fresh corn tamale guièt-bàadz
Tamale guièt-gǒo
Tough tortilla guièt-nád
Dried tortilla, toasted tortilla guièt-wân
Bread guièt-xtîl
Fresh corn tortilla guièt-ziè
Corn gruel, atole nsiàab
A spicy cornmeal dish guièz
Boiled corn [for making tortillas] nǐil̲
Cornstalk, stalk [and sugar cane] (el tallo) nìt
Cornstalk (la cañuela) nìt-guì
Stubble guìzh-diè
To plant corn rgobnî

Table 5.6. Bean Varieties Named in San Juan Gbëë.

bziàa-dùuzh-pînt-ngas black spotted string bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.
bziàa-dùuzh-nìzhniê red string bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.
bziàa-dùuzh-nguěts yellow string bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.
bziàa-làs slender bean (small, black); a non-climbing bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.
bziàa-bǎy rebozo bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.
bziàa-nquǐts white bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.
bziàa-guiès pot bean (large, black) Phaseolus vulgaris L.
bziàa-dǐp cultivated bean gone wild; grows in poor soils Phaseolus vulgaris L.
bziàa-xtîl Castillian bean, fava bean Vicia faba L.
bziàa-bǐch cowpea, blackeyed pea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.
lbêrg field pea Pisum sativum L.
bziàa-dán wild bean Cologania brousonettii (Balbis) DC.
bziàa-nàad wild bean Rhynchosia discolor

Table 5.7. Squash Varieties Named in San Juan Gbëë.

[lbæ̀-]guìt squash in general Cucurbita spp.
[lbæ̀-]guìt-gù pumpkin, red, thick-skinned; planted below town Cucurbita moschata Duch.
[lbæ̀-]guìt-gù-bæ̌æl pumpkin, red, thin-skinned; planted below town Cucurbita moschata Duch.
[lbæ̀-]guìt-tàliân Italian squash; planted near town Cucurbita pepo L.
[lbæ̀-]guìt-wěedz gourd squash; best planted above town Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché
[lbæ̀-]guìt-wèts type of squash; planted near town Cucurbita pepo L.
mìyàp chayote Sechium edule (Jacq.) SW.
[lbæ̀-]guìt-nlǎ squash, wild Apodanthera aspera Cogn.

Table 5.8. Pests of San Juan Gbëë crops.

mtsàn gallina ciega larvae of june bugs Phyllophaga spp., Melolonthidae attacks roots
má-zhǒb1 comején larvae of moths Lepidoptera spp. attacks seeds
má-zhǒb2 palomita larvae of moths Lepidoptera spp. attacks seeds
mxìl̲ polilla moth that emerges from infested corn Lepidoptera spp. invades corn, flies out when disturbed
ngùxôg -weevil Curculionidae spp. attacks stored corn
měe-tsò langosta locust Acrididae spp. rare; no recent attacks
má-bziàa bichos de frijól, catarinas bean beetles, tiny, metallic red and blue Chrysomelidae spp. eats leaves
mæ̀z costoche, zorro gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus eats elotes
còyôt coyote coyote Canis latrans eats elotes
tlàcuâch tlacuache opossum Didelphis marsupialis eats elotes
ngǎ cacalote common raven Corvus corax eats mazorcas
cuǐl̲ urraca western scrub-jay Aphelocoma occidentalis eats mazorcas
mguîn̲-ngǎs sanate great-tailed grackle Cassidix mexicanus eats mazorcas
pěch zopilote turkey vulture Cathartes aura eats mazorcas

Table 5.9. San Juan Gbëë cultivated tubers.

lbæ̀-gù potato Solanum tuberosum L.
gù-blâg sweet potato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.
gù-bé oca Oxalis tuberosa Molina
yam Dioscorea batatas L.
manioc Manihot esculenta Crantz

Table 5.10. San Juan Gbëë tree species cultivated in the riparian zone orchards.

yàg-mângw mango mango Mangifera indica L.
yàg-guiál cherimolla custard apple Anonna cherimola Mill.
yàg-bdiò-guìx cuajilote tree cucumber Parmentiera aculeata (Kunth) Seemann
yàg-saùc saúco elderberry Sambucus mexicana Presl.
yàg-pàpây papaya papaya Carica papaya L.
yàg-bdièx laurel laurel Licaria glaucescens
yàg-ngùd-guièx-ngǎs aguacate avocado Persea americana Mill.
yàg-ngùd-guièx-pèlôt aguacate avocado Persea americana Mill.
yàg-ngùd-guièx-zhàb aguacate avocado Persea americana Mill.
yàg-ngùd-guièx-ziôol aguacate avocado Persea americana Mill.
yàg-ngùd-guèy-mcàal̲ nanché nanche Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) H.B.K.
yàg-guîgw higo fig Ficus carica L.
yàg-bdiò-pérôn plátano banana Musa sapientum L.
yàg-bdiò-gnî guineo banana Musa sapientum L.
yàg-bdiò-mànzân plátano banana Musa sapientum L.
yàg-buí guajava guava Psidium guajava L.
gòob-guì carrizo cane Arundo donax L.
nìt caña de azucar sugar cane Saccarum officinarum L.
yàg-ngùd-guìziè granada pomegranate Punica granatum L.
yàg-mànzànít manzanita Mexican hawthorn Crataegus pubescens (H.B.K.) Steud.
yàg-mànzànít-ncuàan manzanita Mexican hawthorn Crataegus pubescens (H.B.K.) Steud.
yàg-mbrî membrillo quince Cydonia oblonga Mill.
yàg-nîspèrò níspero loquat Eriobotrys japonica Lind.
yàg-mànzân-fuîn manzana apple Malus pumila Mill.
yàg-mànzân-zhiàl manzana apple Malus pumila Mill.
yàg-drâz-côc durazno peach Prunus armeniaca L.
yàg-drâz durazno peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.
yàg-drâz-prîscw durazno peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.
yàg-bzià-0 cerezo cherry Prunus serotina var. calpuli Ehrh.
yàg-bzià-guìt cerezo cherry Prunus serotina var. calpuli Ehrh.
yàg-bzià-làs cerezo cherry Prunus serotina var. calpuli Ehrh.
yàg-zârz zarzamora blackberry Rubus spp.
yàg-càfê café coffee Coffea arabica L.
yàg-ngùd-guèy zapote blanco white zapote Casimiroa edulis Llave & Lex.
yàg-lîm lima lime Citrus aurantiifolia (Chrst.) Swingle.
yàg-nàrânj naranja agria sour orange Citrus aurantium L.
yàg-lìm-chîch- sweet lime Citrus limetta Risso
yàg-lìmà-lìmôn lima-limón lemon-lime Citrus x limonia Osbeck
yàg-sîdr citron citron Citrus medica L.
yàg-màndàrín mandarina mandarin orange Citrus reticulata

30 species + 10 varieties = 40 types; of 23 genera of 15 families

Table 5.11. San Juan Gbëë food plants, including condiments and beverage plants (41 families / 93 genera / 144 species).

AgavaceaeAgave (7 species)
AlliaceaeAllium (2 species)
AmaranthaceaeAmaranthus hybridus
AnacardiaceaeMangifera indica
-Spondias purpurea
AnnonaceaeAnnona (2 species)
ApiaceaeAnethum graveolens
-Apium graveolens
-Coriandrum sativum
-Daucus carota
-Foeniculum vulgare
-Petroselinum crispum
-Pimpinella anisum
AsteraceaeBidens ostruthioides
-Bidens cf. lemonii
-Lactuca sativa
-Porophyllum tagetioides
-Salmea scandens
BignoniaceaeParmentiera aculeata
BrassicaceaeBrassica (2 species)
-Raphanus sativus
-Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum
BromeliaceaeAnanas comosus
-Hechtia (2 species)
CactaceaeCoryphantha bumamma
-Hylocereus undatus
-Mammillaria (2 species)
-Opuntia (Nopalea) auberi
-Opuntia (6 species)
-Stenocereus (2 species)
CaricaceaeCarica papaya
ChenopodiaceaeChenopodium (2 species)
ConvolvulaceaeIpomoea (2 species)
CucurbitaceaeCitrullus lanatus
-Cucumis melo ssp. melo var. dudaim
-Cucurbita (3 species)
-Cyclanthera langaei
-Sechium edule
CyperaceaeCyperus cf. esculentus
EbenaceaeDiospyros digyna
EuphorbiaceaeManihot esculenta
FabaceaeAcacia angustissima
-Crotalaria (4 species)
-Erythrina americana
-Leucaena (3 species)
-Pachyrrhysus erosus
-Phaseolus (2 species)
-Pisum sativum
-Vicia faba
-Vigna unguiculata
LamiaceaeOcimum basilicum
-Origanum (2 species)
-Thymus vulgaris
LauraceaeCinnamomum zeylanicum
-Litsea glaucescens
-Persea americana
MalpighiaceaeByrsonima (2 species)
MoraceaeFicus carica
MusaceaeMusa sapientum
MyrtaceaePsidium guajava
OrchidaceaeEncyclia (2 species)
OxalidaceaeOxalis (7 species)
PassifloraceaePassiflora cf. exsudans
PhytolaccaceaePhytolacca icosandra
PiperaceaePiper auritum
PoaceaeCymbopogon citratus
-Oryza sativa
-Saccharum officinarum
-Triticum aestivum
-Zea mays
PortulacaceaePortulaca oleracea
PunicaceaePunica granatum
RosaceaeCraetagus pubescens
-Cydonia oblonga
-Eriobotrya japonica
-Fragaria sp.
-Malus domestica
-Prunus (3 species)
-Pyrus communis
-Rubus (2 species)
RubiaceaeCoffea arabica
RutaceaeCitrus (7 species)
SapotaceaeManilkara zapota
-Pouteria sapota
SolanaceaeCapsicum (2 species)
-Lycianthes (2 species)
-Lycopersicon esculentum
-Physalis (2 species)
-Solanum (3 species)
SterculiaceaeTheobroma cacao
VerbenaceaeLippia (2 species)
-Verbena (2 species)
VitaceaeVitis vinifera

Table 5.12. Edible weedy greens of local fields and roadsides ("quelites").

guìzbǽ amaranth (3 varieties) Amaranthus hibridus L.
liôdz Lemmon´s beggarticks Bidens aff. lemmonii A. Gray
mòztâz-nrùudz mustard greens Brassica campestris L.
mòztâz-guièts mustard greens Brassica nigra (L.) Koch.
guièe-dzîl-mòrâd- Campylocentrum micranthum (Lindl.) Rolfe
dàc goosefoot Chenopodium album L.
ptiè epazote (2 varieties) Chenopodium ambrosioides L. = Teloxys ambrosioides (L.) Weber
ncuàan-yê chepíl Crotalaria longirostrata Hook. & Arn.
pxǐizh chepíl Crotalaria pumila Ort.
pxǐizh chepíl Crotalaria cf. filifolia Rose
guìzh-dǐp-còyûl yellow nutsedge Cyperus cf. esculentus L.
dzîl-dán- Encyclia michoacana (La Llave & Lexera) Schlechter
brǔn-yǎl cactus flower, fruit Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britton & Rose
bìt-wàd mint Micromeria chamissonis (Benth.) E. Greene
guiée-bé oxalis Oxalis alpina Torr.
guiée-bé oxalis Oxalis divergens Benth.
guiée-bé oxalis Oxalis hernandezii DC.
guiée-bé oxalis Oxalis cf. latifolia H.B.K.
guiée-bé oxalis Oxalis magnifica (Rose) Kunth
guiée-bé oxalis Oxalis tetraphylla Cav.
guìzh-bziě pokeweed Phytolacca icosandra L.
nlì-dûn pepicha Porophyllum tagetoides (H.B.K.) DC.
guìzh-wlàdz verdolaga Portulaca oleracea L.

23 species; of 13 genera of 12 families

Table 5.13. San Juan Gbëë fodder plants (26 families / 63 genera/ 95 species).

Amaranthaceae (4/1)Iresine calea (Ibañez) Standley
-Iresine cassiniformis Schauer
-Iresine celosia L.
-Iresine grandis Standley
Apiaceae (2/2)Berula erecta (Hunders.) Coville
-Eryngium cf. cymosum Delar.
Asclepiadaceae (2/2)Asclepias fournieri Wood. (rabbits)
-Matalea dictyantha Wood.
Asteraceae (18/10)Aster subulatus Michx. (goats)
-Bidens aurea (Ait.) Sherff.
-Bidens cf. bicolor Greenman
-Bidens cf. ferulaefolia (Jacq.) DC.
-Bidens cf. lemmonii Gray (goats)
-Bidens odorata Cav.
-Bidens pilosa L.
-Bidens serrulata (Poir.) Desf.
-Cirsium ehrenbergii Sch. Bip.
-Eupatorium sp. (goats)
-Gnaphalium chartaceum Greenm.
-Gnaphalium oxyphyllum DC.
-Gnaphalium inornatum DC.
-Lagascea helianthifolia Kunth.
-Perymenium spp. (burros especially)
-Stevia aschenborniana Sch. Bip.
-Simsia amplexicaulis (Cav.) Peters (donkeys)
-Sonchus oleraceus L. (goats, rabbits)
-Verbesina spp. (burros especially)
-Viguiera spp. (burros especially)
-Viguiera grammatoglossa DC.
Brassicaceae (3/3)Eruca sativa Mill.
-Lepidium virginicum L. (rabbits)
-Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br.
Capparaceae (1/1)Polanisia uniglandulosa (Cav.) DC. (cattle, goats, but not donkeys)
Caryophyllaceae (2/2)Arenaria lycopodioides Willd.
-Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd.
Chenopodiaceae (1/1)Chenopodium murale L.
Cuscutaceae (1/1)Cuscuta tinctoria C. Martius
Cyperaceae (5/4)Carex polystachya Sw.
-Cyperus hermaphroditus (Jacq.) Standl.
-Eleocharis cf. acicularis (L.) R. Br.
-Eleocharis geniculatus (L.) Roem. & Schult.
-Scirpus sp.
Euphorbiaceae (1/1)Acalypha indica L. var. mexicana (Muell. Arg.) Pax & K. Hoffm.
Fabaceae (26/13)Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
-Acacia pennatula (Schldl. & Cham.) Stand. (favorite of cattle)
-Brongniartia lupinoides (Kunth) Standl.
-Calliandra grandiflora Benth.
-Calliandra houstoniana (Mill.) Standl.
-Canavalia hirsuta (M. Martens & Galeotti) Standley
-Canavalia villosa Benth.
-Canavalia viscosa (Balbis) DC.
-Crotalaria acapulcensis Hook. & Arn.
-Crotalaria mollicula Ort.
-Leucaena diversifolia (Schl.) Benth.
-Leucaena trichandra (Zuccarini) Urban
-Lysiloma acapulcensis (Kunth.) Benth.
-Macroptilium atropurpureum
-Macroptilium gibbosifolium (Ort.) Delgado
-Medicago lupulina L. (rabbits)
-Medicago denticulata Willd. (rabbits)
-Medicago sativa L. (rabbits)
-Mimosa biuncifera Benth.
-Mimosa galeottii Benth.
-Rhynchosia discolor (goats)
-Rhynchosia macrocarpa Benth.
-Senna galeottiana (Martens) H.S. Irwin & R.C. Barneby (fatten goats, donkeys)
-Senna greggii (Rose) Irwin & Barneby (fatten goats, donkeys)
-Senna polyantha (Colladon) H. S. Irwin & R. C. Barneby (fatten goats, donkeys)
-Trifolium amabile Kunth
Geraniaceae (2/1)Geranium crenatifolium Moore
-Geranium cf. mexicanum Kunth
Juncaceae (1/1)Juncus sp.
Krameriaceae (2/1)Krameria cuspidata Presl.
-Krameria cytisoides Cav.
Lamiaceae (1/1)Salvia tricuspidata Mart. & Gal.
Moraceae (1/1)Ficus cf. padifolia H.B.K.
Onagraceae (3/3)Epilobium mexicanum DC. (rabbits)
-Lopezia racemosa Cav.
-Oenothera rosea Aiton
Passifloraceae (2/1)Passiflora bryonioides Kunth
-Passiflora exsudans Zucc.
Poaceae (7/7)Arundo donax L.
-Avena cf. fatua L. (favorite)
-Andropogon sp.
-Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn.
-Lasiacis sp.
-Panicum trichoides Sw.
-Pennisetum purpureum Schumann
Polygonaceae (2/1)Rumex crispus L. (rabbits)
-Rumex cf. mexicana (rabbits)
Ranunculaceae (3/1)Ranunculus cf. macranthus Scheele
-Ranunculus petiolaris H.B.K. ex DC. var. sierrae-orientalis Benson
-Ranunculus cf. petiolaris H.B.K. ex DC.
Rhamnaceae (1/1)Ceanothus coeruleus Lag. (goats)
Rosaceae (1/1)Holodiscus argenteus (L. f.) Maxim.
Solanaceae (2/1)Physalis nicandroides Schlecht.
-Physalis angutata L.
Zygophyllaceae (1/1)Tribulus cistoides L.

Table 5.14. San Juan Gbëë firewood plants (25 families/ 46 genera/ 70 species).

Cupressaceae (1/1)Juniperus flaccida Schl.
Pinaceae (7/1)Pinus ayacahuite Ehrenb.
-Pinus devoniana Lindley
-Pinus pseudostrobus (Lindley) var. apulcensis (Lindley) G. R. Shaw (ocote )
-Pinus teocote Schl. & Cham. (trunnels)
-Pinus douglasiana Mart.
-Pinus leiophylla Schl. & Cham. var. leiophylla
-Pinus hartwegii Lindley
Amaranthaceae (4/1)Iresine calea (Ibañez) Standley
-Iresine cassiniformis Schauer
-Iresine celosia L.
-Iresine grandis Standley
Anacardiaceae (3/2)Pistacia mexicana H.B.K.
-Rhus costaricensis Riley
-Rhus mollis H.B.K.
Asteraceae (8/4)Baccharia multiflora Kunth
-Eupatorium mairetianum DC.
-Stevia caracasana DC.
-Stevia incognita Grashoff
-Stevia jorullensis L.
-Stevia lucida Lag.
-Stevia seleriana B. L. Rob.
-Verbesina perymenioides Sch. Dip.
Betulaceae (3/1)Alnus acuminata Kunth var. arguta (Schlechtendal)
-Alnus acuminata Kunth var. glabrata (Fern) Furlow
-Alnus firmifolia Fernald = Alnus jorullenis H.B.K. var. jorullensis
-Alnus jorullenis H.B.K. var. lutea Kunth
Bignoniaceae (1/1)Tecoma stans (L.) H.B.K.
Casuarinaceae (1/1)Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Ericaceae (2/2)Arbutus xalapensis H.B.K.
-Arctostaphylos pungens (burns rapidly, good kindling)
-Comarostaphylis glaucescens (Kunth.) Zucc.
Fabaceae (14/9)Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
-Brongniartia lupinoides (Kunth) Standl.
-Calliandra grandiflora Benth.
-Calliandra houstoniana (Mill.) Standl.
-Conzattia multiflora (Rob. ) Standl.
-Erythrina americana Mill.
-Eysenhardtia platycarpa Pennell & Safford ex Pennell (excellent)
-Eysenhardtia cf. polystachea (Ortega) Sarg. (excellent)
-Lysiloma acapulcensis (Kunth.) Benth.
-Mimosa biuncifera Benth.
-Mimosa galeottii Benth.
-Senna holwayana (Rose) Irwin & Barneby
-Senna pringlei
-Senna vilosa Mill.
Fagaceae (5/1)Quercus castanea Née
-Quercus conzattii Trel.
-Quercus crassifolia Humb. & Bonpl.
-Quercus magnoliifolia Née
-Quercus sebifera Trelease
Garryaceae (1/1)Garrya laurifolia Hartw.
Krameriaceae (2/1)Krameria cuspidata Presl.
-Krameria cytisoides Cav.
Loasaceae (1/1)Mentzelia conzatti Greenm.
Malpighiaceae (2/2)Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) H.B.K.
-Bunchosia lindeniana Ard. Juss.
Moraceae (1/1)Ficus cf. padifolia H.B.K.
Myricaceae (1/1)Myrica cerifera L.
Myrtaceae (2/2)Eucalyptus globulus Labill.
-Psidium guajava L.
Olacaceae (1/1)Schoepfia shreberi Gemel.
Oleaceae (3/2)Fraxinus purpusii Brandeg.
-Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Linglesheim
-Ligustrum lucidum Aiton
Rhamnaceae (1/1)Ceanothus coeruleus Lag. (hard wood burns all night)
Rosaceae (2/2)Holodiscus argenteus (L. f.) Maxim.
-Prunus serotina Ehrh. ssp. calpuli Cav.
Salicaceae (2/4)Populus fremontii S. Wats.
-Populus mexicana Wesmae.
-Salix nigra March.
-Salix oxylepis C. Schneider
Ulmaceae (1/2)Celtis pallida Torr.
-Celtis caudata Planch.
Verbenaceae (1/1)Lippia pringlei Briq.

Table 5.15. Number of genera and species reportedly used in support of particular functions of San Juan Gbëë agricultural production by select plant families.

Plant family forage/fodder* fuel* food*
Total 26/63/95 25/46/70 41/93/144
Apiaceae 2/2 0/0 7/7
Asteraceae 10/18 4/8 4/5
Cactaceae 0/0 0/0 6/13
Cucurbitaceae 0/0 0/0 5/7
Cyperaceae 4/5 0/0 1/1
Fabaceae 13/26 9/14 9/15
Fagaceae 0/0 1/5 0/0
Pinaceae 0/0 1/7 0/0
Poaceae 7/7 0/0 5/5
Rosaceae 1/1 2/2 8/11
Solanaceae 1/2 0/0 5/9

* If two numbers are separated by a slash, the first is the number of genera of the family listed, the second the number of species; for the “Total” column with three numbers separated by slashes, the first is the total number of families, the second of genera, and the last of species with the use indicated in the column heading.

Table 5.16. Varieties of chickens (Gallus gallus) recognized in San Juan Gbëë.

nguǐd pollo (en general), la gallina chicken, in general
nguǐd-còpètôn gallina con plumas en la cabeza chicken, feathers on crown
nguǐd-ngǎs gallina negra chicken, black
nguǐd-nìzhniê gallina rojo chicken, red
nguǐd-pèlûq gallina con cuello sin pluma chicken with bare neck
nguǐd-pînt gallina empedrada chicken, barred gray & white
nguǐd-zhǎnd gallina, patas cortas chicken, short feathered legs
nguǐd-zhìid tipo de gallina chicken, type
nguǐd-gây [= gây] gallo chicken, male
nguǐd-gùs gallina chicken, female
nguǐd-yèen* pollito chick

Table 5.17. Domestic animal statistics for San Juan Gbëë, 2003.

- goats sheep goats & sheep burros mules Equus total oxen
counted 747 164 911 99 18 117 34
per household 8.2 1.8 10.0 1.1 0.2 1.3 0.4
estimated 1510 332 1842 200 36 237 69

Table 5.18. Goat statistics for San Juan Gbëë, 2003.

-male goats female goats kids goats total goats sold last year value goats eaten last year
counted 291 298 158 747 35 - 15
per household 3.2 3.3 1.7 8.2 0.4 $1,150. 0.2
estimated 588 603 319 1510 71 $28,308 30

Table 5.19. Edible fungi harvested in San Juan Gbëë.

měy-còlìflôr [= měy-diàg-bǐch] hongo de coliflor “cauliflower mushroom” Hydnum repandum, Hydnaceae
měy-dùuzh hongo de elote “string-bean mushroom” Ramaria sp., Clavariaceae
méy-guièl cuitlacoche corn smut Ustilago maydis, Ustilaginaceae
měy-guièt-xtîl hongo de pan bolete, edible Boletus edulis, Boletaceae
měy-guìin hongo de chili “chili mushroom” Hydromyces lactiflourum, Pyrenomycetes
měy-lân hongo de lana mushroom, edible, black gills Agaricus silvaticus, A. campestris, Agaricaceae
měy-mdzìn hongo de venado matsutake Tricholoma sp., Tricholomataceae
měy-yàg-guièr nanacate oyster mushroom Pleurotus sp., Pleurotaceae
měy-yù hongo de tierra “earth mushroom” Polyporus tuberaster?, Polyporaceae
měy-yùp hongo de ? mushroom Amanita caesarea, Amanitaceae

11 species of 10 genera of 10 families

Table 5.20. Mammal and bird species named as potential prey by San Juan Gbëë hunters.

cònêf cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus Lagomorpha
cònêf cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus cunicularis Lagomorpha
mliàn jackrabbit Lepus calliotis Lagomorpha
ndzǐz tree squirrel Sciurus aureogaster Rodentia
mdzìn white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Artiodactyla
mèr-zhîg = chìchàlâc West Mexican chachalaca Ortalis poliocephala Cracidae
mtsòo long-tailed wood-partridge Dendrortyx macroura Phasianidae
mtǒ Montezuma quail Cyrtonyx montezumae Phasianidae
pàlôm-dán band-tailed pigeon Columba fasciata Columbidae
mézh mourning dove Zenaida macroura Columbidae

10 species of 6 families

Table 5.21. Terms for plowing and parts of the plow in San Juan Gbëë.

Zapotec term English gloss Preferred material-
tìb næ̂z-ngon team of oxen- Bos taurus
ngǒn-nòví ox- Bos taurus
ngǒn-mèc honey-colored ox- Bos taurus
rrâd the plow- -
yûg the yoke yàg-zhguiès Salix bonplandiana
tîm the plow beam yàg-lbìis Quercus laurina
tàlêl the talél yàg-zhòg, yàg-yàz Quercus conzattii, Lysiloma acapulcensis
nià-rrâd the handle- -
guìib-ló-rrâd the blade- iron
còyûnt the bindings làd ngǒn cowhide
bàràsôn- - -
guìib-gòn digging stick yàg-zhòg Quercus conzattii

Table 6.1. Medicinal plant species by origin (native to Mexico or introduced from elsewhere) and management status (cultivated, wild, both, or market herbs).

- Not cultivated Mixed Cultivated Purchased Total
Native 127 (95/77/58%) 22 (92/13/10%) 13 (23/78/6%) 4 (67/2/2%) 166 (76%)
Introduced 6 (5/11/3%) 2 (8/4/1%) 43 (77/81/20%) 2 (33/4/1%) 53 (24%)
Total 133 (61%) 24 (11%) 56 (26%) 6 (3%) 219

Table 6.2. Non-cultivated medicinal plant species (including both native and introduced species) by association with human disturbance.

- Wild Ruderal Total occurring
Native 92 (62%) 57 (38%) 149
Introduced 0 8 (100%) 8
Total 92 (59%) 65 (41%) 157

Table 6.3. Summary of types of medicinal plant treatments in San Juan Gbëë.

Gastrointestinal treatments 57
Eye, ear, nose, mouth, and throat treatments 26
Skin and hair treatments 32
Pain and fever treatments 27
Urinogenital and reproductive treatments 22
Psychological and characterological treatments 26
Spiritual treatments 5
Miscellaneous: environmental and veterinary treatments 4
Duplicate listings 28
Total of distinct plant remedies 199
Uncertain treatments 13

Table 6.4. Examples of terms with the prefix guièl̲- (Reeck 1991).

guièl̲bìinî intelligence
guièl̲blæ̀æ anger, wrath
guièl̲blěy joy, happiness
guièl̲ców darkness, ignorance
guièl̲dzìn boasting, arrogance
guièl̲gbàan theft, robbery
guièl̲gôl old age, senility
guièl̲gòn planting
guièl̲gònziù drunken binge, drunkenness, alcoholism
guièl̲guîdz sickness
guièl̲guìts corn hair, hair of the ear of corn
guièl̲mbán life
guièl̲mbǎn poverty
guièl̲nàbèy rule, power to command other
guièl̲ndâan health, good health
guièl̲ndzòn beauty, glory
guièl̲næ̀ suffering, sadness
guièl̲niǎts pride, haughtiness
guièl̲ntsěeb evil, bad deed
guièl̲nxèn stupidity
guiél̲nzàac treasure, blessing, harvest, favor
guièl̲prôb poverty
guièl̲quì harm, damage
guièl̲ràc ability, agility
guièl̲rbân nostalgia, home-sickness
guièl̲siěel wedding, matrimony
guièl̲tó shame, shyness
guièl̲wâgw food, meal, eating
guièl̲wquìdiê trick, deceit, fraud
guièl̲wsàcsǐ punishment, unjust punishment
guièl̲wxtǐs justice, government, law
guièl̲wzèe mockery, derision
guièl̲xtěeb danger
guièl̲yôzh adultery, extramarital relations
guièl̲zǐ tragedy, misfortune, divine punishment

Table 6.5. Examples of diseases with the suffix guîdz.

guídz-gùtiè epilepsy
guídz-rcòw epilepsy
guídz-rzhìdz epilepsy
guídz-bdìin mal aire
guídz-mê mal aire
guìdz-guià colds
guídz-rdzìb vomiting
guídz-dán diarrhea
guídz-ràgw constipation
guídz-zân child birth
guîdz-riân kidney stones

Table 6.6. Medicinal Herbs Characterized as to “Hot” or “Cold” by Linares, Bye, and Flores (1999), with San Juan Gbëë Correspondences.

Arctostaphylos pungens cool niág kidneys, etc.
Crataegus pubescens cool niág kidneys
Equisetum myriochaetum cool niág kidneys
Foeniculum vulgare cool/hot niág diarrhea, stomach ache
Malva parviflora cool niág fever; rash
Selaginella lepidophylla cool niág kidneys
Rosa x centifolia medium niág fevers; rash
Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. mexicana hot ndzæ̌æ cough
Brickellia vernoicaefolia* hot ndz…æ tooth ache
Eucalyptus globulus hot ndzæ̌æ cough; stomach ache
Gnaphalium spp. hot ndzæ̌æ coughs; wounds
Litsea (Licaria) glaucescens hot ndzæ̌æ “cold” conditions
Marrubium vulgare hot ndzæ̌æ stomach ache; aires
Matricaria recutita hot ndzæ̌æ stomach ache
Mentha rotundifolia* hot ndzæ̌æ cough; childbirth
Satureja macrostemma hot ndzæ̌æ stomach ache
Tagetes lucida hot ndzæ̌æ stomach ache; childbirth

* allied species of the same genus

Table 6.7. Some examples of plant parts used in San Juan remedies.

Plant part Zapotec name Latin name disease: procedure
Whole plant nlít-quiè Dalea foliolosa empacho: steep plant in water, drink
- blâg-mêd Malva parviflora fever, sores: boil, drink or wash with infusion
Leaf yàg-yàaz-làs Baccharis mexicana ear ache: chop leaf, insert in ear with mezcal
- blâg-wì Buddleia spp. chaneque: apply to foot with mezcal
Flower yàg-saûz Sambucus mexicana cough: boil flowers, drink tea
- yàg-yǎn Arbutus xalapensis fright: with Wigandia leaf
Fruit mòxtâz Brassica spp. to protect child from witching: scatter seeds under bed
- yàg-lìmàlìmôn Citrus x limonia bad stomach: pulp and skin of fruit
Root bià-tòo Microsechium helleri nerves, insanity: drink extract of root as purgative
- guìzh-ngùd-lèn̲ Valeriana cf. densiflora inguinal hernia: boil root, drink infusion
Bark yàg-frêsn Fraxinus americana var. texensis fever: drink infusion of bark and leaves
- yàg-ngùd-guièe-ziè Punica granatum dysentery: extract of bark
Sap guìzh-biè Euphorbia hyssopifolia cataracts: three drops in eye
- yàg-yàal Bursera spp. backache: scrape bark, collect pitch on paper, apply
Other pcuêl Zea mays, totomostle retained placenta: use corn husks
- měy-dòop Lycoperdon perlatum (a fungus) wounds: apply spores to stanch bleeding

Table 6.8. Some examples of San Juan medicinal plants restricted by habitat.

Habitat Zapotec name Latin name Remedy
Plants cultivated in household gardens guìzh-mîrt Salvia microphylla post-partum hemmorhage
- yàg-blàp Ricinus communis stomach, back pain
Weedy plants of roadsides, and fallow fields yàg-yàaz Baccharis, Barkleyanthus, Montanoa stomach ache, fever, childbirth
- ncuàan-dzéb-zhòmbrêl Aristolochia cf. pentandra night fright
Wild plants of pine and oak forests yàg-lgâzh Abies guatemalensis bad aires
- bià-tòo Microsechium helleri nerves, insanity
Wild plants of deciduous thorn forests yàg-bèch-mbǎr Rhus oaxacana + skin and mouth sores
- yàg-yàal Bursera spp. backache
Riparian woodland plants yàg-zhguiès-0 Salix bonplandiana fright, rage, child birth
- yàg-guìzdòo Taxodium mucronatum skin problems
Wetland plants x-pàan-ngùtsiěts Equisetum myriochaetum kidney problems
- blag-sàntên Plantago galeottiana medicine
Plants of rocky or sandy soils bàz Phlebodium aureolatum dysentery
- guièe-yùzh Echeverria, Sedum skin and mouth sores

Table 6.9. Examples of limpias employed in San Juan Gbëë.

yàg-guièe-zhǐn Cestrum dumetorum unspecified [cool]
blâg-zhnâzh Croton ciliato-glandulifer mal ojo
yàg-bdìin = guìzh-zhwèe Eupatorium mairetianum mal aire, el que susto por sueña [cool]
gbày tǽ Helianthemum glomeratum susto
zhwǐs Iresine spp. espanto, mal aire
yàg-brètâyn Nicotiana glauca unspecified [cool]
guìzh-àlbâc Ocimum basilicum espanto, mal aire [cool]
guìzh-ròmêr Rosmarinus officinalis burn as fumigant to “limpiar la casa, quitar sueño pesado
lùsêm Salvia lavanduloides, S. muscuroides burn as fumigant to “limpiar la casa, quitar sueño pesado” [cool]
guìzh-mîrt Salvia microphylla burn as fumigant to “limpiar la casa, quitar sueño pesado” [cool]
guièe-dzǐn̲g Salvia spp. not specified

Table 6.10. Gastrointestinal remedies.

diarrhea guìdzdán
Alternanthera caracasana guìzh-guìdzdán
Argemone mexicana guièts-nîz
Pinguicula macrophylla, P. moranensis diàg-cûch
diarrhea of children-
Salvia lavanduloides, S. muscuroides lùsêm
Tagetes filifolia, T. micrathantha guìzh-nìzh
diarrhea with indigestion-
Plumeria rubra f. acutifolia yàg-guièe-yǎl
Verbena officinalis ptiôn
diarrhea with vomiting nì guídz-rdzìb
Tagetes erecta var. 1 guièe-cǒb-mzhǐg
cold diarrhea-
Cinnamomum zeylanicum yàg-cànêl
Matricaria recutita w/ Foeniculum vulgare guièe-mànzànî w/ guìzh-hìnôj
Oxalis corniculata guìzh-bdiò-guìx
dysentery yòob-chèn
Cydonia oblonga yàg-mèmbrî
Elaphoglossum spp. lùdz-mdzìn
Eryngium cf. cymosum guièts-mél-lò
Gomphrena diffusa guìzh-guiět-nì
Punica granatum yàg-ngùd-guièe-ziè
dysentery with fever-
Phlebodium aureolatum bàz
stomach ache yòob-zdòo
Baccharis mexicana, B. serraefolia yàg-yàaz-làs
Baccharis salicifolia yàg-yàaz-nquǐts
Buddleia sessiliflora blâg-wì
Chrysanthemum parthenium guièe-sàntàmàrǐ-nquǐts
Dodonaea viscosa yàg-blâg-bîdz
Galinsoga parviflora guièe-sàntàmàrǐ-làs
Matricaria recutita guièe-mànzànî
Melia azedarach yàg-pàraîs
Mimosa albida var. strigata guièts-làa-tó
Montanoa tomentosa yàg-yàaz-ngǎs
Ricinus communis yàg-blàp
Tithonia tubaeformis bâr-dòo-lǎ
Valeriana cf. densiflora guìzh-ngùd-lèn
stomach ache, bilious bìlîs
Coreopsis mutica var. carnosifolia ncuàan-bzhiân
Eucalyptus globulus yàg-eùcàlîpt
Gnaphalium spp., Conyza gnaphaloides sìmònî
Marrubium vulgare màrrûb
Plumbago pulchella guìzh-nàad
Prunus persica yàg-drâz
Prunus serotina ssp. calpuli yàg-bziǎ
Iresine spp. zhwǐs
stomach ache with nausea-
Tilia occidentalis, T. mexicana guièe-tîl
stomach ache, colicky-
Artemisia absinthium guìzh-maêstr
Tagetes lucida guièe-dzùu
stomach ache with diarrhea-
Tagetes filifolia, T. micrathantha guìzh-nìzh
Verbena officinalis w/ Matricaria recutita, Mentha sp., Crotalaria spp. ptiôn
stomach ache with fever-
Citrus aurantiifolia w/ Ruta chalepensis, R. graveolens w/ guaco yàg-lîm-0
rheumatic stomach reúma del estómago
Citrus aurantium w/ Ruta chalepensis, Ruta graveolens w/ “guacoyàg-nàrânj w/ rrûd w/ guaco
stomach upset-
Cedrela odorata yàg-sîdr
Citrus x limonia yàg-lìmà-lìmôn
Micromeria chamissonis bìt-wàd
Salvia microphylla guìzh-mîrt
alcohol-related gastric distress-
Amaranthus hybridus guìzbæ̀
Bidens cf. bicolor; Bidens ostruthioides guièe-tǐ-nguěts; guièe-tǐ-dán
Bidens odorata; Bidens pilosa guièe-tǐ-nquǐts
Satureja macrostemma yàg-wǎas
empacho èmpâch
Acacia pennatula yàg-guièts-yàaz
Buddleia spp. blâg-wì
Chenopodium ambrosioides ptiè
Chenopodium graveolens w/ Eysenhardtia spp., Leucaena spp., Plumeria rubra guìzh-mèt w/ yàg-guièe-guiâ w/ yàg-guièe-yǎl
Dalea foliolosa nlít-quiè
empacho with vomiting-
Brassica campestris; Brassica nigra mòxtâz
Foeniculum vulgare guìzh-hìnôj
intestinal worms lòmbrîz
Chenopodium ambrosioides ptiè-mòrâd
Chenopodium graveolens guìzh-mèt
Jacaranda mimosifolia yàg-jàcàrân
Piper auritum blâg-guiùu
constipation guídz-ràgw
Chenopodium ambrosioides w/ C. graveolens ptiè w/ guìzh-mèt
Crotalaria pumila ncuàan-yè-nzhên
Rosa x centifolia guièe-rôs-càstî
Tamarindus indica yàg-tàmàrînd
stomach inflammation-
Arctostaphylos pungens yàg-blæ̀æ
Opuntia spp.; Nopalea auberi yàg-biǎa
stomach “attack”-
Mirabilis jalapa guièe-màràvî
loss of appetite-
Citrus x limonia yàg-lìmà-lìmôn
Iresine spp. zhwǐs
“airs” guídz-bdìin, guídz-mê, mê-yôzh
Dodonaea viscosa yàg-blâg-bîdz
Iresine spp. zhwǐs
Marrubium vulgare màrrûb
Satureja macrostemma yàg-wǎas
Wigandia urens blâg-wê

Table 6.11. Remedies for complaints of the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and throat.

Zapotec name Latin name Condition
guièe-màrpôl Alcea rosea whooping cough-
dòb-xtîl w/ guièe-tùts Aloe barbadensis w/ Tecoma stans coughs
guìzh-nêld Anethum graveolens coughs
guìzh-guièe-rò w/ yàg-làz, yàg-eùcàlîpt Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. mexicana w/ Cheiranthrodendron pentadactylon, Eucalyptus globulus coughs
bòrrâj, yàg-làz, yàg-mànzànît, gòrdòlôb, yàg-mànzân, spìnòsî, blâg-chòg, zhǒb-ngǎs Borago officinalis, Cheiranthrodendron pentadactylon, Crataegus pubescens, Gnaphalium spp., Malus domestica, Loeselia mexicana, Tournefortia spp., Zea mays coughs
mòxtâz Brassica campestris, B. nigra coughs; ronquera [hoarseness]
spìnòsî w/ bòrrâj, yàg-mànzànît Loeselia mexicana w/ Borago officinalis, Crataegus pubescens coughs
guìzh-mòstrânz Mentha rotundifolia coughs
yàg-saûz Sambucus mexicana coughs
màlbàrîscw Sida rhombifolia coughs
guièe-sàntàmàrǐ w/ Tanacetum parthenium w/ Calea hypoleuca coughs
guièe-dòrmìlôn Calendula officinalis sore throats
guìzh-rquiá-yàn Eupatorium petiolare tonsillitis; severe sore throat
mal-tuêrs Tropaeolum majus tonsillitis (angina)
guièe-sàntàmàrǐ-mòntês Helenium mexicanum clogged nasal passages
guièe-sàntàmàrǐ w/ guìzh-màrrûb Tanacetum parthenium w/ Marrubium vulgare colds
guièe-zhàn-biǎa w/ pèrèjîl Oenothera rosea w/ Petroselinum crispum nose bleeds
lbæ̀-guiùu Spirogyra nose bleeds
yàg-yàaz-làs Baccharis mexicana, B. serraefolia ear ache
yàg-blâg-bîdz Dodonaea viscosa aire en su oído
guìzh-ngudzìi Galium mexicanum ear ache
guièe-sàntàmàrǐ Tanacetum parthenium oído de frío
guièts-nîz Argemone mexicana “blood in the eye”; painful eyes
guìzh-biè Euphorbia heterophylla, E. hyssopifolia cataracts
guièe-mòrâd Pinaropappus roseus “blood in the eye”
yàg-guièe-yǎl Plumeria rubra f. acutifolia cataracts
yàg-nîspèrò Eriobotrya japonica inflammation of the gums (yòob-bàa)
guìzh-měy Asclepias curassavica tooth ache; caries
guìzh-yòob-lây Brickellia vernoicaefolia tooth ache
yàg-mângw Mangifera indica tooth ache

Table 6.12. Remedies for skin problems, wounds, etc.

bòrrâj, gòrdòlôb, guièe-rôs-càstî, yàg-bèch-mbǎr, yàg-guièdz-zân, blâg-chòg Bocconia arborescens, B. officinalis, Gnaphalium spp., Rosa x centifolia, Rhus spp., Solanum lanceolatum, Tournefortia densiflora, T. hartwegiana, Cordia salvadorensis cancer
mě-diè Lycoperdon cf. perlatum; Bovista sp., Calvatia sp. stanch wounds (spores)
guìzh-zhǐil-dán Acourtia sp. stanch wounds
guìzh-zhǐil-wlâgw Cheilanthes beitelii stanch wounds
dòb-xtîl Aloe barbadensis burns
guièe-jèrân-sùlfèrîn Pelargonium x hortorum burns ; grind leaves, apply
yàg-zhguiès-yǎ-guì Salix nigra, S. oxylepis body sores
yàg-pcuà Jatropha cordifolia, J. platyphylla canker sores
gbày tǽ Helianthemum glomeratum children´s rash
guièe-dzǐn̲g Salvia spp. and/or Lamourouxia spp., Penstemon spp., Lobelia spp., Castilleja spp. children´s rash
yàg-guièts-zhìg Fouquieria formosa cold sores
blâg-guiùu Piper auritum-
yàg-yàaz-ngǎs Montanoa tomentosa rash
guièe-rôs-càstî Rosa x centifolia mouth sores
yàg-bèch-mbǎr Rhus cf. terebinthifolia, R. oaxacana, R. pachyrrhachis mouth sores; diaper rash;
yàg-bèch-lsæ̀æb Rhus costaricensis and/or R. mollis mouth sores; diaper rash
xín-bèch-mbǎr Rhus standleyi, Chiococca alba mouth sores; diaper rash;
yàg-guìzdòo Taxodium mucronatum rash
guièe-mòrâd Pinaropappus roseus pimples, skin sores, diaper rash, or chapped skin
guìzh-nàad Mentzelia hispida ronchas
blâg-dòoz Rumex crispus, Rumex cf. mexicana ronchas
yàg-zhguiès Salix bonplandiana ronchas
guièe-yùzh Sedum prealtum, Echeverria spp. ronchas; fuegos en la boca
yàg-blæ̀æ w/ blâg-mêd Arctostaphylos pungens w/ Malva parviflora sores
blâg-mêd w/ spènòsî, guièe-rôs-càstî, gòrdòlôb Malva parviflora w/ Loeselia mexicana, Rosa x centifolia, Gnaphalium spp. sores (granos), and wounds
guìzh-làs Piqueria pilosa sores on the hands; granos sencillos
yàg-làa Mentzelia conzatti sores, ronchas, granos
bæ̌æl-dǒ Piqueria trinervia sores; diaper rash (granitos); manchas blancas
bòrrâj w/ gordolobo Borago officinalis w/ Gnaphalium spp. measles
màlbàrîscw Sida rhombifolia measles
blâg-mêd w/ guièe-rôs-nquǐts, màlbàrîscw Malva parviflora, w/ Rosa cf. odorata, Sida rhombifolia skin rashes (granos); measles (sarampión)
yàg-làg Cnidoscolus multilobus “the sap removes the spines”
ncuàan-yè and/or ncuàan-yè-pxǐizh Crotalaria spp. ameliorate itch and swelling (contact dermatitis ) from Pseudosmodingium multifolium, Cnidoscolus multilobus
gbày Schkuhria anthemoides kill chiggers (aradores, mèx)
pxǐizh-wlàadz Crotalaria sp. pain of insect bites; pain of bee or wasp stings or fly bites
x-guìzh-ngulâdz Senna holwayana; Senna pringlei; Senna vilosa pain of the sting of an ant, mrè-dǔn
ncuàan-yè Crotalaria spp., w/ olive oil pain, burning of spines
dòb-pcuêl Agave marmorata snake, insect bite
rrûd Ruta chalepensis; Ruta graveolens, w/ “oil of San Sebastian” “fright”; skin discoloration (manchas)
bâr-dòo-lǎ Tithonia tubaeformis manchas
spìnòsî Loeselia mexicana; Loeselia glandulosa white spots and fever
yàg-pchǔux-yâas Solanum americanum w/ Piqueria trinervia skin discoloration (manchas, mânch-ngǎs `black spots´ and/or manchas blancas),
ncuǎan-yǎas Heimia salicifolia bæ̌æl-yâas (some kidney problem), manchas negras and sore bones; cuerda (guíp)
bià-tòo Microsechium helleri dandruff; lice
dòb-xtîl Aloe barbadensis prevent hair loss
blǎ-dǐp Phaseolus vulgaris skin problems

Table 6.13. Remedies for bodily pains and fevers.

“air,” side ache yàg-bnù Ipomoea intrapilosa
“black meat” (bæ̌æl-yâas), black spots and sore bones ncuǎan-yǎas Heimia salicifolia
“nails” (wdzìdz, clavillo), an “air” that “hits” yàg-blâg-bîdz Dodonaea viscosa
backache yàg-blæ̀æ Arctostaphylos pungens
backache yàg-yàal-nquǐts Bursera cf. fagaroides
backache yàg-guín-quiè Bursera galeottiana
backache yàg-yàal-ngǎs Bursera glabrifolia
backache yàg-yàal Bursera spp.
backache yàg-yàal-bey Bursera spp.
backache, body pain yàg-blàp Ricinus communis
backache, sore bones yàg-blâg-bîdz Dodonaea viscosa
blows yàg-guiél-bêdz Licania platypus
blows yàg-ngùd-guièx Persea americana
blows guìzh-ròmêr Rosmarinus officinalis
blows guièe-sàntàmàrǐ-nquǐts Tanacetum parthenium
bodily pains, e.g., aching or broken bones, side ache, blows, broken bones còrdèbân Euphorbia rossiana, Pedilanthus cf. tomentellus
body pain, “nails” (wdzidz, clavillo) màrrûb Marrubium vulgare
cleansing, hot pain yàg-brètâyn Nicotiana glauca
cold conditions yàg-laùrêl1 Litsea glaucescens
cold pain yàg-wǎas Satureja macrostemma
fever dòb-xtîl Aloe barbadensis
fever yàg-yàaz-nguěts Barkleyanthus salicifolium
fever mòxtâz Brassica campestris, B. nigra
fever yàg-frêsn Fraxinus americana var. texensis
fever spìnòsî-làs Loeselia glandulosa
fever spìnòsî Loeselia mexicana, L. glandulosa
fever blâg-mêd Malva parviflora
fever yàg-pàraîs Melia azedarach
fever bàz Phlebodium aureolatum
fever màlbàrîscw Sida rhombifolia
fever, headaches yàg-guièe-zhǐn Cestrum dumetorum
fever, wounds guièe-rôs-nquǐts Rosa cf. odorata
fever, wounds guièe-rôs-càstî Rosa x centifolia
foot injuries guìzh-quês Anoda cristata
headache guìzh-maêstr Artemisia absinthium
headache guìzh-biè Euphorbia heterophylla, E. hyssopifolia
headache yàg-bnù Ipomoea intrapilosa
headache spìnòsî Loeselia mexicana, L. glandulosa
headache, attacks guièe-ló-yâg-guièts Cladocolea cf. andrieuxii, Psittacanthus auriculatus
headache, cleansing for fright àlbâc Ocimum basilicum
headache, ear ache yàg-brètâyn Nicotiana glauca
headache, fever guièe-zhàn-biǎa Oenothera rosea
headache, fever màltuêrs Tropaeolum majus
headache, sore bones guìzh-yòob Asteraceae or Polemoniaceae
heart pain yàg-ngùd-guèy Casimiroa edulis
hemorrhage guìzh-mîrt Salvia microphylla
hernia (ngùd-lèn), backache, stomach pain guìzh-ngùd-lèn Valeriana cf. densiflora
hot pains, of foot, hand, [headache with fever ?] blâg-dòoz Rumex crispus, R. cf. mexicana
hot pains, stomach ache, fever yàg-lîm Citrus aurantiifolia
hot pains, stomach ache, fever rrûd Ruta chalepensis, R. graveolens
internal injuries guìzh-cònêf Asclepias fournieri
nzææb (feet, face swell) guièe-pûnt Brugmansia x candida
pasmo nlěch Allium cepa
pasmo, backache blâg-guièz Nicotiana tabacum
pasmo: swelling, a wound that will not heal blâg-pâsm Cissus sicyoides
side ache guìzh-mèt Chenopodium graveolens
sore feet dòb-yèen Echeveria sp., Sedum sp.
sore feet, back blâg-rzûdz Datura stramonium
sore feet, rheumatism yàg-pìrûl Schinus molle
sprains dòb-pcuêl Agave marmorata
swelling (guì) blâg-rzûdz Datura stramonium
swelling (guì) yàg-biǎa Opuntia spp., Nopalea auberi
swelling (guì) yàg-guièdz-zân-zhǐil Solanum lanceolatum
swelling (guì), inflammation dòb-xtîl Aloe barbadensis
white spots and fever spìnòsî Loeselia mexicana, L. glandulosa

Table 6.14. Remedies for urinary tract problems.

burning urination dòb-xtîl Aloe barbadensis
can´t urinate spìnòsî Loeselia mexicana, L. glandulosa
kidney pain, dysentery guìzh-guiět-nì Gomphrena diffusa
kidney stones (guìdz-riân), mal de orina, back pain x-côl-càbâll Equisetum myriochaetum
kidney stones (guìdz-riân), can´t urinate, mal de orina yàg-blæ̀æ Arctostaphylos pungens
mal de orina guièts-mél-lò Eryngium cf. cymosum
mal de orina guiéer-ngǔèets Rhodosciadium cf. tolucensis
mal de orina, also for back ache yàg-mànzànít Crataegus pubescens

Table 6.15. Remedies related to childbearing.

to regulate the menstrual cycle guìzh-ngùd-lèn Valeriana cf. densiflora
when menstruation is delayed guìzh-mèt Chenopodium graveolens
if the placenta does not fall sìlândr Coriandrum sativum
- zhǒb, pcuêl Zea mays, husks
hemorrhage in childbirth yàg-læ̀ Acacia angustissima
- guìzh-nàad, guiee-ros-casti Mentzelia hispida, Rosa x centifolia
- guìzh-pěch Tripogandra cf. serrulata
post-partum; to regain “heat” after giving birth, used in various combinations to prepare compound remedies guièe-sàntàmàrǐ, guìzh-ròmêr, guìzh-mòstrânz, guìzh-mîrt, lùsêm, yàg-laùrêl, yàg-ngùd-guièx, yàg-nàrânj, màlbàrîscw, yàg-guiél-bêdz Tanacetum parthenium, Rosmarinus officinalis, Mentha rotundifolia, Salvia microphylla, S. lavanduloides and/or, S. muscuroides, Litsea glaucescens, Persea americana, Citrus aurantium, Sida rhombifolia, Licania platypus
post-partum; to regain “heat” after giving birth, used singly dòb-pcuêl Agave marmorata
- ncuàan-zân Calea hypoleuca
- ncuàan-zân-làs Salvia breviflora
post-partum weakness and pain, to abort a fetus yàg-guièdz-zân Solanum lanceolatum
to facilitate birth, to abort a fetus guièe-dzùu Tagetes lucida
to abort a fetus ("prohibited" as dangerous to pregnant women) guièe-rósà-côl Rosa cf. odorata, R. chinensis
for women who can´t give birth yàg-zhguiès Salix bonplandiana
for “frightened” pregnant women yàg-bzèy Theobroma cacao
vaginal wash or enema blâg-mêd Malva parviflora
weakness in children bæ̌æl-dǒ Piqueria trinervia

Table 6.16. Remedies for fright.

Zapotec name Latin name Specifics
ncuàan-dzéb-cônch Glandularia bipinnatifida, G. teucriifolia, Verbena ciliata, V. gooddingii (n) -
ncuàan-dzéb-còrâl-zhěy Anagallis arvensis ssp. caerulea (i) night fright, men
ncuàan-dzéb-còrâl-zhùs Anagallis arvensis ssp. arvensis (i) night fright, women
ncuàan-dzéb-guièel Pellaea ovata (n) night fright
ncuàan-dzéb-maêstr Mecardonia procumbens (n) fear of teachers; night fright
ncuàan-dzéb-mæ̀cw Cheilanthes sinuata (n) fear of dogs
ncuàan-dzéb-nquǐts Anagallis minimus (i), Samolus floribundus (n) -
ncuàan-dzéb-ròo Talinum paniculatum (n) “great fright”
ncuàan-dzéb-strêy Pellaea ternifolia (n) night fright
ncuàan-dzéb-zhòmbrêl Aristolochia cf. pentandra (n) night fright
yàg-yǎn Arbutus xalapensis (n) -
yàg-guièe-zhǐn Cestrum dumetorum (n) -
spìnòsî, yàg-zhguiès, rrûd Loeselia mexicana, L. glandulosa (n), Salix bonplandiana (n), Ruta chalepensis, R. graveolens (i) mixed for a compound remedy
àlbâc Ocimum basilicum (i) also headaches
ncuàan-bzhiân Coreopsis mutica var. carnosifolia (n) also rage, bile
brǔn-yǎl-guièts Aporocactus conzattii (n)-
yàg-bzèy Theobroma cacao (n) fright in pregnant women
lchâzh Allium sativum (i) burn as a fumigant
zhì-ncuàan-ná-zhnâzh Turbina corymbosa (n) fright suffered far from home
gbày-tǽ Helianthemum glomeratum (n)-
rrûd-nìs-dòo certain marine algae (n) and weakness

Table 6.17. Remedies for emotional distress.

rage bæ̌æl-dǒ Piqueria trinervia
rage yàg-zhguiès Salix bonplandiana
rage; bile; nerves guìzh-ncuàan-bzhiân Galphimia glauca
rage [as of drunks], bathe infants so they don't cry or get angry bâr-dòo-lǎ Tithonia tubaeformis
sadness, weeping guìzh-[zhi-]wìin Stachys coccinea
sadness, nerves, heart palpitations siêmpr-vív Selaginella lepidophylla
sadness, nerves; for the heart, women dying of love guièe-tǐ-nguěts and/or guièe-tǐ-dán Bidens cf. bicolor, B. ostruthioides
- guièe-tǐ-nquǐts Bidens odorata, B. pilosa
nerves yàg-blæ̀æ Arctostaphylos pungens
“when nerves rise to the head” (epilepsy?), fright, insanity, attacks bià-tòo Microsechium helleri
attacks, headaches guièe-ló-yâg-guièts Cladocolea cf. andrieuxii; Psittacanthus auriculatus
nightmares rrûd Ruta chalepensis, R. graveolens
nightmares yàg-ngùd-guèy-pcàal Byrsonima crassifolia

Table 6.18. Remedies for spiritual maladies.

nightmares, bad “air” yàg-ngùd-guèy-pcàal Byrsonima crassifolia
“air” x-guìzh-ngulâdz Senna holwayana, S. pringlei, S. vilosa
bad “air,” to rid the house of nightmares lùsêm Salvia lavanduloides, S. muscuroides
to lift “air,” get rid of nightmares guìzh-ròmêr Rosmarinus officinalis
“air” guaco unidentified market herb
“air” blâg-rzûdz Datura stramonium
“air” ptsìidz (anis estrella) Illicium verum
hot “air” màrrûb Marrubium vulgare
hot “air,” bad “air” rrûd Ruta chalepensis, R. graveolens
“air” in the ear yàg-blâg-bîdz Dodonaea viscosa
bad “air” (the `purple´ variety of the plant is best) àlbâc[-mòrâd] Ocimum basilicum
bad “air” yàg-guìin Salmea scandens
bad “air,” zhwèe (“wound” or “injury”), frightening dreams yàg-bdìin Eupatorium mairetianum
“air,” side ache yàg-bnù Ipomoea intrapilosa
bad “air,” fright; bile, poor appetite, vomiting [the `white´ variety of the plant is best] zhwǐs[-nquǐts] Iresine spp.
for lifting “air” yàg-lgâzh Abies guatemalensis
for “cleansing” guìzh-mîrt Salvia microphylla
bad “air,” nightmares yàg-ngùd-guèy-pcàal̲ Byrsonima crassifolia
“air” guièe-pûnt Brugmansia x candida, B. cf. versicolor
“air” in the body blâg-wê Wigandia urens
“air” in the back, arm yàg-blâg-bîdz Dodonaea viscosa
for cleansing; hot pain yàg-brètâyn Nicotiana glauca
for cleansing guièe-dzǐn̲g Salvia spp., + Lamourouxia spp., Penstemon spp., Lobelia spp., Castilleja spp.
“nails” (wdzidz clavillo), “air” that “hits” yàg-blâg-bîdz Dodonaea viscosa
evil eye, for cleansing blâg-zhnâzh Croton ciliato-glandulifer
curers use it guìzh-nàad Mentzelia hispida
witching (mzhiè) of a child, bad “air” mòxtâz Brassica campestris. B. nigra
witching (mzhiè) of a child yàg-guièts-clâv-nquǐts Acacia farnesiana
chaneque, a kind of “air” blâg-rzûdz Datura stramonium
chaneque, a kind of “air” blâg-wì-làs Buddleia lanceolata, B. microphylla, B. parviflora
chaneque, a kind of “air” blâg-wì Buddleia spp.
chaneque, a kind of “air” guièe-pûnt-0 Brugmansia x candida

Table 6.19. Remedies for conditons afflicting animals.

cure poisoning of animals, with salt lchâzh Allium sativum
- yàg-guìin Capsicum annuum
for pains of animals, feed them leaves yàg-bnù Ipomoea intrapilosa
trap fleas with leaves blâg-wê Wigandia urens
repel flies with flowers yàg-guièe-guiâ Eysenhardtia platycarpa, E. cf. polystachea
burned to make smoke to keep mosquitoes [mlènts] away yàg-guièdz-zân-mběe Solanum erianthum

Table 6.20. Comparison of large plant families by medicinal salience.

Plant family Number of medicinal species Total number of local species recorded Percent of total species that are medicinal Medicinal % vs. angiosperm average
Asteraceae 43 182 23.6% <2.3%
Fabaceae 20 88 22.7% <3.2%
Solanaceae 12 33 36.4% > 10.5%
Lamiaceae 11 32 34.4% > 8.5%
Anacardiaceae 11 14 78.6% > 52.7%
Rosaceae 9 22 40.9% > 15.0%
Euphorbiaceae 9 17 52.9% > 27.0%
Rutaceae 9 12 75% > 49.1%
Poaceae 1 29 3.4% <23.5%
Orchidaceae 0 21 0% <25.9%
Cyperaceae 0 11 0% <25.9%
Total 266 1045 25.5% -
Total angiosperms 254 980 25.9% -

Table 6.21. Statistical comparison of several regional floras (cf. Moerman et al. 1999); for San Juan in raw numbers of medicinal species, for the rest in terms of the proportion of the total number of local species of the family; italicized numbers indicate rank from the bottom.

Plant family Rank in San Juan Rank in Highland Chiapas Rank in Native North America Rank in Ecuador
Asteraceae 1 1 1 47
Fabaceae 2 131 253 2
Lamiaceae 3 2 8 71
Solanaceae 4 3 14 16
Rosaceae 5 4 4 -
Euphorbiaceae 5 21 234 85
Apiaceae 9 5 2 71
Poaceae 2 (tied for next to last) 1 1 67
Cyperaceae 1 (tie for last) 3 2 16
Orchidaceae 1 (tie for last) 2 10 1

Table 7.1. Garden Summaries.

Agapanthus africanus-Liloih1111111-18
Agave salmiana-Agafn---1------1
Alcea roseawhiteMlvoih1-1-1----3
Alcea rosearedMlvoih1---1----2
Alcea roseaburgundyMlvoih1--------1
Allium cepa-Allfih11-1-----3
Aloe barbadensis-Alomih----11---2
Alternanthera caracasana-Amamnh--1------1
Amaranthus hybridus-Amafnh11111----5
Amaranthus hybridus-Amafnh-------1-1
Amaranthus hybridus-Amafnh-------1-1
Amaryllis belladonnawhteAmloih----1---12
Amaryllis belladonnapinkAmloih-1------12
Amaryllis belladonna-Amaoih-------1-1
Anethum graveolens-Apifih-1-------1
Annona cherimola-Annfnt111111-1-7
Antirrhinium majus-Scroih11----1--3
Antirrhinium majuswhiteScroih---1-----1
Antirrhinium majusredScroih---1-----1
Antirrhinium majusorangeScroih---1-----1
Antirrhinium majuspinkScroih---1-----1
Aptenia cordifolia-Aizoih-1---1---2
Araceae sp.-Arao, tnh-----1---1
Artemisia absinthium-Astmih1--------1
Artemisia ludoviciana var. mexicana-Astmnh--1------1
Arundo donax-Poatih--1-1----2
Asclepias curassavica-Ascmih-11111---5
Aster novi-belgii-Astoih111111---6
Aster novi-belgii-Astoih------1--1
Asteraceae sp.-Astoih-111--1-15
Asteraceae sp.-Astoih---1-----1
Baccharis salicifolia-Astmns--1-111-15
Baccharis sp.-Astoih-1-------1
Barkleyanthus salicifolium-Astmns--1----113
Begonia sp.pinkBegoih-----1---1
Begonia sp.-Begoih-----1---1
Begonia spp.-Begoih-1-1-----2
Begonia x semperflorens-Begoih1--------1
Bidens sp.-Astonh-1-1---1-3
Bidens sp.-Astonh--1-1-1--3
Bidens sp.-Astonh----1-1--2
Bocconia arborescens-Papmns-1-------1
Borago officinalis-Bormih1--------1
Brassica campestris-Brafih--------11
Brugmansia candida-Solois11-11--1-5
Brugmansia cf. versicolor-Solois1--------1
Buddleia sessiliflora-Logmns--1------1
Buddleia sp.-Logmns--1------1
Calendula officinalis-Astoih-1-1-----2
Canna indicaredCanoih11111111-8
Canna indicayellowCanoih111-1111-7
Canna indicawhiteCanoih11-11-1--5
Canna indica-Canoih--1-111--4
Canna indicapinkCanoih11-11----4
Canna indicaorangeCanoih1--------1
Capsicum annuum-Solfns11-1----14
Capsicum annuum-Solfns1111-----4
Capsicum annuum-Solfns1-------12
Capsicum annuum-Solfns-----1---1
Capsicum annuum-Solfns1--------1
Capsicum frutescens-Solfns11-1-----3
Casuarina equisetifolia-Castit--1-1----2
Chenopodium album-Chnfih-1-1-----2
Chenopodium ambrosioides-Chnf, mnh11-11111-7
Chenopodium graveolens-Chnf, mnh--11--1-14
Chrysanthemum sp-Astoih--1-11---3
Chrysanthemum sp-Astoih1-----1--2
Chrysanthemum sp-Astoih1-----1--2
Chrysanthemum sp-Astoih1-----1--2
Chrysanthemum spbuttonAstoih1--------1
Chrysanthemum spdaisyAstoih1--------1
Citrus aurantium-Rutfit1---1----2
Citrus limetta-Rutfit11----11-4
Citrus limonia-Rutfit1111-----4
Citrus medica-Rutmit1--------1
Citrus reticulata-Rutf, mit-1------12
Citrus x paradisi-Rut-it-------1-1
Coffea arabica-Rubfis-111-----3
Commelinaceae sp.-Cmmoih1--------1
Commelinaceae sp.-Cmmoih1--------1
Coreopsis mutica-Astmnh--------11
Coriandrum sativum-Apifih11-1--1--4
Cosmos bipinnatus-Astonh-----1-1-2
Crataegus pubescens-Rosfnt1-1---1--3
Crocosmia crocosmiflora-Irionh1-----1--2
Crotalaria sp.-Fabfns1-1------2
Cucurbita ficifolia-Cucfnv1111-1---5
Cucurbita pepo (zucchini)-Cucfnv-------1-1
Cucurbita pepo var. pepo-Cucfnv11-1-----3
Cupressus lusitanica-Cupont----1----1
Cydonia oblonga-Rosfit-------1-1
Cymbopogon citratus-Poafih----11--13
Dahlia x hortensis-Astonh1-1------2
Dahlia x hortensis-Astonh1-1------2
Dahlia x hortensis-Astonh--------11
Dahlia x hortensis-Astonh1--------1
Dahlia x hortensis-Astonh1--------1
Dahlia x hortensis-Astonh-------1-1
Dalea foliolosa-Fabmnh--1------1
Datura stramonium-Solmnh-1-------1
Daucus carota-Apifih1--------1
Dianthus chinensis-Astoih----111--3
Dyssodia tagetifolia-Asta, onh1111----15
Echinopepon pubescens-Cucanv-111--11-5
Ehretia tinifolia-Heroit-1-1-----2
Eriobotrya japonica-Rosfit1111111-18
Eucalyptus globulusdollarMrtmit1--------1
Eucalyptus globulusbonzaiMrtmit1--------1
Eucalyptus globulus-Mrtmit1--------1
Eupatorium mairetianum-Astmnh-1--11---3
Euphorbia pulcherrima-Eupons-1-1--1--3
Eysenhardtia polystachea-Fabmnt--1---1--2
Ficus carica-Morfit----1----1
Ficus nitida-Mor-it----1----1
Foeniculum vulgare-Apimih11-1--1-15
Fraxinus americana var. texensis-Oletit--1------1
Geranium sp.-Geronh-----1---1
Gladiolus x hortulanus-Irioih11-1----14
Gladiolus x hortulanus-Irioih-111-1---4
Gladiolus x hortulanus-Irioih1111-----4
Gladiolus x hortulanus-Irioih-1-1-----2
Gladiolus x hortulanus-Irioih------1--1
Gladiolus x hortulanus-Irioih-----1---1
Gladiolus x hortulanus-Irioih1--------1
Gomphrena diffusa-Amamnh--1------1
Heimia salicifolia-Lytmns--1-1----2
Hemerocallis fulva-Hemoih--1------1
Hemerocallis sp.golden chimesHemoih------1--1
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis-Mlvois-------1-1
Hibiscus rosa-sinensisdouble yellowMlvois--1------1
Hydrangea hortensismophead pinkHydois1----1---2
Impatiens sp.-Baloih1----1---2
Impatiens sp.-Baloih1----1---2
Impatiens sp.-Baloih1----1---2
Impatiens sp.-Baloih1--------1
Impatiens sp.New GuineaBaloih1--------1
Ipomoea indica-Cnvoih-1-1-----2
Ipomoea sp.-Cnvonh--1------1
Iresine spp.-Amamnh--1------1
Iris sp.white beardedIrioih--1------1
Justica spicigera-Acatns--1------1
Lactuca sativa-Astfih1--------1
Leucaena pallida-Fabfnt111111-118
Leucanthemum x superbum-Astoih11--1-1--4
Loeselia mexicana-Plmmnh1--------1
Lopezia racemosa-Onaonh--1---1-13
Lupinus sp.-Faboih------1--1
Lycopersicon esculentum-Solfnh--------11
Malus domesticacreoleRosfit--1-1--1-3
Malus domestica-Rosfit11-1-----3
Malus domestica-Rosfit1--------1
Malus domestica-Rosfit1--------1
Malva parviflora-Mlvmih11-11--1-5
Mammillaria sp.-Cacfn------1---1
Marrubium vulgare-Lammih1-----1--2
Matricaria recutita-Astmih-1-1-----2
Medicago sativa-Fabaih--------11
Melia azedarach-Melmit--1------1
Melilotus alba-Fabaih--------11
Micromeria chamissonis-Lammnh11--11---4
Mirabilis jalapa-Nyconh--1------1
Montanoa speciosa-Astons-1-1-----2
Montanoa tomentosa-Astmns--1-----12
Morus celtidifolia-Mortnt--1--1---2
Musa sapientum-Musfit-1111----4
Musa sapientum-Musfit-------1-1
Musa sapientum-Musfit------1--1
Musa sapientum-Musfit1--------1
Musa sapientum-Musfit1--------1
Nerium oleanderroseApooit-----1---1
Nicotiana tabacum-Solmnh------1--1
Ocimum basilicum-Lammih-1-1-11--4
Opuntia ficus-indica-Cacfnt----11-1-3
Opuntia robusta-Cacfnt-111---1-4
Orchidaceae sp.-Orconh--1------1
Origanum marjoram-Lamfih1--------1
Origanum vulgare-Lamfih1---1---13
Parmentiera aculeata-Bigfnt1--------1
Pelargoniun sp.viningGeroiv-111-----3
Pelargoniun zonaleredGeroih1111-11--6
Pelargoniun zonalepinkGeroih1111-11--6
Pelargoniun zonalewhiteGeroih1111-11--6
Pelargoniun zonaleorangeGeroih-1-1-----2
Pelargoniun zonaleorangeGeroih1--1-----2
Pelargoniun zonale-Geroih----1----1
Pelargoniun zonaleburgundyGeroih1--------1
Pelargoniun zonaledarkGeroih-----1---1
Pelargoniun zonalesoft pinkGeroih-----1---1
Persea americana-Morfnt----1-1-13
Persea americana-Morfnt11-1-----3
Persea americana-Morfnt11-------2
Persea americana-Morfnt11-------2
Petroselinum crispum-Apifih1111111-18
Phaseolus vulgaris-Fabfnh111111-1-7
Phaseolus vulgaris-Fabfnh--1----113
Phaseolus vulgaris-Fabfnh1--------1
Phaseolus vulgaris-Fabfnh--------11
Phaseolus vulgaris-Fabfnh------1--1
Physalis philadelphica-Solfnh11-11-1117
Physalis spp.-Solfnh--------11
Pimpinella anisum-Apifih----1----1
Piper auritum-Pipfns11111----5
Plantago major-Ptgmih1---1----2
Plectranthus australis-Lamoih----1----1
Poaceae sp.-Poaanh-1-1--1--3
Podranea ricasoliana-Bigoiv--1------1
Polianthes tuberosa-Agaonh--1------1
Portulaca oleracea-Porfnh-------1-1
Prunus armeniaca-Rosfit-1-1-----2
Prunus persica-Rosfit1-1-111--5
Prunus persicasmallRosfit1-1--1---3
Prunus persicalargeRosfnt-1-1---1-3
Prunus serotina var. calpuli-Rosfnh1-1--1---3
Pteridophyta sp.-Plponh----1----1
Punica granatum-Punfit1-1-11-1-5
Pyrus communis-Rosfit-----1---1
Raphanus sativus-Brafih1--------1
Raphanus sativussmallBrafih-------1-1
Ricinus communuswhiteEupmis11-1--11-5
Ricinus communusredEupmis-1-1---1-3
Ricinus communus-Eupmis----1----1
Rorippa nasturtium-acuaticum-Brafih1----1---2
Rosa chinensis-Rosm, ois1111-----4
Rosa odorata-Rosm, ois-111-1---4
Rosa sp.-Rosois11-------2
Rosa sp.-Rosois-1-1-----2
Rosa sp.-Rosois-1-1-----2
Rosa sp.-Rosois--1------1
Rosa sp.-Rosois--1------1
Rosa sp.-Rosois-----1---1
Rosa sp.-Rosfnh1--------1
Rosa x centifolia-Rosm, ois1111---1-5
Rumex mexicana-Plgfnh1-1-1--1-4
Ruta chalepensis-Rutmih1111111119
Saccharum officinarum-Poafih1---11---3
Salix bonplandiana-Saltnt----11---2
Salvia microphyla-Lammnh111------3
Salvia sp. ?-Lammnh--1------1
Salvia tilaefolia-Lammnh--1-1----2
Sambucus mexicana-Lamoih--1---1--2
Schkuhria anthemoides-Asttnh------1--1
Schlumbergera x-Cacoi------11--2
Sechium edule-Cucoih----1-1--2
Sedum cf. morganianum-Crsons1111111119
Sedum prealtum-Crsoiv-----1---1
Sedum sp.-Crsfnv-------1-1
Sida rhombifolia-Mlvois1--------1
Solanum americanum-Soloiv1---1-11-4
Solanum americanum-Solf, mnh-1-11---14
Solanum jazminoides-Soloiv----1----1
Solanum nigrum-Solmnh-----1---1
Solanum sp.-Solf, mnh----1----1
Solanum tuberosum-Solfih1---1-1115
Solanum tuberosum-Solfih1---1-1-14
Solanum tuberosum-Solfih--1------1
Sorghum bicolor-Poaaih11-1-----3
Tagetes erecta-Astonh11-1--1116
Tagetes erecta-Astonh-1-1-----2
Tagetes lunulata-Astonh1-------12
Tagetes patula-Astonh1--------1
Tanacetum parthenium-Astmih-111111118
Tanacetum parthenium-Astmih1--------1
Tanacetum parthenium-Astmih1--------1
Thymus vulgaris-Lamfih1---1----2
Tigridia pavonia-Irionh1--------1
Tillandsia usneoides-Bmlonh-1-------1
Tithonia sp.-Astonh-------1-1
Tradescantia sp.-Cmmonh-------1-1
Triticum aestivum-Poafih1-----1--2
Tropaeolum majus-Tromih--1----1-2
Verbena carolina-Vrbfnh----1----1
Verbena officinalis-Vrbfnh1---1--1-3
Verbesina perymenioides-Astmns--1------1
Vicia faba-Fabfih1111-----4
Vitis vinifera-Vitfiv-1-1-----2
Xanthosoma robustum-Aramnh-----1---1
Zantedeschia aethiopica-Araoih111-111--6
Zea mayswhitePoafnh11-1---1-4
Zea mayscreolePoafnh--1-----12
Zea mayspurplePoafnh1--------1
Zea maysblackPoafnh1--------1
Zea maysyellowPoafnh1--------1
Zea maysredPoafnh1--------1

Uses: ornamental 126, food 97, medicine 56, technology 8, animal fodder 6; Source: native 115, introduced 168; Lifeform: herb 183, tree 47, shrub 39, vine 11; Average number of cultivars per garden = 74

Table 8.1. Acquisition of botanical terminology in three communities.

Age Mahosik´, Tenejapa, Chiapas (Stross 1973) Berkeley, California (Dougherty 1979) San Juan Gbëë, Oaxaca (Hunn field notes)
2.5 30+ plant names; 4 life forms applied functionally- -
4-5 100 plant names applied consistently w/uses; 4 life forms; 32 generics 20 plant names; 10 applied consistently; 4 life forms; 7 generics-
6-7- 7 life forms; 20 generics; 2 specifics 7 life forms; 58 generics; 12 specifics
8-10 108 plants on trail identified consistently; 4 life forms; 106 generics; 20 specifics; varietals 8 life forms; 26 generics; 4 specifics 7 life forms; 111 generics; 18 specifics
11-13 equivalent to low-end adult competence- 9 life forms; 206 generics; 100 specifics; 6 varietals
adult 4 life forms; 471 generics; 237 specifics; 7 varietals (Berlin 1999)- 10 life forms; 274 generics; 173 specifics; 7 varietals

Table 8.2. Summary statistics on individual plant name inventories.

- LF G G0 G+ S S0 S+ V TT Total
“Omniscient Informant” 10 452 341 111 371 363 8 23 717 843
Total Voucher IDs 12 351 271 80 224 219 5 11 501 614
Hermilo 10 227 169 52 170 164 6 14 353 421
Pedro* 9 274 226 48 173 170 3 7 385 478
Cruz family* 8 239 203 36 91 89 2 4 296 350
Marielena 9 206 155 42 100 97 3 6 258 321
Miguel1 9 153 132 21 54 54 0 0 186 233
Lilia2 7 112- - 18- - 0- 137

* Voucher specimen identifications only. 1Very partial returns; 2very partial returns, at seven and nine years of age. LF are life-form taxa; G0 are monotypic generic taxa; G+ are polytypic generic taxa; S0 are monotypic specific taxa; S+ are polytypic specific taxa; V are varietal taxa; TT are terminal taxa.

Table 8.3. Lilia´s plant inventory of 12 September 2000, San Juan Gbëë, Oaxaca, Mexico.

- Zapotec name local uses habitat Latin name
1 mòstrânz rmêd-á zdòo né cǎaní Malvaviscus sp.
2 blâg-saûz rmêd-á dzéb-sé ró yù Sambucus mexicanus!
3 guìzh-guièe-tînt para pintar ró yù Justicia spicigera!
4 blâg-guìtsiè rguìn-d-á- Salvia tiliaefolia
5 blâg-wí rquià yòob ní ró yù Buddleia sp.
6 bǽæl-dòo rmêd-á dzéb; gàz né ló næ̂z Piqueria sp.
7 guìzh-guièe-nquǐts rguìn-d-á ló næ̂z Asteraceae
8 yàg-eùcàlîpt rmêd-d-ìw [*] ló næ̂z Eucalyptus globulus^!
9 [blâg-grètâyn] rquin-á yòob guìc ló næ̂z Nicotiana glauca^
10 guìzh-guièe-dzǐn̲g rguìn-d-á ló næ̂zx Salvia sp.
11 guìzh-ncuàan-yě dôw né, rmêd-d-ìw dán Crotalaria sp.
12 yàg-pàraîs rquià zdòo né cǎaní Melia azedarach^!
13 yàg-yàaz-ngǎs rguìn-d-á ló næ̂z Baccharis heterophylla
14 yàg-nlìbâd [rôw chǐv] tì dán Leucaena sp.!
15 guìzh-lbæ̀-bziàa rôw chǐv ló næ̂zá Cologania sp.
16 yàg-yàaz-ngǎs [duplicate]- Baccharis heterophylla
17 guìzh-mîdz pâr rguìn-d-á- Lepidium virginicum
18 “bejuco” [nand náa]- Geranium sp.
19 guìzh-sêd rguìn-d-á- Conyza sp.
20 guìzh-bèjûc* pâr rgal guièe ló gòdz-
21 yàg-zéd rôw chǐv tì dán Coreopsis
22 guìzh-nìt [? 36] pâr-né rgal guièe Psǽ-yàdòo Commelinaceae
23 guìzh-guièe-tǐl-nguěts pâr ló diôs ló còrrâl Bidens sp.
24 spènòsî rmêd pâr rò Psǽ-yàdòo Loeselia mexicana
25 guièe-bgùs pâr-né ló mdiò- Zinnia peruviana
26 guìzh-mîdz [guìzh-yùzh]* rguìn-d-á ló x-còrrâl nánít Chlorophytum comosum^!
27 guìzh-mòrâd- - Commelinaceae
28 guìzh-rchug rguìn-d-á lén-còrrâl Crassulaceae ?
29 guìzh-guièe-yùzh pâr ló mdiò x-còrrâl nánít Crassulaceae
30 guièe-dán* rguìn-d-á- Salvia sp.
31 guièe-jàrân pâr ló mdiò nèc Pelargonium^!
32 guièe-dzùu pâr-né ròbáa dán Tagetes lucida
33 guìzh-bùtôn pâr-né rguìn-d-á guièt Rócta Anoda cristata
34 xín-gòrdòlôb rôw chǐv dán Gnaphalium sp.
35 guìzh-gùzh pâr rguìn-d-á- Erodium cicutarium
36 guìzh-nìt [? 22] pâr ló mdiò- Commelinaceae
37 guièe-měets pâr-né rguìn-d-á ló næ̂z Penstemon campanulatus
38 blâg-bîdz, yâgá rmêd yòob ní dán guì Dodonaea hispida
39 guìzh-nàad pâr gôw chǐv ró næ̂z Mentzelia hispida
40 guièe-bnǐil-nguěts pâr rôw bǔrr dán Simsia amplexicaulis
41 frôw rôw cònêf ró næ̂z Medicago lupulina^
42 guìzh-cònêf gôw nguǐd dán Sonchus sp.
43 guìzh-mîdz- - Polygonum hydropiperoides
44 guìzh-mèt rmêd-á dán Teloxys ambrosioides
45 guièe-ncâj pâr ló mdiò lén còrrâl Amni majus^!
46 blàp, guìzhá rmêd-á, blâg rquià zdòo né- Ricinus communis^
47 blâg-bnù rquià-w guìc né- Ipomoea intrapilosa
48 nlíd-quiè [pâr èmpâch]*- Dalea citriodora
49 yàg-yàaz[-ngǎs] pâr bǔrr gôw- Montanoa pilosa
50 guìzh-pchǔux pâr wguìt né- Lysianthes sp.
51 guièe-lbæ̀* rguìn-d-á- Cuphea aequipetala
52 guièe-mòrâd pâr-né gal guièe- Geranium sp.
53 guièe-cǒb pâr ló mdiò- Tagetes sp. [leaf only]
54 guìzh-nquǐts rguìn-d-á- Galinsoga sp.
55 yàg-guièe-tùts rguìn-d-á- Tecoma stans
56 guièe-ràbànô rguìn-d-á lén còrrâl Raphanus sativus^!
57 yàg-màndîm rguìn-d-á nèc Ehretia tinifolia^!
58 guièe-gàyît pâr ló mdiò lén còrrâl Freesia sp.^!
59 nànd náa [laùrêl]* rguìn-d-á- Asclepias currasavica
60 [yàg-guìzdòo] rguìn-d-á- Casuarina equisetifolia^!
61 guìzh-guièe-dzùu [duplicate]- Tagetes lucida
62 ârnìcà [rmêd-á pâr cânzr]*- Bocconia arborescens
63 guìzh-ptiôn rguìn-d-á- Verbena carolina
64 gbày pâr-né glóob né- Schkuria sp.
65 guìzh-pàlêt rguìn-d-á cho quiè ró næ̂z ?
66 guìzh-nêld rmêd-á pâr zdòo né- Foeniculum vulgare^!
67 cùlàndrîes aparte- Coriandrum sativum^!
68 guìzh-bnǐil rguìn-d-á- Spilanthes sp.
69 guièe-gàyêt* rguìn-d-á- Stevia sp.
70 guìzh-mél rguìn-d-á- Asteraceae [leaf only]
71 guièe-dâl pâr ló mdiò ró yù Cosmos bipinnatus
72 guièe-gàyît pâr ló mdiò- Commelinaceae
73 guìzh-x-có-bè rguìn-d-á- Oxalis sp.
74 guìzh-bdìin rmêd-á pâr bdìin né- Eupatorium mairetianum
75 guìzh-wlàdz rguìn-d-á- Portulaca oleracea
76 yàg-yàaz-nguěts rquià zdòo né- Baccharis salicifolius
77 guìzh-dǐp pâr gôw nguǐd- Poaceae
78 guìzh-guièe-tǐl-nquǐts [pâr gôw chǐv]- - Bidens pilosa
79 guìzh-zhàn-biǎa [rmêd-á pâr nosebleed]*- - Oenothera rosea
80 blâg-sàntêm rmêd-á pâr yòob ní dán Plantago major^
81 guièe-rôsà-d-chînà rguìn-d-á- Oenothera
82 guìzh-guièe-dzùu [duplicate]- Tagetes lucida [in bud]

^ Introduced species. ! Cultivated species.

Table 8.4. Plant trail species by life form, origin, cultivation, and use value.

Trees and shrubs (yâg) 51%
Herbs (guìzh) 35%
Other life forms 14%
Native 65%
Exotic 35%
Cultivated 56%
Wild 44%
Food 22%
Medicine 29%
Manufacture 18%
Ornament 7%
Plant families represented 32

Table 8.5. Plant trail participants, San Juan Gbëë, 2001-2002.

Age Female Male Total
7 1 2 3
8 1 2 3
9 2 3 5
10 8 0 8
11 5 5 10
12 1 2 3
13 0 0 0
14 3 1 4
Adult 1 1 2
Total 22 16 38

Table 8.6. Scores of plant trail interviewees by sex, age, and schooling.

score sex age school year
0.1 female 7 2 2002
0.26 male 11 5 2002
0.40 male 9 3 2001
0.47 female 9 4 2002
0.48 male 10 4 2002
0.51 female 14 5 2001
0.55 female 12 6 2002
0.60 female 7 1 2001
0.62 female 9 2 2001
0.62 female 11 6 2001
0.63 male 11 5 2002
0.64 male 10 4 2002
0.69 male 9 3 2002
0.69 male 10 5 2001
0.69 female 11 6 2001
0.69 male 11 6 2001
0.7 female 8 2 2002
0.7 female 9 2 2002
0.7 female 11 6 2002
0.73 male 11 4 2002
0.75 male 8 2 2001
0.75 male 10 4 2001
0.75 male 10 2 2001
0.75 female 11 6 2001
0.76 female 8 4 2001
0.77 male 10 4 2002
0.78 female 11 5 2001
0.80 male 10 5 2001
0.80 male 11 6 2001
0.82 male 14 9 2001
0.84 male 10 5 2001
0.84 male 12 6 2001
0.84 female 12 8 2001
0.85 male 7 2 2001
0.85 male 14 7 2001
0.87 male 14 7 2001
0.93 male 27 0 2002
0.95 female 47 4 2001