Test Question Templates
For many years, I struggled with a common teaching dilemma: how can I help my undergraduate students develop transferrable knowledge and skills in biology courses dominated by high-stakes tests that traditionally reward memorization?
In 2019, with the help of Ben Wiggins (University of Washington) and Kiki Jenkins (Arizona State University), I had a breakthrough idea -- a framework that helps students prepare for interesting, complex test questions, while also making it easier for instructors to write such questions! I call the framework Test Question Templates (TQTs).
Fundamentally, a TQT is a student-facing resource that explicitly connects a Learning Objective (LO) with multiple specific examples of how that LO might be assessed on a test. TQTs thus show students what they will need to do on tests, and how to practice, without revealing the details of the tests. From the instructor side, TQTs' pre-specification of test question formats means that test-writing becomes more straightforward; with the freedom to vary certain details within a structured template, we can generate new questions each term with relative ease.
Beyond making tests less stressful and more rewarding for students and instructors, TQTs should generally promote studentsí transfer of knowledge to new contexts by encouraging practice on multiple examples with different surface features (Kaminske et al. 2020).
Since TQTs emphasize (A) abundant opportunities for collaborative student practice and (B) transparent alignment of practice and testing, they may be considered a cousin of TILT, mastery grading, Deb Donovan's Learning Targets and Success Criteria, and Ben Wiggins' public exams (blog post; webinar; CourseSource paper).
I welcome comments, questions, and comments-masquerading-as-questions! Feel free to email me at gcrowther AT everettcc DOT com.
Papers (published or in preparation)
- Gregory J. Crowther, Benjamin L. Wiggins, and Lekelia D. Jenkins (2020). Testing in the age of active learning: Test Question Templates help
to align activities and assessments. HAPS Educator 24(1): 74-81.
- Gregory J. Crowther (2021). How do kidneys make urine from blood? Qualitative and quantitative approaches to filtration, secretion, reabsorption, and excretion. CourseSource 8: 42.
- Dilan P. Evans, Lekelia D. Jenkins, and Gregory J. Crowther. Can you take it with you? Transfer of biology knowledge from lessons to exams. In review.
- Gregory J. Crowther, Usha Sankar, Thomas A. Knight, Frederick D. Dooley, Karen L. Perell-Gerson, and Lekelia D. Jenkins. TQTs and SBG boost GPA in A&P [working title]. In preparation.
- Do Learning Targets and Success Criteria alter students' perceptions of biology courses?
- A Taxonomy of Problem-Solving in Anatomy
- Using TQTs (and More) to Promote Active Learning in Undergraduate Exercise Science and Physiology Courses
- Using TQTs to Unpack the Core Concepts of Physiology
- TQTs and You and Me?
- Do you have an idea for a TQT-related project? Please get in touch with me (gcrowther AT everettcc DOT com)!
- Anatomy & Physiology TQTs: My current ~250 TQTs are available in a Google Drive folder for Human Anatomy and Physiology. (I use these mostly with sophomore pre-nursing students.)
- Blog post by Julie Gallagher (emphasizing online instruction): Assessing Students' Learning -- Not Their Googling Skills! -- in an Online Physiology Course. PECOP Blog, March 28, 2022.
- Blog post by me (emphasizing metacognition): Cracking the code of biology tests: let's get metacognitive! Scientist Sees Squirrel [blog], June 1, 2020.
- Conference workshop (emphasizing applicability to labs): From Isolated Data-Analysis Tasks to General Skills: Bridging the Gap with Question Templates. Human Anatomy & Physiology Society (HAPS), May 24, 2021.
- Podcast (emphasizing student practice): Test Question Templates Help Students Learn. TAPP Radio, Episode 70, June 2, 2020.
- Theme song (emphasizing that TQTs rock!): I Love TQTs! (performed by Hilary Kemp as Joan Jett), Northwest PULSE, January 29, 2021.
- Webinar (emphasizing alignment of learning activities and assessment): The PALM Network: All Hands on Deck! National Institute on Scientific Teaching, December 4, 2020.
- YouTube video (emphasizing connections between learning objectives and learning activities): Test Question Templates: an introduction. August 3, 2020.
In developing TQTs, I am grateful for pilot funding from several wonderful sources:
Dr. C sipping some TQTea.