Comparison Matrix of Ready and Emerging Innovative Transportation Technologies

Both market-ready and emerging technologies are included in this matrix. Links are provided to more detailed on-line information about all technologies. The current status of emerging transportation technologies (i.e. not currently available for sale or not currently in revenue operation somewhere) in the world is evaluated.  Listed first are those technologies that are developed, tested and ready for deployment. They  have a yellow background. Some (with red boundary) are also currently in operation.

The status of each emerging technology has been self-evaluated by the inventors/developers of that technology, as of early 2013. Updates will be made as they become available. The definitions of the symbols used in the matrix are given below, following the comparison table.

See it in Armenian, translation by Karen Mgebrova, 3/2012   

System Name Location Status of Design Engr.&Testing Cost Target Active Mkting? Operating?
    Vehicle Guideway C&C Software Test Program      
 CyberCab (PRT)
Netherlands Small initial system operational at the Masdar eco-city in Abu Dhabi, 10 vehicles, three stations, well-used by residents and high level visitors from all over the world, other systems operating in the Netherlands
 Aerobus USA, TX Systems may be available for sale, was operational several years ago in Europe and Canada.  A system was to be constructed in WeiHai, China (2009) but was not completed. Company currently dormant (2012)
 Aeromovel Brasil 2nd installation almost complete in Porto Alegre, Brasil - link to airport to support future World Cup activities. 1st installation is in Jakarta. Air-propelled monorail technology
 Airlander 10 British Very large airship, payload 22,000 tons, cruising speed 90 mph, flight testing underway, nearly market ready, Airlander 50 being planned
 Cabinlift USA, Michigan Suspended vehicle system that was in operation in Germany from 1975 to 2011. It was derived from the Cabintaxi technology - now offered by firm located in Detroit.
 Cabintaxi USA, Michigan Uses both supported and suspended vehicles to provide two-way travel on a single guideway, developed and tested extensively in Germany, available from Detroit company
 Cybertran USA, CA H H M/H M/H L M/H M/H
 EasyMile France Being tested (2016) in several demo projects in the EU and elsewhere
 Easy-Rider Finland A dynamic carpool service now in operation in Amsterdam
 Futran South Africa Video of test track in operation, large company support, current focus is on moving goods and materials in Africa,  people moving version underway in 2017.  
 HSST maglev
 Linimo line
Japan For sale, extensive test and demo program continuing, first application in Japan has been completed. Has been studied in the U.S. under a FTA Urban Maglev contract. First public service initiated on Linimo line in March, 2005, in Japan
LSTUrban France Specialist in cable transport, great variety of systems avvailable, low cost elevated guidway solutions for urban applications
 Magplane pipeline USA, MA and Mongolia H H H H VL M H
 Mini-Metro USA- Colorado H H H H ? H Yes, in Italy
 ModuTram  consortium       (aka Autotrn) Mexico GroupRapid Transit (PodCar) concept under development in Mexico, prototypes and test track now (2016) in operation, being developed by a consortium. nearly market-ready, 2016, ride experience video provided
 Parry People Mover UK Features trams of several sizes, powered by a flywheel, no overhead wires. First application was in 2003, currently being operated in the UK.
 ROAM USA, Texas H H M/H H L H H, Prototype operational, video
 Schmid Peoplemover Germany System for helping pedestrians get across heavily traveled roadways safely as well as  other barriers to pedestrian movement
SkyRail China Chinese monorail, built by BYD, 28 Chinese cities are showing interest
 ULTra PRT U.K. Initial application in operation at Heathrow Airport in the U.K., 2016
 Urbanaut USA, WA, S. Korea First project under construction in Incheon, Korea, not yet operational, 2013
 Vectus PRT (aka Sky    Cube) S. Korea, EU Test facility was constructed in Uppsala, Sweden. As of 2016, first public application is in operation at Sucheon Bay in South Korea - name chaged to Sky Cube in 2015
 Velotaxi Germany For 2 people, muscle-powered with electrical assist, available now
Systems in various stages of development, some quite active, most seeking funding, some quite dormant, but interesting
Aerorider Netherlands Three-wheel bicycle with one-passenger enclosure, for commuting
Aerotrain USA History of efforts to develop a tracked air-cushion, high-speed, jet-propelled train in the 1970's; designed for 60 passengers with speed at 150 mph, by Rohr Industries
Air Car France, Spain Small auto sthat run on compressed air, expected to be for sale in 2009 in India and Spain.  Tata Motors in India now involved
Applied Levitation USA, California Working on a variety of transportation vehicles using maglev technology
Atmostrack U.K. Conceptual only - would use compressed air for propulsion
Austrans Australia Currently shut down (March, 2018), but worth reviewingexcellent website
Autobots India PRT concept, 2 person supported vehicles, under development, video provided NEW
AutoMate Israel

Dualmode concept, requires switching between  a road and a rail  chassis, to achieve driven and automated modes

Automated Transport Systems USA, Florida

Extensive website describes preferred standards for a dualmode transport system, conceptual only, partners to assist development are desired

Autoshuttle Germany M M L L M/MH M M
Autonomous Transportation System Argentina, Netherlands

Conceptual system that features horizontal, vertical and gradient movement using Group Rapid Transit sized vehicles weighing about 3 tons

Autoway USA, VA

PRT concept - small vehicles, development funding being sought

Autran USA M M M N L L N
System Name Location Vehicle Guideway Software Test ? Cost? Mkting? Operating?
Beamways Sweden

Conceptual only - suspended PodCar, under development in Sweden, free design/simulation software available

Beem Car U.K.

Conceptual - a suspended GRT vehicle, composites to be used in construction

Bike Metro Denmark

Dualmode bike network concept for sustainable urban travel, video also available

Bimodal Glideway USA, California

Dualmode concept description, informative video and some details available

Blade Runner U.K.

Uses vehicles with rubber tires and retractable steel wheels for dualmode capabilities, cargo and passenger modes

Bubble Motion Finland

Conceptual PRT, slim guideway, excellent looking design by BMDesign of Finland

Cabintaxi    USA, MI Extensive test facility and development program completed in Germany in1979. Shuttle system in operation since 1976. US company pursuing private sector applications
Car Bus USA, CA, WA Conceptual only, trucks carry small vehicles on freeways, another version is called Personal Mass Transit
CargoRail USA, TX Cargo carrier version of MegaRail, under development - 2009 presentation
CarTube UK Concept for largescale underground tube network under a major city NEW
cTrain (Catepillar Train) USA, Boston Elevated, individualized, group transit concept with some unique attributes
DAVe USA, Massachusetts Dual-mode Autonomous Vehicles - concept only, under development
Dragonfly MonoMetro U.K.

Suspended monorail, final stages of design, further development , demonstration and initial application currently (mid-2013) being planned in the U.K.

Dualmode Vehicle Japan Minibus that can be operated on conventional rail as well as roadways, prototype completed by Japan Railways, development continuing in 2005, Toyota now involved
ECOprt USA, N. Carolina Very low cost concept, minimal guideway structure and small, light vehicles, seeking development funds
Elways Sweden Electrified roadway concept - dualmode capabilities - test track funded 2012
Emonorail USA, CA Concept - ses suspension bridge technology to obtain minimalist guideway
Evac. Tube Transport USA, FL L/M L/M L/M L VL-MH M/H L/M
Fastransit USA, NY Switchable maglev PRT concept, licensed from Applied Maglev, Inc, videos available
FasTran USA, Texas Concept only, large, cantilevered monorail, using light rail components
Feather Rail USA, California Patented concept utilizes vehicles on single rail at grade
FlexiTrain (inactive) New Zealand. M M M L VL M L
Flightrail USA, California Uses atmospheric propulsion, 1/6 scale model in operation in California, high speed goal
Flyway Sweden L L L N VL M L
Freedom Transit USA, AZ A weatherproof, dual-mode mass transit system, utilizing privately-owned electric cars on a solar-powered, electrified, elevated, fixed guideway, under development in Arizona.  Updated website 9/5/17
General Atomics, Urban Maglev USA, CA

One of FTA's Urban Maglev contractors, prototype and test track operational, demonstration planned at California University in Pennsylvania

General Transport System Sweden Concept presented by the General Transport System foundation, based in Sweden, similar to the Swedish Flyway system
Higherway USA, WA N N N N L L N
Hover Train Netherlands Under development - testing to start in 2018, uses existing rails, elevated with an air  cushion , 400 km/hour expected
Hyperloop USA, CA Concept for a high speed tube system for California, 57 pages
Hyundai-Rotem Urban Maglev So. Korea Significant development and testing done, initial application Incheon Airport, 2012, excellent video available
Interstate Traveler USA, MI

Maglev concept under development,  includes palletized dualmode, cargo, solar driven hydrogen production and municipal utility capabilities


Intelligent Transportation Network System, a well-developed design for a PRT system, now seeking funding for a test track and test program

JPods USA, CA Small, suspended, computer controlled vehicles, development underway, very good slide show at their website - also see wiki 2 page, Shaxian, Chaina  project underway, to be completed by end of 2018
Labis Train USA, Colorado Concept only, high speed and intraurban, runs continuously, off-line   stations, last vehicle either docks or separates at stations. Video
Lead's Bie-Bus India Mass Rapid Transit concept designed for high capacity applications in India and other megacities around the world. New video available, 3/29/15
Lietner-Ropeways Italy Chairlifts (detachable) and an Italian urban applications now in operation
LEVX maglev by Magna-Force USA-WA Prototype 6-passenger vehicle being developed, uses permanent magnets for suspension and linear motors for propulsion, test track being constructed near Port Angeles, Washington, levitation test results available
Lofty Taxi Canada PRT concept features supported and suspended vehicles on single guideway
System Name Location Vehicle Guideway Software Test ? Cost? Mkting? Operating?
Magnemotion, Urban Maglev USA, MA One of FTA's Urban Maglev contractors, working toward demonstration project planned for near future, prototypes operating,  awarded large FTA grant (2008)  for work at Old Dominion University, demo completed in 2013
Magnetrans USA, CA H M H M M H M
Magplane passenger USA, MA & China M M M L MH H N
Magnovate Canada Hig speed train suitable for intercity and intracity network applications
Metrino-PRT Poland Small suspended vehicles for urban applications - seeking development funding
MIT's Mobility-on-Demand Project USA, MA  CityCar and implementation concepts for urban areas, vehicles have been constructed in Portugal, to be tested in Berlin in a pilot project now underway
MonicPRT Singapore Conceptual, low cost with some unique features, cost/revenue analysis available as is an excellent video simulation, currently inactive (2010)
Modern Transport System Corporation USA, California Developing novel maglev system, some prototype components currently operational, major website update in July, 2010
Modular Automated Individual Transport (MAIT) European L L M L VL/L M N - good documents
Next-Future Italy-USA Full automated vehicles , currently being demonstrated in public service in Dubhi in Feb. 2018
Overhead Train Netherlands Suspended, large vehicles, both people and freight applications, good video animation at website 
Overland Automated Transport System USA, Florida High speed (150 mph) concept, eventual national network, electric propulsion, mix of EV types and ownership, passenger & freight, both inter-urban and intra-urban service, both rail and roadway capable
PODTransit USA, Seattle, WA  Tube system, personal vehicles, urban networks, extensive website NEW
PRISM USA, Michigan Dualmode concept developed, on paper only, at Ford Research Laboratory
PRT 2000 USA, Mass. Development and test program completed in 2000, was awaiting market interest, but became  inactive as of 2003. A Raytheon project
PRTproject USA, Calif.

Conceptual only - features small vehicles running on rails in street

System Name Location Vehicle Guideway Software Test ? Cost? Mkting? Operating?
Personal Transportation System (PTS) USA, Calif. A dualmode concept that features small dualmode vehicles that can also be operated on conventional city streets (inactivr but good video) 9-8-17
Persuasive Electric Vehicle (PEV) USA, MIT, Cambridge, MA Under developement at the Media Lab at MIT, prototypes exist, testing to begin in 2016, in the EU
Pillar Track Regional People Mover Austria Concept only, does not require conventional guideway, for use in rural areas
PORT PRT Germany  Concept only, suspended vehicles that can be lowered to the ground, eliminating need for stations
Project 21 USA, Virginia M H M L MH H M/L
Public Automated Cart Transportation-PACT  India Maglev concept, cart = pallet, multiple vehicle types, dualmode capabilities, off-line stations, switchable, network capable, extensive website
Quiklane USA, California A conceptual dualmode concept that is well-described with a 9+ minute video
RailCab Germany Modular automated railway system that combines a sophisticated undercarriage with the advantages of maglev. using existing railways - for both people and cargo
RailCar USA, LA Concept described in a 2011 book entitled: The Third Generation Roadway
Rail Train Coasta Rico Small, dualmode vehicles, on signle track, internal switch for networks
REV USA, Washington A visionary e-book that describes a national dualmode system, conceptual only, 22 chapters
RUF (new update) Denmark M/H H/M L H M M H
Segway USA

Conceptual only - a palletized dualmode concept, inactive

SkyCab PRT Sweden

Conceptual - under development in Sweden

SkyCabs New Zealand L M L/M N M M/H L  
SkyRide USA, Minnesota Suspended monorail with small human powered vehicles, similar to Shweeb  
SkyWay Belarus Formerly Unitsky String, 2017 video presents current status , test facility with with several sizes of vehicles in operation
Sky Train USA, FL Redesigned to incorporate fully proven light rail components MH M/H N
SkyTran (aka Unimodal) USA High speed, small vehicle, low cost, maglev - prototype constructed and tested in Israel in late 2016, being actively marketed around the world, no firm sales know as of March, 2018: Link to wiki page
Skyweb Express USA, Minasota  Terminated in March, 2018 - website quite worth viewing, also know as Taxi 2000
Shweeb New Zealand, U.K. Partially operational, human-powered, suspended monorail
SMRTram USA, MD Conceptual - electric, large-vehicle, two-way travel with one lane
Solar Tubular Transit USA, Pennsylvania

 Dualmode concept - Extensive website and some illutrations

Spanish Suspended PRT Spain Conceptual - patented high capacity suspended small pods, steerable, no switches needed
Speedway Germany, Munich Dualmode concept for high speed intercity travel as well as intra-urban travel on conventional streets, website and video
Superway PRT USA, CA Suspended,solarized, PRT development at San Jose State University
Supraways  PRT France Concept only, development status unknown in 2017 
Suyzer PRT Netherlands Small tubular vehicle, group provides extensive planning/analysis workshop
Swift Tram Colorado, USA Suspended, Group Rapid Transit concept, switch and off-line stations
System 21 So. Carolina,USA Lower-cost, medium iszed vehicles provides two-way travel on a Monobeam  Update
Tracked Electric VEhicle Project Philadelphia, Penna. USA Tracted Electric Vehicle concept, dualmode automated, high speed, using modified conventional vehicles, open source, excellent website
Transmodal Capsule Seattle, USA Concept developed for Master's Thesis at the U of Washington, 1970
TransitX Boston, USA Suspended PRT, some development work accomplished, seeking investors
TTube Florida, USA Continuously moving belt in a tube for peoplemoving in high density urban areas
TriTrack USA, TX H L N L VL L L
Tubenet Transit PRT China Prototypes developed, full scale test track operating, simulations performed, Major update to website 2017, English available 
TubeWay Solar Germany Development study of a pneumatic path-guided transportation system
System Name Location Vehicle Guideway Software Test ? Cost Mkting? Operating?
Tubular Guideway Transit Arizona Extensive concept description calling for small autos traveling in a tube
Tubular Rail Texas, USA A unique, monorail-type system that does not require a conventional guideway, for high-speed mass transit applications
Ultimate PRT OK, USA Station-limited PRT Concept - contact inventor for 31 meg illustrated document
UniModal USA, MT An alternate name for SkyTran , high-speed, maglev, small vehicles, prototype under construction, first application expected in Israel
Urbmobile USA, Cornell U A dual-mode concept devised in a study at Cornell, patent obtained
VMTS USA, WA Conceptual only - uses large truck to haul small electric vehicles on freeways
Zesttrans Moscow, Russia Conceptual only, features vehicle carriers for dualmode capabilities, also has PRT concept, new website in February, 2010, English version provided
Zhonghua-06 China Suspended, light-weight, maglev concept, initial testing underway

Symbols Used to Describe the Status of Design Engineering and Testing Programs fo Each Technology

Vehicle Development

  H = Highly developed, fully built, being tested or ready for testing
  M = Partially developed, some components and/or reduced scale prototype built and tested
  L =  Still mostly on paper, some engineering studies completed
  N = All on paper or elsewhere


  H = Highly developed, full scale or scale model built, some testing accomplished
  M = Engineering design, analysis and cost studies completed
  L = Still mostly on paper, some engineering studies completed
  N = All on paper or elsewhere

Command and Control Software

  H = Software fully developed, simulation capability tested and available for application studies
  M = Software designed, partially developed, no simulation capability available as yet
  L = Concepts in mind, some preliminary studies completed
  N = Not much progress yet

Testing Program

  H = Test track built and being used for vehicle and software testing and demonstrations
  M = Section of test track built, some testing accomplished
  L = Only small scale or prototype test facilities available
  N = No progress on test program other than planning so far

Cost Target (rough estimate of system capital cost, which includes all necessary components for operational system - contact vendor for specifics)

  H = More that $30 million/mile ($18.75/km)
  MH = $20-30 million/mile ($12.5-$18.75/km)
  M = $10-20 million/mile ($6.25-12.5/km)
  L = $5-10 million/mile ($3.125-6.25/km)
  VL = Less than $5 million/mile ($3.125/km)

Active Marketing Program?  

  H = Established and active sales/marketing program, some market research undertaken
  M = Brochures, videos, extensive written materials, active website
  L = Some details and illustrations available
  N = Not ready for this yet

Operational System Available for Inspection?

  H = Test facility in operation and can provide rides and  be inspected
  M = Operating prototype available as are simulation results
  L = Illustrations and/or static models available
  N = Nothing available so far

Requests for additions, deletions, improvement or correction should be sent to Jerry Schneider

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Last modified: September 30, 2018