Dualmode Transportation Concepts

Dualmode transportation concepts feature vehicles that can be driven on conventional streets and can also operate on a high speed automated, usually electrified, guideway under computer control. Both passenger and freight vehicles are envisioned. In some systems, vehicles are carried on pallets, on others no pallets are required.

A new Center for Energy, Environment and Transportation Innovation was started at Texas A&M University in July, 2005. A one-year study of various dualmode concepts was undertaken at CEETI in September, 2006.  Their final report was published in April, '08 entitled Dual Mode Vehicle and Infrastructure Alternatives Analysis, 136 pp, by the Texas Transportation Institute at Texas A&M University. It is the most extensive study and documentation of the dual mode concept currently available anywhere in the world. The Executive Summary, Table of Contents and Proposed System Design Requirements are also available on-line. At present (8/2017) CEETI is inactive.

An unpublished  book that provides a vision of what a dualmode system would be like is also available online - click here to read it


Link to comments about the CarTube concept from other innovative inventors. 12-16-16

Link to CarTube dualmode concept, would feature large underground tub network under a large city. 12/11/16

Link to new high speed dualmode concept: Overland ATS, based in Florida, 6/4/16

RUF announces its self-driving concept, will focus initially on Maxi-RUF vehicles, 11/26/15

Link to new, excellent, RUF dualmode status report, 46 pp, 5/19/15

Links to RUF dualmode cost-benefit studies for Copenhagen region, report and spreadsheet for data used: 8/25/2014

Link to an open source, global, concept for a dualmode system, called Tracked Elevtric Vehicle (TEV), exceptional website, download booklet for details: 8/21/2013

Link to a new French dualmode system called TaxiCol, vehicles shown at recent Geneva auto show, 8/20/2013

Link to a website for the Public Automated Cart Transportation (PACT) concept, a dualmode, switchable, maglev concept from India, (Cart = Pallet), 9/2/2012

Elways - Swedish electrified roadway concept - dualmode capabilities, funds obtained for a test track in Sweden, 3/3/2012

New dualmode concept description and video, called BiModal Glideway, 2/6/2012.

New dualmode concept description: Tubular Guideway Transit, by Jon Bogle, 1/15/2012 .

Video: New dualmode concept called AutoMate from Israel, and Website, 11/1/2011 .

New book: The Third Generation Roadway: Metropolitan Transport for the 21st Century,  by Roger Davidheiser - quite inspirational, good graphics, paperback, 287 pp. - describes and assesses a visionary dualmode concept, Information about the content of the book is available here. 4/20/2011

Link to article Social Ramifications of Autonomous Urban Land Vehicles, by Tyler C. Folsom, 12/21/2010

A General Transport System Foundation has been established in Sweden - see their 12 page brochure for details, 9/2010

New dualmode system being developed called DAVe (Dual-mode Autonomous Vehicles), 9/10

Bike Metro - new Danish invention features dualmode bike network for sustainable urban travel, video also available, 10/10

Danish RUF system publishes an Investor Prospectus - excellent description of status of system, as of 5/08

History of dualmode concepts and descriptions of major studies of the topic

Listing of Active dualmode development efforts

Listed below are links to 22+ web pages or website links that provide some details and contact information on those dualmode projects that are currently known. "Activity" ratings are based on information available as of February, 2012. The Danish RUF dualmode system and the ROAM system have managed to get a prototype vehicle and initial test track segment built so far.  Several  RUF simulation programs are now available for download and for public use. For best results, read the User's Guides before running the programs on your computer. 

A Dualmode Debate page was initiated in March, 1998,   to help stimulate thinking and to identify and record various views as to the pros and cons of some of the existing dualmode concepts for others to consider. Contributions are welcome and should be sent to Jerry Schneider for posting.

Most Active (alphabetical order)

Autoshuttle - a German concept that would utilize maglev technology to transport a variety of conventional vehicles in carriers at high speed

Autran - a system with carriers that would carry autos, passenger cabins and freight containers. See U.S. Patent # 5,590,603, January 7, 1997

Bimodal Glideway concept - provides for high capacity, hi-speed travel in a  variety of application types.

Blade Runner - uses dualmode vehicles with rubber tires and retractable steel wheels for operation on both conventional highways and steel rail track (March, 2004, update and July, 2004 slide show are available)

jpdmvindex.jpg (13685 bytes)   Dual Mode Vehicle - a minibus that has both rubber tires and steel wheels for operation on both   roadways and rail lines, being developed by JR Hokkaido Railway Company in Japan. Toyota is currently (as of 5/08) involved in the further development of this system. More detail and photos are provided in a Wired article, published in 2008. Current status unknown -( 9-8-17)



CarTube concept, features large underground tubnetwork located under a major city, highly automated travel, switching and parking services proposed plus ability to also travel on the conventional roadway system - from the UK, excellent website.

Electric Highway Vehicle - a concept that uses an electrified highway and electric cars to produce a dualmode transportation system .

Elways - Swedish electrificed roadway concept - dualmode capabilities - funds for test track in Sweden obtained in 2012

Flexitrain - small, public, rental or privately-owned electric cars that can be connected into trains for longer trips, being developed in New Zealand

Freedom Transit - A weather-proof, dualmode mass transit system, utilizing privately-owned electric cars on a solar-powered , electrified, elevated, fixed guideway, under development in Arizona.  New

Japanese automated freight system - uses an automated guideway for long trips (no drivers) and conventional streets for final delivery (or pickup) - an Automated Freight application

ROAM: formerly know as MegaRail Transportation Systems, Inc. - (U.S. Patent # 6,039,135, March 21, 2000) This is a dualmode system that uses "carriers" to transport passenger or cargo vehicles that is under development near Fort Worth, Texas. It has also been designed to accommodate electric vehicles that can operate on the guideway without using a pallet. Also see the description of the small vehicle system, called MicroRail and the cargo version, called CargoRail. A dualmode version of CargoRail is called CargoTram. A guideway segment was built in early April, 2002 and static tests conduced (see Press Release). A larger test track is now under construction. Several new slide shows describing MegaRail's various products are available at their website.

At this time (September, 2014) ROAM (formerly know as MegaRail) is concentrating development on manually-controlled mass transit and commuter rail trains, but these trains include manually-controlled dualmode trams that consist of short dualmode trains that can leave the guideway and provide BRT type service to locations away from the guideway.  This capability will be demonstrated in the full-scale, fully-operational production prototype was completed in 2010.  This dualmode tram will be both street and guideway capable and may well be the first real dualmode system to be demonstrated. CargoRail  also generated interest from Port Authorities in Los Angeles/Long Beach, California, and elsewhere. In April, 2009, MegaRail  proposed a solution for the very difficult I-70 Mountain Corridor project in Colorado. In November, 2006, ROAM (akaMegaRail) posted an explanation as to why their cost is so much lower than other elevated systems. Here is a MicroRail presentation (September '08) It includes a photo of the first prototype vehicle which is now operational and undergoing a limited test program. A 21st century "Superway" presentation was released in July, 2010

Monomobile - a dualmode, suspended small vehicle system being developed in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three prototype vehicles have been built as has a short section of guideway. MonoMobile and MonoFreight Newsletter #4 describes current development funding prospects and joint participants. Monomobile is currently (9/14) building a second generation dualmode vehicle and plans to build a test track in 2018 or 2019.

PRT-Zest - a dualmode concept being developed in Russia, features a small vehicle with multiple possible configurations, shown operating in an elevated tube, can also be operated on conventional streets .

Overland Autonomous Transport System concept, mix of passenger and freight EVs, high speed travel (150 mph), elevated skyway, high capacity, national network contemplated, various ownership options, switchable, provides for both intra-urban and inter urban travel, video simulation and FAQ provided at website, looking for partners

RUF - a Danish dualmode concept that uses electric vehicles on conventional streets and a monorail-like automated guideway for longer, higher speed trips under full system control . A summary presentation of RUF system concepts (as of June, 2004) is available.  An update on RUF activities as of August, 2006, is now available, 102 pages, many excellent illustrations, pdf format. In May, 2008, an Investors Prospects was published - it's a good description of current status of system at that time. Link to a June, 2010, report that analyzes RUF's capacity.

TEV - a presentation of a dualmode concept, featuring small autonomous autos operating on an exclusive elevated, guideway at speeds in excess of 100 mph, very high capacity, using solar panels on the roof of an enclosed running surface, on rubber tires.

Zesttrans - a Russian dualmode concept, features vehicle carriers that run on rails, also multi-passenger vehicles that also
run on rails

TriTrack - describes a vehicle and guideway that would allow automated high speed passenger travel (e.g. 180 mph) as well as slower driven travel on conventional roadways, under development near Austin, Texas. ZoomHydro-WaterBeads is a fresh water transport concept using the a modified version of this technology


Conceptual only or Less Active-to-Inactive

Automate - a dualmode system that offers a chassis exchange capability for making the transition to an automated guideway, being developed in Israel, video presentation also available (no longer active, 9-7-17).

Automated Transportation Network (ATN) - a PRT/dualmode concept being developed in New Zealand

Biway - is similar in some ways to HiLoMag, RUF and Flexitrain - very nicely done website. 

Carbus/PMT - uses large trucks on the freeway to carry conventional or small electric vehicles as well as bicycles and people

CompuCar - German concept that uses small electric vehicles on an automated guideway, dualmode operation possible later .

EELS - Electric Energy Line System - a dualmode concept that uses a wholistic engineering concept

Higherway Transport Research - a suspended, dualmode PRT and cargo concept that shows great promise. For a 2007 PowerPoint presentation, click HERE.

InTranSys (Integrated Transportation System) - a "skyhook" concept that shows how a variety of vehicles could be carried on suspended pallets, using a linear synchronous motor for propulsion.

The National Automated Highway System Consortium (NAHSC) is currently inactive in the U.S. However, the recently formed Cooperative Vehicle-Highway Automation Systems group is working on the same issues in the U.S.

MIX - a small vehicle designed for neighborhood use that can also be suspended from a cable for longer, faster trips.

Pallet systems - describes work done at MIT several years ago on the development of pallets for use on an automated guideway, carrying vehicles and freight.

Personal Transportation System - a dualmode concept that is described by four patents. The basic patent is # 6,169,954. Subsequent patents are Nos. 6,198,994, 6,249,724 and 6,276,542, issued to Homer T. McCrary of California. See a dualmode station design from the basic patent. For more details, go to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office website and search for these patent numbers. Now called Qwiklane. A descriptive video is currently available. It is not currently active (9/8/17).

PRISM - a dualmode concept that was developed at the Ford Research Laboratory in Michigan

REV - this is the name of the dualmode concept developed by Francis Reynolds and is described in his book (The Revolutionary Dualmode Transportation System) which is now available on-line. To read individual chapters, go to the Contents page.

Segway - uses Smart Carts (pallets) on an automated guideway to carry a variety of vehicles.

Skybikes and Skytrains - describes a concept that combines bicycle and PRT concepts to create a dualmode, high capacity peoplemover.

Skyway - concept for an electrified roadway for dualmode vehicles - being developed by a group in Texas

Solar Tubular Transit - extensive website with detailed descriptions of attributes

Speedway: a small-vehicle, dualmode system for fast intercity travel as well as intra-urban travel, from Germany

Transmodal Capsule - a master's thesis done at the University of Washington in Seattle - very conceptual but has stimulated a lot of interest.


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Last modified: September 06, 2018