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Cranial nerve VI - innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. It
is the only cranial nerve that originates from the dorsal surface of the
Removal or destruction of tissue.
A neurotransmitter found in the brain, spinal cord, neuromuscular
junction and autonomic nervous system.
Enzyme that terminates the action of acetylcholine.
Electrical "all-or-none" impulse that transmits information within the
Associated with catecholamines.
Neural information flowing from the periphery to more central
areas of the nervous system.
Aging and the brain
Chemical that acts like a neurotransmitter; increases the effect of a
A degenerative brain disease. Characterized by memory loss and
Partial or complete loss of memory. "Anterograde" amnesia is when
people cannot form new memories.
A synthetic central nervous system stimulant.
The size or magnitude of a signal or response.
Brain structure that is part of the limbic system. Implicated in
Insensitivity to pain.
Chemical that blocks the action of a neurotransmitter
A directional term meaning toward the front.
A small fiber tract that connects the right and left cerebral
hemispheres (like the corpus callosum).
Inability to speak or understand language.
Fluid in the space between the cornea and lens of the eye.
Middle layer of the meninges.
A glial cell that supports neurons.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Autonomic Nervous System
Neuroanatomical method using radioactivity that is incorporated into
The part of the neuron that takes information AWAY from the cell
A synapse formed by contact between a
presynaptic axon and a postsynaptic dendrite.
Areas of the brain that are important from movement. These areas
include the putamen, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus
and substantia nigra.
Neuron with only two processes extending from the cell body.
Blood Brain Barrier
A system of astrocytes and capillaries in the brain that prevents the
passage of specific substances.
The central core of the brain.
The "horse's tail" made up of a bundle of spinal nerves at the base of
the spinal cord.
A directional term meaning toward the tail
Also called the soma; the part of the cell that contains the
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord.
Large groove in the brain that separates the frontal and parietal lobes.
Area of the brain above the pons and medulla that is important for
balance and posture.
Part of the ventricular system that connects the third and fourth
Outermost layer (the gray matter) of the cerebral hemisphere.
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Clear fluid in the ventricular system.
Figure using two separate faces on each half. These figures are used
in split brain experiments.
Vascular structures in the ventricular system that produce
Part of the limbic system. Located directly above the corpus
callosum. Important for emotional behavior.
About one day; used to describe some body rhythms.
Inner ear structure important for hearing.
Receptor found in the retina important for color vision and
Transparent front coat of the eye.
Large collection of axons that connect the left and right hemispheres
of the brain.
12 pairs of nerves that exit from the brain.
The part of the skull that contains the brain.
Extensions from the neuron cell body that take information TO
the cell body.
Movement of the membrane potential toward 0 mV; a decrease in
A neurotransmitter found in many areas of the brain. Important for
movement and other behavior.
Bundle of nerve fibers taking information into the spinal cord.
Drug Effects on the Brain
Outermost layer of the meninges.
Record of electrical activity of the brain obtained from scalp
Neurotransmitter with similar properties as opiates. Important for
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
A graded depolarization of the postsynaptic cell.
FFetal Alcohol Syndrome
Pathway that connects the hippocampus with the mamillary
Central part of retina; area of retina with most accurate vision.
Non-neural support cells of the nervous system.
Gyrus (plural is gyri)
"Hills" or "bumps" on the brain that are separated by fissures.
Area of the limbic system important for memory.
Chemicals used by endocrine system to transmit messages.
Brain structure that monitors internal environment and attempts to
maintain balance of these systems. Controls the pituitary.
Midbrain structure important for
Muscles of eye that control the size of the pupil. Gives color to
Transparent structure in the eye that focuses light on the retina.
Injury caused by destruction of tissue.
Limbic System (or Limbic Areas)
Interconnected areas of the brain important for emotional and other
Part of the brain stem important for breathing, respiration and other
Series of 3 membranes (dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater) that cover
the brain and spinal cord.
Fatty substance that surrounds some axons.
Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to communicate
from one neuron to another.
Node of Ranvier
Short unmyelinated segment of an axon.
Area of the brain located behind the parietal lobe and temporal lobe
and responsible for vision.
Crossing of the fibers from each retina.
Bones in the middle ear.
Neurological disorder caused by damage to the dopamine system of the
brain; symptoms include tremor, rigidity, slow movement.
Inner most layer of the meninges. Adjacent to the surface of
"Master" gland attached to the base of the brain that secretes
Area of the brainstem between the medulla and the midbrain.
Sensory receptor providing information related to body position,
mainly in muscles and tendons.
Innermost layer of the eye; contains receptors responsive to light.
Receptor found in the retina important for in low light
The neuron cell body. Contains the nucleus.
Sulcus (plural is sulci)
Groove located on the surface of the brain.
Functional connection between a terminal of one neuron with a membrane
of another neuron.
"Roof" of the midbrain.
"Floor" of the midbrain.
Group of nuclei in the diencephalon of the brain. The different
nuclei have sensory and motor functions.
Hollow spaces within the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal
If you did not find the word you were looking for, try these
- Glossary -
Brain Tumor Terms
- Glossary -
- Vision Terms
- Glossary of
- "Visionary": terminology in vision research
- Glossary - W.
Calvin's The Cerebral Code
- Glossary - Psychiatry
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