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The suggested citation for this work is listed below:

Mills, C.E. Internet 1999-present. Stauromedusae: list of all valid species names. Electronic internet document available at Published by the author, web page established October 1999, last updated (see date at end of page).

Having put together a list of what I believe to be all valid scientific names for the Ctenophora, I decided to compile a similar list of names for the Stauromedusae (Phylum Cnidaria: Class Staurozoa) that seem to be valid at the present time; links are included to stauromedusa images located elsewhere on the web. Whereas I believe that the list of genera and species is fairly complete, placement of these genera into families and subfamilies seems still to be fairly plastic, with need for further revision indicated. The basic structure of this taxonomy comes from Oskar Carlgren (1935) and Tohru Uchida (1929). Few living authors (including myself) have seen many species of Stauromedusae, which has been one problem in interpreting relationships. Presenting here an Internet webpage rather than a scientific paper, I have tried to be consistent in interpreting previous authors' work at the family and subfamily levels. Dr. Yayoi Hirano of Japan, perhaps the best-informed stauromedusan biologist in the world at this point, has offered some comments and corrections to this list. Other scientists have recently taken a new interest in this small group of unusual and beautiful marine animals.

There are about 50 known species of stauromedusae, which range from the intertidal zone to deep hydrothermal vent habitats, and from Antarctica and north polar regions to (much less frequently) the tropics. Where relevant, I have listed synonyms to good species names in parentheses on the line(s) following.

Note that genus and species names are always written in italics. If the author and date following a species name are within parentheses, that is the taxonomists' code for indicating that the species has been moved from the genus in which it was originally described; author and date not in parentheses indicates that the genus has not changed from the original description. (I am not making this format up - it is strictly formalized and governed by an international body of taxonomists.)

If you use this list in your studies, I would appreciate it if you cite it as suggested above as an electronic publication. The list is an ongoing work and is subject to modification at any time. I consider it my intellectual property and do not want to find it dumped wholesale onto someone else's web page - links to it are fine. I welcome any additions or corrections that anyone may wish to make - please contact me at the above address. In order to be true to its in-progress nature, I have left my personal shorthand in the electronic manuscript, so any entry preceeded by . means that I (or Yayoi Hirano) have not yet been able to check the original citation for accuracy. Although I have chosen to put this list of species names and authors on the web, it will be noted that I have not included the bibliography from which it derives.

I have included links to the few images of stauromedusae located elsewhere on the web to which I was comfortable making a positive identification. Any additions to these links are welcome.

In December 2010, along with several colleagues particularly interested in stauromedusae, I began to write pages for the Encyclopedia of Life for every species of stauromedusae or Staurozoa. The pages will include images, maps, a description, and summary of all that is known for each species. By early 2011, those pages should start to appear within the Encyclopedia of Life and until then, some can be found by a general online search under genus and species names. This project could easily take a couple of years to complete.



newest classification = Class Staurozoa Marques and Collins, 2004

older classification = Class Scyphozoa

. Scyphomedusae Lankaster, 1877

. Order Stauromedusae Haeckel, 1879

(=Lucernariae James-Clark, 1863)

Suborder Eleutherocarpida James-Clark, 1863

. Family Lucernariidae Johnston, 1847

Subfamily Lucernariinae Carlgren, 1935

Haliclystus James-Clark, 1863

antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 H.antarcticus

auricula (Rathke, 1806) (another image) (another image - drawing)

borealis Uchida, 1933

californensis Kahn, Matsumoto, Hirano and Collins, 2010 Allen Collins Haliclystus n. sp. from California

kerguelensis Vanhöffen, 1908

monstrosus (Naumov, 1961)

(=Octomanus Naumov, 1961)

. octoradiatus (Lamarck, 1816)

salpinx James-Clark, 1863 NE Pacific Haliclystus salpinx (another image)

"sanjuanensis" Gellermann, 1926 or Hyman, 1940 or Hirano, 1997 or undescribed?

Haliclystus undescribed sanjuanensis

sinensis Ling 1937

stejnegeri Kishinouye, 1899

tenuis Kishinouye, 1910

sp. undescribed, referred to by Hirano, 1997

Lucernaria O. F. Müller, 1776

(=.Lucernosa Haeckel, 1881) by Mayer, 1910

australis Vanhöffen, 1908

bathyphila Haeckel, 1879

haeckeli (Antipa, 1891)

. infundibulum Haeckel, 1880

janetae Collins and Daly, 2005 (another image)

kuekenthali (Antipa, 1891) - synonymized with L. walteri by Thiel, 1928 and Kramp, 1961

quadricornis O. F. Müller, 1776 (another image) (another image)

(=.L. fascicularis Fleming, 1814) by James-Clark, 1863

(?=.L. pyramidalis Haeckel, 1880) by Mayer, 1910

sainthilairei (Redikorzev, 1925)

walteri (Antipa, 1891)

Stenoscyphus Kishinouye, 1902

inabai (Kishinouye, 1893)

Stylocoronella Salvini-Plawen, 1966

riedli Salvini-Plawen, 1966

variabilis Salvini-Plawen, 1987

Undescribed subfamily "Stenoscyphopsinae" of Gwilliam, 1956, unpublished

Undescribed genus ("Stenoscyphopsis" of Gwilliam, 1956, unpublished)

Undescribed species ("vermiformis" of Gwilliam, 1956, unpublished)

Family Kishinouyeidae Uchida, 1929

or Subfamily Kishinouyeinae Carlgren, 1935

Kishinouyea Mayer, 1910

(= Schizodiscus Kishinouye, 1902) Schizodiscus was found to be pre-occupied

corbini Larson, 1980

hawaiiensis Edmondson, 1930

nagatensis (Oka, 1897)

Kishinouya nagatensis

Lucernariopsis Uchida, 1929

(=Calvadosia James-Clark, 1863)

. campanulata (Lamouroux, 1815) (another image)

(=.Lucernaria inauriculata Owen, 1850) by James-Clark, 1863

(=Lucernaria discoidea Eales, 1938) by Kramp, 1961

capensis Carlgren, 1938

cruxmelitensis Corbin, 1978 Lucernariopsis cruxmelitensis

tasmaniensis Zagal et al. 2011

vanhoeffeni (Browne, 1910)

sp. of Panikkar, 1944

Sasakiella Okubo, 1917

cruciformis Okubo, 1917

tsingtaoensis Ling, 1937

Family Kyopodiidae Larson, 1988

Kyopoda Larson, 1988

lamberti Larson, 1988

Family Lipkeidae Vogt, 1886

or Subfamily Lipkeinae Carlgren, 1935

Lipkea Vogt, 1886

(=Capria Antipa, 1893) by Uchida, 1929 and Carlgren, 1933

ruspoliana Vogt, 1886

stephensoni Carlgren, 1933

sturdzii (Antipa, 1893)

Suborder Cleistocarpida James-Clark, 1863

Family Depastridae Haeckel, 1879

Subfamily Depastrinae Uchida, 1929

Depastromorpha Carlgren, 1935

africana Carlgren, 1935

. Depastrum Gosse, 1858

(=.Calicinaria Milne Edwards, 1860) - by James-Clark, 1863 p. 547 from Sars, 1860

(=.Carduella Allman, 1860) - by James-Clark, 1863 and Mayer, 1910

(=.Depastrella Haeckel, 1880) - by Mayer, 1910

cyathiforme (M. Sars, 1846)

(?=.stellifrons Gosse, 1856) - by James-Clark, 1863

(?=.allmani Haeckel, 1880) - by Mayer, 1910

(?=.carduella Haeckel, 1880) - by Mayer, 1910 and see Uchida, 1934

(?=.polare Haeckel, 1880) - by Mayer, 1910

Subfamily Thaumatoscyphinae Carlgren, 1935

Halimocyathus James-Clark, 1863

(=.Halicyathus Haeckel, 1880) by Mayer, 1910

platypus James-Clark, 1863

Manania James-Clark, 1863

(=Thaumatoscyphus Kishinouye, 1910) by Larson and Fautin, 1989

(=Brochiella Krumbach, 1925) by Uchida, 1929 and Naumov, 1961

atlantica (Berrill, 1962)

auricula (Fabricius, 1780)

(=.Halimocyathus lagena (O. F. Müller, 1776) by Larson and Fautin, 1989

(=.Lucernaria typica Greene, 1858) by James-Clark, 1863 and Mayer, 1910

(=.Lucernaria fabricii L. Agassiz, 1862) by Mayer, 1910

distincta (Kishinouye, 1910)

(=Thaumatoscyphus uchidai Naumov, 1961) by Hirano, 1986, but see below

gwilliami Larson and Fautin, 1989 (bottom image)

handi Larson and Fautin, 1989 Manania handi CE Mills photo (another photo = top image, red color instead of green)

hexaradiata (Broch, 1907)

uchidai Naumov, 1961 (Hirano now believes this is a distinct species)

Subfamily Craterolophinae Uchida, 1929 or Family Craterolophidae

Craterolophus James-Clark, 1863

(=Craterlophus misprint in Mayer, 1910 and Uchida 1929)

convolvulus (Johnston, 1835) (another image - drawing)

(=C. tethys James-Clark, 1863) by Kramp 1961

(=.Lucernaria helgolantica Leuckart) by Uchida, 1929

(=.Lucernaria leuckarti Taschenberg, 1887) by Uchida, 1929

macrocystis von Lendenfeld, 1884


This site is maintained by C. E. Mills and all photographs are copyrighted by the author unless otherwise stated.
** This page was established October 1999; last updated 29 March 2012 **

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