Anthony G. Greenwald, PhD


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  • Updated July 2, 2012Contract Services for Academic and Commercial ResearchersPROJECT IMPLICIT is a non-profit organization that has, as the first element of its mission statement, "to develop and deliver methods for investigating and applying phenomena of implicit social cognition".  It carries out that mission in part by collecting data in web-administered studies that can draw on a large repertoire of procedures, including ones that obtain latency data and ones that collect survey (self-report) responses.  It also makes this infrastructure available to other researchers on a contract basis.  Other researchers can use participants from a pool of participants who drop into Project Implicit's web site (, or that they recruit themselves and send to a private study hosted on Project Implicit servers. Details of these research capabilities are described in a downloadable file,  To learn more, contact

  • Description of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) A brief description of the procedure.

  • The IAT can be experienced at (relocation of the original website, which operated at Yale University from Sep 1998 to Jan 2003)

    The next 3 notes describe revision history of downloadable software found in the 3rd note
  • Posted 29 Dec 2007: Laboratory software for the IAT (operates under Windows operating systems)
    The generic IAT software was updated on 26 Dec 2007 to correct some variable -naming errors in the SPSS syntax that was posted 26 Aug 07. There is a new pdf file that gives an overview of computation of alternative forms of the D measure. Further notes available in links below labeled Read this.  Generic Inquisit syntax for creating IAT scripts (dated 26 Nov 2005) continues to be available in the Generic IAT zipfile download (see further description below).

  • Posted 26 Aug 2007:
    The generic IAT software was updated on 26 Aug 2007 to correct a minor error in computation of error-penalty scores (the error was that latencies greater than 10000 ms were not deleted in the computation in syntax files dated 26 Nov 05).
    These files have subsequently been replaced as described in the posting for 29 Dec 2007.

  • Posted 28 Dec 2006 (updated 30Nov 2012):
    Software for Self-esteem IAT (operates on Macintosh computers, using PsyScope)
    Contents of this downloadable zipfile include: a PsyScope ( Self-Esteem IAT script, six text files that contain stimuli for the Self-Esteem IAT and corresponding self-report measures, and SPSS syntax that reads the PsyScope data computes IAT measures using the Greenwald et al. (JPSP, 2003 - see below) improved algorithm. Clicking here leads to the Behavior Research Methods article reporting these.  Scroll down if necessary and click on the "Supplementary Material" link after arriving there. Further detail can be obtained from the first author, Jennifer Borton (, or from the BRM article:
    Borton, J. L. S., Oakes, M. A., Van Wyk, M. E., & Zink, T. A. (2007). Using PsyScope to conduct IAT experiments on Macintosh computers. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 789-796.

    • Read this first (describing the remaining items)

    • Generic IAT zipfile download (updated 29 Dec 07)  Contains software for creating IAT experimental scripts and analyzing IAT data.
    • -- Use Inquisit (updated 26 Nov 05) to create experimental scripts.   Read this for explanation of experimental script production.
    • -- Use SPSS (updated 29 Dec 07) to analyze the resulting data..  Read this for explanation of data analysis using the SPSS scripts.  The just-updated (26 Nov 05) syntax should be more user friendly than previous versions of syntax I have provided.  It also corrects a minor error in the previous version's computation of error-penalty forms of the improved IAT scoring algorithm.

    • Generic Balanced Identity Design zipfile download (using Inquisit, picture or word stimuli, not updated since 2002
    • -- read this for detailed instructions)

    • (site for free demo download of Inquisit)

  • Published manuscript describing new scoring algorithm for the IAT
    • Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: I. An Improved Scoring Algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197-216. [abstract] [PDF - 224KB] [overview of new algorithm]

    • SAS syntax (as of 10 Aug 05, this syntax has been updated with a correction for the error-penalty computational flaw noted above.  Thanks to Brian Nosek for the SAS version of the new scoring algorithm.  To use it, remove the .txt extension before use this with SAS. Note: If this link is broken, please check Brian Nosek's website, where this file resides.

  • New (Feb 9, 2004): Downloadable pdf of slideshow presented at Jan 2004 meetings of the Attitude Preconference at the Society of Personality and Social Psychology's annual meeting in Austin, TX: "Revised Top 10 List of Things Wrong with the IAT." Includes a list of avoidable procedural errors in using the IAT. Find it on the unpublished manuscripts page.

  • For downloadable publications on the IAT, go to the publications by topic page

    For current (unpublished) work on the IAT, go to the unpublished manuscripts page

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