I have discovered that many, if not most, of the translations of these web pages are defective in one way or another. A great number of them seem to have been prepared by robot translators (such as Google Translate). In many cases, English idioms have been literally translated into languages that lack a counterpart idiom, and these translations are therefore unintelligible to readers of the target language.
Translations of the sort of material on this web site should be prepared by translators who are native speakers either of English or of the target language, and who are fluent in both, and who have some familiarity with philosophical prose. Unfortunately, I cannot verify that any of the translations that have been done so far satisfy these conditions. More importantly, I have no way of verifying that the conditions are met.
I have therefore reluctantly decided to remove all links to translations of these pages. I cannot prevent those translations from being published on the Internet, but I will no longer encourage readers of this web site to consult them.
I appreciate the efforts of those who have attempted in good faith to make my work available to non-English speakers. But since I am unable to authenticate the reliability of the translations, I can no longer in good conscience continue to provide links to them on this web site.
Return to PHIL 320 Home Page
Send e-mail to Professor Cohen at