Thanks for visiting! I direct the Autonomous Insect Robotics Laboratory at the University of Washington, which works to advance insect-scale robotics engineering and better understand the capabilities of insects. We are affiliated with NIFTI and UWIN.
How can you create a fully autonomous robot as small as a fly? This is an open challenge because scaling physics makes traditional approaches impractical. My research takes inspiration from insects to overcome this, producing operational insect-scale prototypes.
| Exceptionally-qualified students interested in research at the intersection of robot design, control, and animal locomotion at insect scale are invited to join the laboratory. Applications are due to the UW Department of Mechanical Engineering (here) in December. Please make sure indicate your interest in the Fuller group in your application. Students in Aeronauts & Astronautics, Electrical Engineering, and Computer Science and Engineering are also invited to contact Prof. Fuller. Exceptional candidates seeking external postdoctoral fellowships (e.g. uWIN , NSF PFB, ICPRFP, McDonnell, WRF) are welcome to contact Prof. Fuller to discuss opportunities. Please include a resume in email correspondence. I may not be able to respond individually to all requests.
Robots and animals find niches that exploit their strengths. For example, a giraffe's long neck is cumbersome, but it allows a higher reach than other land animals. Our group is interested in the niches that will be occupied by insect-scale robots, measuring a few centimeters across. Their small size, low weight, agility, and low materials cost have advantages relative to larger robots. For example, they could perform sensing in more confined spaces, operate safely in close proximity to humans, or be deployed where mass is at a premium such as in outer space. But to realize these capabilities requires solving a number of miniaturization challenges. Many conventional robot and aircraft technologies like electromagnetic motors, GPS sensing, gliding flight, and robot navigation algorithms, cannot operate efficiently or effectively at insect scale. This is because dominant physical effects change as scale reduces.
The Autonomous Insect Robotics Laboratory aims to solve these scaling problems by taking inspiration from insects. For example, flies and bees continually flap their wings rather than gliding like birds. This is an adaptation to the greater effect of viscous drag at small scale. More than that, insects have superlative capabilities that operate at the forefront of contemporary control theory, outclassing current robots. Watch as a honeybee navigates to a flower and then deftly lands on it while buffeted by wind. These animals inspire insect robotics that are not only small, but capable of swiftly navigating through complex, uncertain environments.
Basic flight mechanics and simple sensing systems have been demonstrated on insect robot prototypes, but there remain many unsolved problems. In particular, we have not yet performed control computation using tiny onboard microprocessors, added sufficient sensing for complete flight autonomy (no external sensors), and power has so far been supplied by wires. Rivaling the performance of insects remains a distant target. Insects share a similar sensory suite to what our robots will carry, and operate under the same non-intuitive governing physics, so the solutions they employ have direct engineering application. The results of this research will extend beyond insect robots to anywhere there is a need for miniaturized and power-efficient sensing, power-efficient control systems, and more dynamic, robust, and lifelike robots. The effort may also give unique insights into the operation of the brain.
Areas of particular interest are computation-constrained visual navigation, power sources, chemical plume localization, and the interplay of control and mechanics.
Previously, I worked as a Postdoctoral Scholar in the lab of Prof. Robert Wood at Harvard University. Outside of this area, I have worked on a frog-inspired hopping rover for interplanetary exploration for NASA with Paolo Fiorini and Joel Burdick and an ink-jet printer that can pattern nerve cells with Sebastian Seung and Shuguang Zhang at MIT. Prior to that, I built the first ink-jet printer capable of fabricating electronic circuits and and 3D metal machines with Joseph Jacobson, inventor of the E-ink electronic paper display used by the Amazon Kindle. I also have pages about past engineering projects and art.
- A sub-page with a brief background and biography
- Foldable Robotics, a workshop for the 2018 NIFTI/Soar 9 meeting [Course Website].
- Spring 2018: ME581, Digital Control System Design and ME498, Structural Engineering in Commercial Aircraft
- ME 599: Biology-inspired robot control, Autumn 2017 [Course Website].
- ME 477: Embedded computing in mechanical systems, Winter 2017 [Course Website]
||The first wireless fly-sized drone
We built the world's first fly-sized drone that does not need a wire to the ground to supply power and control signals. This is a challenge because of the difficulty of miniaturizing the circuitry to drive the robot's piezo actuators. The piezo actuators, which drive its flapping wings, require a step-up voltage converter. We figured out a new way to quickly make the ultra-light circuit and incorporated the first microprocessor brain on-board, creating a circuit weighing less than a toothpick. We provided power using an infrared laser beam. more
James, Iyer, Chukewad, Gollakota, and Fuller, ICRA 2018
[PDF | Press:
Wired Economist IEEE Spectrum KIRO 7 News]
||Using insect-inspired vision to fly
We mounted a four-pixel sensor inspired by insect ocelli to the top of a fly-sized flying robot. This enabled the first flights at this scale stabilized using feedback only from sensors carried onboard. Without this sensor, the robot quickly tumbles because of dynamic instability.
Fuller, Karpelson, Censi, Ma, and Wood, J. Royal Society Interface, June 2014.
[PDF | video | Press: The Scientist Motherboard Science News]
||Flies sense wind to stabilize flight |
We used cameras to record how fruit flies respond to impulsive wind gusts while in flight. This revealed a multi-sensory mechanism to regulate groundspeed that combines vision and airspeed-sensing antennae.
Fuller, Straw, Peek, Murray, and Dickinson, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., April 2014.
[PDF | Press: Phys.org RedOrbit, Caltech News, Homepage PNAS Featured image]
Free-flight of a fly-sized robot |
As aircraft scale diminishes to that of insects, new effects begin to dominate because of scaling physics. We developed unconventional, scale-appropriate fabrication, aerodynamics, actuation, and control technology to realize the first controlled flight of a vehicle the size of a fly.
Ma, Chirarattananon, Fuller, and Wood, Science, May 2013.
video | Press: Wired New York Times Economist]
Biomimetic wind sensing |
A flight-weight sensor (yellow appendage at right) measures airspeed on a fly-sized flapping-wing robot, with Andreas Haggerty.
Fuller, Sands, Haggerty, Karpelson, Ma, and Wood, Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, 2013. [PDF]
Computation-limited visual motion control|
Without GPS, tiny aerial vehicles will use vision to navigate confined spaces. Yet vision is typically computation intensive. We showed how a hovercraft robot can visually navigate a narrow corridor using only 20,000 multiply operations per second, compatible with the 10 mW avionics power budget of a fly-sized robot.
Fuller and Murray, Int. Conf. on Robotics and Biomimetics, 2011. [PDF | video]
Ink-jet fabricated micro-machines|
I developed the first ink-jet printer capable of building metal machines. Using a nanoparticle ink, I printed electrostatic motors (above, tip of a mechanical pencil shown for scale), cantilever actuators with hundreds of layers, and a high-conductivity resonant electric coil.
Fuller, Wilhelm, and Jacobson, J. Micro-electromechanical Systems, 2002.
[PDF | video | Press: MIT Technology Review (cover)]