FOR THE LIST OF ALL VALID SPECIES NAMES: PHYLUM CTENOPHORA
At the request of Steve Haddock, I will note here all changes to the list of all valid scientific ctenophore names beginning January 1, 2003.
January 28, 2003 - update log set up; no changes to list.
April 7, 2003 - added some new photograph links, corrected others.
June 10, 2003 - changed my University of Washington affiliation to new UW Dept. of Biology (combined Zoology and Botany).
October 8, 2003 - added correct date to Coeloplana thomsoni Matsumoto, 1999; fixed some links.
November 3, 2003 - changed original author of Order Platyctenida from Mortensen 1912 to the earlier entry mentioned by Komai (1922) = Bourne 1900. Thanks for Tim Siferd of Winnepeg for pointing this out. I have not seen the original Bourne yet.
February 1, 2005 - updated link for Lobatolampea tetragona.
April 5, 2005 - changed family Euplokamidae to Euplokamididae in accordance with ctenophore family names used in Cairns et al. 2002. Small text change introducing Ctenolist including mentioning an additional about 25 known, but undescribed ctenophores, many of which are in the deep-sea.
May 1 and 13, 2007 - added some new photograph links, corrected others.
June 28, 2009 - updated some photograph links, added some new ones.
June 28, 2009 - font change.
November 8, 2010 - added forgotten species Gastrodes komai Dawydoff, 1937 as Lampea komai. Substantially updated the introduction. Updated a few photograph links. (I also rewrote portions of, and added a bunch of links to, the Ctenophores page.)
February 9, 2011 - corrected spelling to Horita for one use of Lobatolampea. Changed date on two questionable species of Callianira, C. diploptera and C. triploptera to Lamarck 1816 (from 1843).
February 3, 2012 - added new species Coeloplana anthostella and Bathocyroe longigula and one old Cestum synonym that had not previously been listed. Added family Aulacoctenidae of Lindsay and Miyake (2007), with genus Aulacoctena, and moved Pleurobrachia latipharyngea Dawydoff, 1946 to genus Bathyctena, as suggested by Lindsay and Miyake (2007). Added several recently-described fossil ctenophores or fossils recently interpreted as ctenophores.
February 14, 2012 - corrected date of Bathocyroe longigula Horita, Akiyama and Kubota, 2011.
May 9, 2012 - linked new image of Callianira antarctica and replaced a number of broken links to images of other species. Added seven new species from Gershwin, Zeidler and Davie, 2010: (new Family Pukiidae) Pukia falcata, Euplokamis evansae, Coeloplana mellosa, Coeloplana reichelti, Bolinopsis ashleyi, Leucothea filmersankeyi, and Ocyropsis vance. Changed authorship of Ocyropsis subspecies maculata maculata and subspecies crystallina crystallina to Harbison and Miller, 1986 to match the other new subspecies created in the same 1986 paper (O. maculata immaculata and O. crystallina guttata).
May 13, 2012 - corrected spelling from Ctenoplana yurii Dawydoff, 1929 to C. jurii Dawydoff, 1929. Dawydoff subsequently (1936) refers to this species as C. yuri, but I have now used the spelling from the original description.
May 15, 2012 - after re-reading many papers about the species of Pleurobrachia, I have synonomized P. rhododactyla with P. pileus, as suggested by Bigelow (1912) and Mayer (1912). I can't explain why I didn't do this long ago. I have also added or changed a couple of new editorial comments in red beside some species names and changed a couple of links to new images.
March 12, 2014 - I have added a number of synonyms to Lampea and Haeckelia, based on Stechow's papers of 1921, 1922 and 1923 dealing with Ctenophore taxonomy; also added Calymma as a synonym of Stechow's replacement name Calya. I've finally added a number of synonomies discovered by Bennema and van Moorsel (2011). They traced very carefully the history of Slabber's "Zeshoekige Beroe" of 1778, which was interpreted by later authors in a variety of ways. In the end, they have convinced me (this also from a series of email correspondences a few years ago) that the many Callianira names that all refer to this single "hexagonal" cydippid from the Scheldt estuary in the Netherlands can only really be a juvenile Pleurobrachia pileus, and thus I transferred Callianira slabberi, C. hexagona, and several other names to be considered as synonyms of P. pileus. In the midst of tracing this "Zeshoekige Beroe" of Slabber, Bennema and van Moorsel (2011) also reveal an additional ancient species Beroe hexagona (originally described by Bruguière, 1789, as Beroe hexagonus), which I have also left under Callianira, for lack of a better idea, with a synonymy of Lamarck's Callianira triploptera. I have added several other synonomies to North Atlantic ctenophore names by re-reading through papers by Mortensen from 1912, 1918, and 1932. I also finally synonomized my local Bolina microptera A. Agassiz, 1865 with Bolinopsis infundibulum, as suggested in 1912 and 1918 by Mortensen.
March 16, 2014 - I have removed the obscure class/subclass names Typhlocoela and Cyclocoela, proposed by Ospovat (1985), leaving the long-established class names Tentaculata and Nuda as the only useful higher level taxonomic names. Ospovat's paper has been nearly unknown and certainly not discussed in the past thirty years; subsequent molecular work including Podar et al. has not supported these groups as a natural or imformative assemblage. I included Ospovat's taxonomy in my original 1998 ctenophore species list out of a sense of thoroughness for consideration by ctenophore biologists, but use of the terms Typhlocoela and Cyclocoela has proliferated without any sort of discussion into a number of databases including WoRMS (World Register of Marine Species), the Encyclopedia of Life, NCBI, and GenBank. It is obvious at this point that the taxonomy of the Ctenophora needs a massive revision, so I am now opting for the simplicity and clarity of the widely accepted classes Tentaculata and Nuda until such a revision occurs. I will make the same adjustment to the WoRMS taxonomic list of ctenophores and hope that over time it filters down through other lists for which I am not responsible and can not make changes.
January 5, 2016 - I have added five newish species of platyctene ctenophores, all in the benthic genus Coeloplana: Coeloplana waltoni Glynn, Bayer and Renegar, 2014; Coeloplana loyai Alamaru and Brokovich, 2015; Coeloplana fishelsoni Alamaru, Brokovich and Loya, 2015; Coeloplana huchonae Alamaru, Brokovich and Loya, 2015; Coeloplana yulianicorum Alamaru, Brokovich and Loya, 2015. I have also added three new putative fossil ctenophore species, described as "sclerotized," with a hard skeleton: Galeactena hemispherica Ou et al., 2015; Gemmactena actinala Ou et al., 2015; Thaumactena ensis Ou et al., 2015. I have corrected the spelling of the fossil ctenophore genus Batofasciculus Hou et al. 1999 (according to Ou et al. 2015, who have amended its description, but I have not seen the original description to verify this spelling from the "Botafasciculus" used elsewhere) and the species Stromatoveris psygmoglena Shu et al. 2006. I have added the date to Trigoides aclis Luo and Hu, 1999. I note that Petalilium latus Luo et al. 1999 has been placed within the cephalopod-like nectocaridid Nectocaris pteryx Conway Morris 1976 by Smith 2013.
January 20, 2017 - Dhugal Lindsay brought problems in the genus Hormiphora to my attention.
I made some changes today to that genus that may be improvenments, but still do not completely straighten things out:
The genus Hormiphora was created by L. Agassiz, 1860, for the species Cydippe hormiphora Gegenbaur, 1856. Gegenbaur figures this species with some simple tentilla as well as some complex, fringed, eolid-like tentilla.
I add that Bigelow (1912) synonomized young stages of H. palmata Chun, 1898 with H. hormiphora (Gegenbaur, 1856), but he also stated that the larger H. palmata Chun, 1898 are a distinct, "important and widely distributed species."
I added an additional synonym of H. palmata Chun, 1898: Bigelow 1912 p. 381 synonomizes both Lampetia fusiformis Agassiz and Mayer 1902, p. 171 and figs, and Hormiphora fusiformis Mayer, 1906, p. 1134.
I have added another species H. foliosa Haeckel, 1904, Plate 27, Fig. 3, Kunstformen der Natur (1904), but also put it as a probable synonym of H. hormiphora (Gegenbaur, 1856) because of its siimilarity to Gegenbaur's illustration. I have not seen any Haeckel text associated with this lovely 1904 drawing.
The authorship of Hormiphora plumosa should be (M. Sars, 1859) rather than L. Agassiz, 1860. Sars' species had fine, threadlike tentilla on the tentacles. I am presently unsure if L. Agassiz also described something called H. plumosa in 1860 that had short, simple tentilla as well as eolid-shaped tentilla, as cited by Moser (1909 p. 151). Cydippe hormiphora Gegenbaur, 1856 has been moved out of synonomy with H. plumosa.
I added a note to H. elliptica that Cydippe elliptica Eschscholtz 1829 was moved to Hormiphora by Moser (1909, p. 152), who at the same time synonomized Janira elliptica of Lesson (1843) with this species.
March 30, 2017 - Sofie Vranken of the WoRMS data management team recently brought to my attention that Ocyropsis fusca Rang was also called at one point Ocyroé brune (Rang 1828); she wanted to know if that was a synonym that should be added to the list of all ctenophore species names. With the help of Allen Collins and Philippe Bouchet, we have determined that the three original species of Ocyropsis were originally described by Rang in 1827 in a paper that I was not aware of. In 1828 Rang uses only the French translations of the Latin species names when he redescribes these three species, one of which is "O. brune" for O. fusca, and WoRMS has decided to add this as a vernacular synonym; I have added Rang's 1828 vernacular names to all three species name lists. In both 1827 and 1828, Rang formally describes the genus name Ocyroé (non-Latinized French), but Philippe Bouchet pointed out to me that in fact Péron and Lesueur first described Ocyroe in 1810. I am still looking for Péron and Lesueur's illustration of this genus, reproduced by Jacqueline Goy in 1995. (The genus Alcinoe was described only in Rang's 1828 paper, and thus its date has not been changed - this genus name has never been synonomized with another to my knowledge, but neither has the name been used in many decades.)
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** This page was established January 2003; last updated 30 March 2017 **