Marine Cloud Brightening Program: Publications

Publications in process, not yet submitted:

The impact of the interaction of cloud microphysics and macrophysics with large-scale circulation on stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition. Je-Yun Chun, Robert Wood, Peter N. Blossey, and Sarah J. Doherty, 2024: To be submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

Evaluation of E3SM version 2 marine boundary layer clouds over the northeast Pacific during the CSET Campaign. Kyoung Ock Choi, Philip J. Rasch, Robert Wood, Sarah J. Doherty, 2024: To be submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres

Submitted, in review:

A protocol for model intercomparison of impacts of Marine Cloud Brightening Climate Intervention. Philip J. Rasch, Haruki Hirasawa, Mingxuan Wu, Sarah Doherty, Robert Wood, Hailong Wang, Andy Jones, James Haywood, Hansi Singh, EGUsphere [preprint],, 2024.

Aggressive aerosol mitigation policies reduce chances of keeping global warming to below 2C.  Robert Wood, Mika. A. Vogt, and Isabel. L. McCoy, Earth’s Future, in review, 2024.

Exploring ship track spreading rates with a physics-informed Langevin particle parameterization. Lucas A. McMichael, Michael J. Schmidt, Robert Wood, Peter N. Blossey, and Lekha Patel, EGUsphere [preprint],, in review, 2024.

Sensitivities of Large Eddy Simulations of Aerosol Plume Transport and Cloud Response. Chandru Dhandapani, Colleen M. Kaul, Kyle G. Pressel, Peter N. Blossey, Robert Wood, Gourihar Kulkarni, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheres, in review, 2024.


G6-1.5K-SAI: a new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment integrating recent advances in solar radiation modification studies. Daniele Visioni, Alan Robock, Jim Haywood, Matthew Henry, Simone Tilmes, Douglas G. MacMartin, Ben Kravitz, Sarah J. Doherty, John Moore, Chris Lennard, Shingo Watanabe, Helene Muri, Ulrike Niemeier, Olivier Boucher, Abu Syed, Temitope S. Egbebiyi, and Ilaria Quaglia, Geoscientific Model Development (GMD), 17, 2583-2596,, 2024.

Physical science research needed to evaluate the viability and risks of marine cloud brightening. Feingold, G., Ghate, V. P., Russell, L. M., Blossey, P., Cantrell, W., Christensen, M. W., Diamond, M. S., Gettelman, A., Glassmeier, F., Gryspeerdt, E., Haywood, J., Hoffmann, F., Kaul, C. M., Lebsock, M., McComiskey, A. C., McCoy, D. T., Ming, Y., Mülmenstädt, J., Possner, A., … Wood, R., Zheng, X.  Science Advances, 10(12), eadi8594., 2024.

Microphysical, macrophysical and radiative responses of subtropical marine clouds to aerosol injections, Chun, J.-Y., Wood, R., Blossey, P., and Doherty, S. J.: Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1345–1368,, 2023.

Simulating aerosol lifecycle impacts on the subtropical stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition using large eddy simulations. Ehsan Erfani, Peter Blossey, Robert Wood, Johannes Mohrmann, Sarah Doherty, Matthew Wyant, Kuan-Ting O. J. Geophys. Res.: Atmospheres, 127, e2022JD037258., 2022.

Global Reduction in Ship-tracks from Sulfur Regulations for Shipping Fuel. Tianle Yuan, Hua Song, Robert Wood, Chenxi Wang, Lazaros Oreopoulos, Steven E. Platnick, Sophia von Hippel, Kerry Meyer, Siobhan Light, Eric Wilcox. Science Advances, 8(29), eabn7988., 2022.

Opinion: To assess marine cloud brightening’s technical feasibility, we need to know what to study—and when to stop. Michael S. Diamond, Andrew Gettelman, Matthew D. Lebsock, Allison McComiskey, Lynn M. Russell, Robert Wood, and Graham Feingold. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.  January 25, 2022 119, e2118379119;

Opportunistic Experiments to Constrain Aerosol Effective Radiative Forcing. Christensen, M., Gettelman, A., Cermak, J., Dagan, G., Diamond, M., Douglas, A., Feingold, G., Glassmeier, F., Goren, T., Grosvenor, D., Gryspeerdt, E., Kahn, R., Li, Z., Ma, P.-L., Malavelle, F., McCoy, I., McCoy, D., McFarquhar, G., Mülmenstädt, J., Pal, S., Possner, A., Povey, A., Quaas, J., Rosenfeld, D., Schmidt, A., Schrödner, R., Sorooshian, A., Stier, P., Toll, V., Watson-Parris, D., Wood, R., Yang, M., and Yuan, T. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 22, 641–674,, 2022.

Assessing the potential efficacy of marine cloud brightening for cooling Earth using a simple heuristic model. Robert Wood. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14507–14533,, 2021.

Substantial Cloud Brightening from Shipping in Subtropical Low Clouds.
Diamond, M. S., H. M. Director, R. Eastman, A. Possner and R. Wood, 2020: AGU Advances1, e2019AV000111.
[AGU Advances Editor Highlight].

The efficacy of aerosol–cloud radiative perturbations from near-surface emissions in deep open-cell stratocumuli
Possner, A., Wang, H., Wood, R., Caldeira, K., and Ackerman, T. P.: Atmos. Chem. Phys.18, 17475-17488, 2018.

The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project –introduction to the second special issue. Ben Kravitz, Alan Robock , Olivier Boucher, Mark Lawrence , John C. Moore , Ulrike Niemeier, Trude Storelvmo,  Simone Tilmes, and Robert Wood. Atmos. Chem. Phys., doi:10.5194/acp-special_issue376-preface, 2018.

Could geoengineering research help answer one of the biggest questions in climate science? Robert Wood, Thomas Ackerman, Philip Rasch and Kelly Wanser. Earth’s Future.  5, 659–663,doi:10.1002/2017EF000601, 2017.

Large-Eddy Simulation of Ship Tracks in the Collapsed Marine Boundary Layer: A Case Study from the Monterey Area Ship Track Experiment. A. H. Berner, C. S. Bretherton, and R. Wood. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5851-5871, doi:10.5194/acp-15-5851-2015.

Climatic change special issue: Geoengineering research and its limitations. Robert Wood, Stephen Gardiner and Lauren Hartzell-Nichols. Climatic Change, 121, 427-430, DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-1000-4, 2013.

Defining success and limits of field experiments to test geoengineering by marine cloud brightening. R. Wood and T. P. Ackerman. Climatic Change, 121, DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-0932-z, 2013.

Factors determining the most efficient spray distribution for marine cloud brightening, P. J. Connolly, G. B. McFiggans, and R. Wood. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A372: 20140056., 2014.

Marine Cloud Brightening. J. Latham, K. Bower, T. Choularton, H. Coe, P. Connolly , G. Cooper ,T. Craft, J. Foster, A. Gadian, L. Galbraith, H. Iacovides, D. Johnston, B. Launder, B. Leslie, J. Meyer, A. Neukermans, B. Ormond, B. Parkes, P. J. Rasch, J. Rush, S. Salter, T. Stevenson, H. Wang, Q. Wang, and R. Wood. Phil Trans Roy. Soc. A, 2012, 370, 4217-4262, doi: 10.1098/rsta.2012.0086, 2012.

Learn more: 

Marine Cloud Brightening Program (main page)

Small-Scale Field Studies to Quantify Key Processes & Inform Models

Generating Aerosols for Cloud-Aerosol Research

Governance, Engagement and CAARE 

Our Team, Partners and Funders

MCB Program Publications

Professor, Atmospheric Sciences, Univ. of Washington