The Southern Diaspora

How the Great Migrations of Black and White Southerners Transformed America

by James N. Gregory

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Supplemental Tables

These tables supplement the charts and tables published in appendix A of The Southern Diaspora

Supplemental Table 1: San Joaquin Valley 1939, 1949, 1969 -- family income, poverty, and male occupations

Supplemental Table 2: 1939 family income and male occupations for nonMetropolitan counties in the Great Lakes states

Supplemental Table 3: 1950   Family income and male occupations for Southerners  living in three nonSouth regions

 

Supplemental Table 1:  San Joaquin Valley 1939, 1949, 1969: family income, poverty, and male occupations

           In California's San Joaquin Valley southern white migrants were often employed as farm workers in the 1930s and 1940s but gradually found better jobs

          Poverty rates among southern whites in the valley remained high until 1969

 

South-born whites

Other whites

Blacks

Latinos

Asian /Pacific

1939:

 

 

 

 

 

Median family income

$800

$1,453

$312

$670

$600

% white collar

14%

25%

6%

5%

12%

% skilled/ semi-skilled

24%

29%

15%

10%

3%

% farm labor/ unskilled*

55%

27%

77%

73%

67%

% farm owner/manager

7%

19%

2%

13%

18%

TOTAL

100%

100%

100%

101%

100%

   N

503

          1,569

              48

            118

          93

 1949:

Median family income

$2,850

$3,150

$1,250

$1,750

$1,550

     % below poverty

38%

33%

63%

58%

60%

% white collar

18%

31%

2%

9%

12%

% skilled/ semi-skilled

41%

34%

24%

16%

4%

% farm labor/ unskilled*

36%

19%

70%

69%

75%

% farm owner/manager

5%

16%

4%

6%

9%

TOTAL

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

   N

1019

2048

147

388

118

 1969:

Median family income

$7,050

$8,050

$3,650

$5,550

$7,050

     % below poverty

16%

15%

41%

29%

18%

% white collar

24%

37%

17%

12%

23%

% skilled/ semi-skilled

46%

34%

29%

28%

12%

% farm labor/ unskilled*

28%

23%

51%

57%

56%

% farm owner/manager

3%

5%

2%

3%

9%

   TOTAL

101%

99%

99%

100%

100%

    N

963

3425

194

810

155

* Includes service jobs
Source: 1940 IPUMS, 1950 IPUMS, 1970 State F1 IPUMS 

 

  

Supplemental Table 2:  1939 family income and male occupations for nonMetropolitan counties in the Great Lakes states 

          Southern whites were not particularly associated with farm labor in the Great Lakes states nor with rural poverty

          Only in rural Indiana did incomes of southern whites approach the low levels found in the San Joaquin Valley at the end of the 1930s but not because of farm labor jobs 

1939:

Ohio

Indiana

Illinois

Michigan

Southern whites:

 

 

 

 

    Median family income*

$1,000

$841

$1,060

$1,200

     % male farm owners

22%

25%

11%

11%

     % male farm laborers

7%

4%

14%

16%

Other  US-born whites:

 

 

 

 

    Median family income

$1,150

$1,068

$1,000

$1,200

     % male farm owners

23%

24%

24%

20%

     % male farm laborers

6%

6%

9%

6%

* wage and salary income only. Households headed by a person who indicated self employment excluded
Source: 1940 IPUMS 

 

 

Supplemental Table 3:  1950   Family income and male occupations for Southerners  living in three nonSouth regions 

MidAtlantic states:

 

South-born blacks

Other blacks

South-born whites

Other  U.S.-born whites

Foreign-born whites

Latinos

Median family income

$2,050

$2,050

$3,450

$3,250

$3,050

 

% white collar

14%

21%

40%

37%

32%

24%

% skilled/semi-skilled

37%

38%

42%

45%

44%

45%

% laborers/ service

48%

40%

14%

13%

22%

30%

% farmers/ farm labor

2%

1%

3%

4%

2%

1%

% TOTAL

101%

100%

99%

99%

100%

100%

N

3823

2277

2103

89730

4225

1081

East North Central states:

 

South-born blacks

Other blacks

South-born whites

Other  U.S.-born whites

Foreign-born whites

Latinos

Median family income

$2,350

$1,950

$3,050

$3,150

$3,250

 

% white collar

10%

17%

23%

32%

25%

21%

% skilled/semi-skilled

44%

39%

56%

45%

50%

47%

% laborers/ service

46%

42%

14%

11%

19%

29%

% farmers/ farm labor

1%

3%

7%

12%

5%

3%

% TOTAL

101%

101%

100%

100%

99%

100%

N

4651

1733

6698

87896

2315

491

Pacific states:

 

South-born blacks

Other blacks

South-born whites

Other  U.S.-born whites

Foreign-born whites

Latinos

Median family income

$2,350

$2,450

$3,050

$3,450

$2,850

 

% white collar

11%

21%

27%

40%

32%

13%

% skilled/semi-skilled

34%

36%

45%

39%

33%

36%

% laborers/ service

52%

38%

16%

13%

22%

25%

% farmers/ farm labor

4%

6%

12%

8%

12%

26%

% TOTAL

101%

101%

100%

100%

99%

100%

N

1305

253

5445

31728

1143

2436

Source: 1950 IPUMS