The Southern Diaspora

How the Great Migrations of Black and White Southerners Transformed America

by James N. Gregory

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Bibliography: The Great Migrations of Black and White Southerners

This bibliography lists more than 700 books and articles.
It is organized under the following subheadings. (Last update 2012)

Migration Studies

 Resettlement Experiences and Community Building

Personal Stories: Memoirs, Biographies, Fiction

Cultural institutions, Cultural Effects

Political Initiatives, Political Effects

Churches and Religious Legacies

Migration Studies: Comparative
     
Alexander 
  J. Trent 
  "Great Migrations: Race and Community in the Southern Exodus, 1917-1970” (Ph.D. diss. Carnegie Mellon University, 2001).
Alexander 
 J. Trent 
"'They're never here more than a year': Return Migration in the Southern Exodus, 1940-1970," Journal of Social History, 38 (2005): 653-671
Coles
Robert 
The South Goes North (Boston, 1972)
Dennis
 Sam Joseph 
African-American Exodus and White Migration, 1950-1970: A Comparative Analysis of Population Movements and their Relations to Labor and Race Relations (New York, 1989)
Digman
Jason Carl
“Which Way to the Promised Land? Changing Patterns in Southern Migration, 1865–1920” (Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois–Chicago, 2001)
Fligstein
Neil 
Going North: Migration of Blacks and Whites from the South, 1900-1950 (New York, 1981)
Fulton
John Andrew
"Differences Between African-Americans and Whites in Migration to the United States South, 1955--2000 "(PhD Diss. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2007)
Gregory
James N. 
“Paying Attention to Moving Americans: Migration Knowledge in the Age of Internal Migration, 1930s-1970s,” Migrants and Migration in Modern North America: Cross-Border Lives, Labor Markets, and Politics in Canada, the Caribbean, Mexico, and the United States, eds. Dirk Hoerder and Nora Faires (Durham, 2011), 277-96
Gregory
James N. 
The Southern Diaspora: How The Great Migrations of Black and White Southerners Transformed America (Chapel Hill, 2005) 
Gregory
James N. 
“The Southern Diaspora and the Urban Dispossessed: Demonstrating the Census Public Use Microdata Samples,” Journal of American History 82, no. 1(June 1995)
Jones
 Jacqueline 
The Dispossessed: America's Underclasses from the Civil War to the Present (New York, 1992)
Kirby 
Jack Temple
"The Southern Exodus, 1910-1960: A Primer for Historians," Journal of Southern History 49(November, 1983), 585-600.
Price 
Daniel O. and Melanie M. Sikes
Rural-Urban Migration Research in the United States (Wash. D.C., 1974)
Qureshi
 Rashida 
"Dependency and Internal Migration: A Comparative Study of Outmigration from the Appalachian South and the Core South," (Ph.D. dissertation Kansas State University, 1996).
Tolnay
Stewart E. &  Suzanne C. Eichenlaub
"Southerners in the West: The Relative Well-being of Direct and Onward Migrants," Social Forces 84: 1639-1663 (2006)
Tolnay
Stewart & Amy Bailey
"Schooling for Newcomers: Variation in Educational Persistence in the Northern United States in 1920," Sociology of Education 79: 253-279 (2006)

Migration Studies: Black
     
Adams
Luther
Way Up North in Louisville : African American Migration in the Urban South, 1930-1970 (Chapel Hill, 2010)
Adelman
Robert M., Chris Morett, and Stewart E. Tolnay
“Homeward Bound: The Return Migration of Southern Born Black Women, 1940–1990,” Sociological Spectrum 20(2000): 433–63
Adelman
Robert M., Stewart E. Tolnay.
"Occupational Status of Immigrants and African Americans at the Beginning and End of the Great Migration,” Sociological Perspectives 46: 179-206 (2004)
Adero
Malaika, ed.,
Up South: Stories, Studies, and Letters of This Century’s Black Migrations(New York, 1993). 
Arnesen
Eric
Black Protest and the Great Migration: A Brief History with Documents (Bedford 2002)
Baker
Richard B.
The Great Migrations Impact on the Education of Southern-born African Americans (2011)
Blocker
Jack S.
A Little More Freedom : African Americans Enter the Urban Midwest, 1860-1930 (Columbus: 2008)
Brown Hamilton
Tullia
Up from Canaan: The African American Journey from Mound Bayou to St. Louis (St. Louis, 2011)
Cohen
William 
At Freedom’s Edge: Black Mobility and the Southern White Quest for Racial Control, 1861–1915 (Baton Rouge, 1991)
Coleman
Christopher Lee
African-Americans Migrating to Brooklyn, 1940-1950 : A Socio-Historical and Quantitative Analysis (Lewiston, 2005)
Crew
Spencer R. & David Tarnow
Field to Factory : Voices of the Great Migration : Recalling the African American Migration to the Northern Cities (Washington, D.C.: 2006)
Crowder
Kyle D., Stewart E. Tolnay, and Robert M. Adelman
"Intermetropolitan Migration and Locational Improvement for African American Males, 1970-1990" Social Science Research 30 (2001), 449-472
Eichenlaub
Suzanne & Stewart Tolnay, Trent Alexander
"Moving Out but Not Up : Economic Outcomes in the Great Migration," American Sociological Review 75: 101-125 (2010)
Gill
Flora 
“Economics and the Black Exodus” (Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 1974)
Goodwin
E. Marvin 
Black Migration in American from 1915 to 1960: An Uneasy Exodus (Lewiston N.Y., 1990)
Gottlieb
Peter 
Making Their Own Way: Southern Black’s Migration to Pittsburgh, 1916-30 (Urbana, 1987)
Greenfield
Eloise & Jan Spivey Gilchrist
The Great Migration : Journey to the North (New York: 2011)
Gregory
James N.
“The Second Great Migration: An Historical Overview,” in African American Urban History: The Dynamics of Race, Class and Gender since World War II, eds. Joe W. Trotter Jr. and Kenneth L. Kusmer (Chicago, 2009), 19-38.
Groh
George W. 
The Black Migration: The Journey to Urban America (New York, 1972)
Grossman
James R. 
Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration (Chicago, 1989)
Hamilton
Horace C. 
"The Negro Leaves the South," Demography 1 (1959): 273–95
Harris
Laurie Lanzen
The Great Migration North, 1910-1970 (Detroit, 2012)
Harrison
Alferdteen, ed.
Black Exodus: The Great Migration from the American South (Jackson, Miss., 1991)
Henri
Florette 
Black Migration: Movement North 1900–1920 (Garden City, N.Y., 1975)
Hine
Darlene Clark 
“Black Migration to the Urban Midwest: The Gender Dimension, 1915-1945” in The Great Migration in Historical Perspective: New Dimensions of Race, Class, and Gender, ed., Joe William Trotter Jr. (Bloomington, 1991)
Holley
Donald 
The Second Great Emancipation: The Mechanical Cotton Picker, Black Migration and How They Shaped the Modern South (Fayetteville, Ark., 2000)
Ira
Berlin
The Making of African America : The Four Great Migrations (New York, 2010)
Isabel
Wilkerson
The Warmth of Other Suns : The Epic Story of America's Great Migration (New York, 2010)
Johnson 
Daniel M. and Rex R. Campbell
Black Migration in America: A Social Demographic History (Durham, 1981)
Krissoff Boehm
Lisa
Making a Way Out of No Way: African American Women and the Second Great Migration (University Press of Mississippi, 2009)
Lemann
Nicholas 
The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How it Changed America (New York, 1991)
LeSeur
Geta 
Not All Okies Are White: The Lives of Black Cotton Pickers in Arizona  (Columbia, Mo, 2000).
Long 
Larry, and Kristin A. Hansen
,"Selectivity in Black Return Migrants," Rural Sociology 42(1975): 317–31.
Marks
Carole 
Farewell--We're Good and Gone: The Great Black Migration (Bloomington, 1989)
McKether
Willie L.
Voices in Transition : African-American Migration to Saginaw, Michigan : 1920-1960 (PhD Diss. Wayne State University 2005)
Painter
Nell Irvin
Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction (Topeka, 1986)
Phillips
Kimberley L. 
AlabamaNorth: African-American Migrants, Community, and Working-Class Activism in Cleveland, 1915-45 (Urbana, 1999)
Phillips
Kimberely
Daily Life During African American Migrations (Santa Barbara, 2012)
Platt Boustan
Leah
"Competition in the Promised Land: Black Migration and the Racial Wage Convergence in the North, 1940-1970," The Journal of Economic History 69: 755-782  (2009)
Price-Spratlen
Townsend 
"African American Community Development and Migration Streams: Patterns of Change in Twentieth Century Metropolitan Migration" (Ph.D. diss., University of Washington, 1993)
Price-Spratlen
Townsend 
"Livin' for the City: African American Ethnogenesis and Depression Era Migration,” Demography 36 (November 1999): 553–68
Reich
Steven A.
Encyclopedia of the Great Black Migration (Westport: 2006)
Shrestha
Nanda R., Wilbur I. Smith, Charles L. Evans
"Black Migration at the Margin of Freedom," International Journal of Population Geography 9: 113-139 (2004)
Sonneborn
Liz
The Great Black Migrations : From the Rural South to the Urban North (New York: 2010)
Stack
Carol 
Call to Home: African Americans Reclaim the Rural South (New York, 1996).
Tolnay
Stewart E. 
“The African American ‘Great Migration’ and Beyond,” Annual Review of Sociology (2003), 209-33. 
Tolnay
Stewart E., Kyle D. Crowder, and RM Adelman
“Race, Regional Origins, and Residence in Northern Cities at the Beginning of the Great Migration,” American Sociological Review 67 (2002), 456-75. 
Tolnay
Stewart 
"The Great Migration and Changes in the Northern Black Family, 1940 to 1990" Social Forces, 75(June 1997), 1213-38
Tolnay
Stewart E. 
"Migration Experience and Family Patterns in the 'Promised Land'" Journal of Family History 23 (1998), 68-89
Tolnay
Stewart E. 
“Educational Selection in the Migration of Southern Blacks, 1880–1990,” Social Forces 77 (December 1998): 487–514
Tolnay
Stewart E. 
"The Great Migration Gets Underway: A Comparison of Black Southern Migrants and Nonmigrants in the North, 1920" Social Science Quarterly 82 (2001), 235-252
Tolnay
Stewart E., Katherine J. Curtis White, Kyle D. Crowder, Robert M. Adelman
"Distances Traveled During the 'Great Migration': An Analysis of Racial Differences Among Male Migrants," Social Science History 29: 523-548 (2005)
Townsand
Price-Spratlen
"Urban Destination Selection Among African Americans During the 1950s Great Migration,: Social Science History 32: 437-469 (2008)
Trotter
Joe William Jr., ed.,
The Great Migration in Historical Perspective: New Dimensions of Race, Class, and Gender (Bloomington, 1991)
Vickery
William 
The Economics of the Negro Migration, 1900–1920 (New York, 1977)
White
Katherine J. Curtis, Kyle D. Crowder, Stewart E. Tolnay, Robert M. Adelman
"Race, Gender, and Marriage: Destination Selection during the Great Migration," Demography 42: 215-241 (2005)
Whitman
David 
"The Great Sharecropper Success Story," Public Interest 101(Summer 1991), 
Woodson
Carter G. 
A Century of Negro Migration (Washington, D.C., 1918)

Migration Studies: White
     
Alexander
Trent J
"Defining the Diaspora: Appalachians in the Great Migration," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 37: 219-247  (2006)
Berry
 Chad 
Southern Migrants, Northern Exiles (Urbana, 2000)
Brown 
James S , and George A. Hillery Jr.
"The Great Migration, 1940–1960," in The Southern Appalachian Region, ed. Thomas R. Ford (Lexington, Ken., 1962), 54–78
Cady
Daniel Jay
"Southern" California : White Southern Migrants in Greater Los Angeles, 1920-1930
Gregory
 James N. 
American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California (New York, 1989)
Hamilton
C. Horace 
"Continuity and Change in Southern Migration" in The South in Continuity and Change, ed. John C. McKinney and Edgar T. Thompson (Durham, 1965), 69–75
Johnson
Susan Allyn
Industrial Voyagers : A Case Study of Appalachian Migration to Akron, Ohio : 1900-1940
Kruse
Kevin Michael
White Flight : Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism
McCoy
 Clyde B., and James S. Brown
“Appalachia Migration to Midwestern Cities,” in The Invisible Minority: Urban Appalachians, eds. William W. Philliber and Clyde B. McCoy (Lexington, Ken., 1981)
Obermiller
Phillip J., Thomas E. Wagner, and E. Bruce Tucker, eds.
Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration (Westport, 2000)
Philliber
 William W.
Appalachian Migrants in Urban America: Cultural Conflict or Ethnic Group Formation? (New York, 1981)
Schwarzweller
Harry K., James S. Brown and Joseph J. Mangalam
Mountain Families in Transition (University Park, Penn., 1971). 
Shindo
Charles J. 
Dust Bowl Migrants in the American Imagination (Lawrence, KS, 1997).
Stein
 Walter 
California and the Dust Bowl Migration (Westport, 1973)
Weisiger
 Marsha L. 
Land of Plenty: Oklahomans in the Cotton Fields of Arizona, 1933-1942 (Norman, 1995).

 Resettlement Experiences and Community Building: Black
     
Archibald
Katherine 
Wartime Shipyard: A Study in Social Disunity (Berkeley, 1947), 75
Ballard
 Allen B.
One More Day's Journey: The Story of a Family and a People (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984).
Banks
Nina
"Uplifting the Race through Domesticity: Capitalism, African-American Migration, and the Household Economy in the Great Migration Era of 1916-1930," Feminist Economics 12( 2006): 599-624.
Banner-Haley
 Charles Pete T. 
To Do Good and To Do Well: Middle-Class Blacks and the Depression, Philadelphia, 1929-1941 (New York, 1993)
Black
Timuel J.
Bridges of Memory Volume 2: Chicago's Second Generation of Black Migration (Chicago, 2008)
Bodnar
John 
Workers' World: Kinship, Community, and Protest in an Industrial Society, 1900-1940 (Baltimore, 1982)
Bodnar
John, Roger Simon, and Michael P. Weber
Lives of Their Own: Blacks, Italians, and Poles in Pittsburgh, 1900-1960 (Urbana, 1982).
Bontemps 
Arna and Jack Conroy
Anyplace But Here (New York, 1966; orig.1945)
Boyd
Robert L.
"The Northern 'Black Metropolis' of the Early Twentieth Century: A Reappraisal," Sociological Inquiry 81 p88-109 (2011)
Boyle
Kevin 
Arc of Justice: A Sage of Race, Civil Rights, and Murder in the Jazz Age (New York, 2004). 
Broussard
 Albert S.
Black San Francisco: The Struggle for Racial Equality in the West, 1900–1954 (Lawrence, Kan., 1993)
Capeci
 Dominic J. Jr.
Race Relations in Wartime Detroit: The Sojourner Truth Housing Controversy of 1942 (Philadelphia, 1984)
Chicago Commission on Race Relations
 
The Negro in Chicago: A Study of Race Relations and a Race Riot (Chicago, 1922
Drake
St. Clair, and Horace R. Cayton
Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City (New York, 1962)
Drake
St. Clair, and Horace R. Cayton
Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City (New York, 1962)
Du Bois
W.E.B. 
The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study (Philadelphia, 1899 )
Gottlieb
 Peter 
Making Their Own Way: Southern Black’s Migration to Pittsburgh, 1916-30 (Urbana, 1987)
Greenberg
Cheryl Lynn 
"Or Does It Explode?" Black Harlem in the Great Depression (New York, 1991)
Grossman
James R. 
Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration (Chicago, 1989)
Hardin
Clara A. 
The Negroes of Philadelphia: The Cultural Adjustment of a Minority Group (Bryn Mawr, PA, 1945)
Haynes
George Edmund 
Negro Newcomers in Detroit (New York, 1969 (orig. 1918)
Hirsch
Arnold R. 
Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960 (Cambridge, 1983)
Johannson
Nsenga Lee
"Viewing African-American History through the Lens of Health: The Great Migration and African Americans in Detroit, 1916-1940" (PhD. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2004 )
Johnson
Marilynn S. 
The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in World War II (Berkeley, 1993)
Katzman
David M. 
Before the Ghetto: Black Detroit in the Nineteenth Century (Urbana, 1973)
Kennedy
Louise Venable 
The Negro Peasant Turns Cityward: Effects of Recent Migrations to Northern Centers (New York, 1930) 
Kollmann
Trevor
The Impact of African American Migration on Housing in New York City Neighborhoods during the Great Depression (2010)
Kusmer
 Kenneth L.
A Ghetto Takes Shape: Black Cleveland, 1870-1930 (Urbana, 1978), 66-90.
Lee 
Alfred McClung and Norman D. Humphrey
Race Riot (New York, 1968; orig.1944)
Lemak
Jennifer A
"Albany, New York and the Great Migration," Afro-Americans in New York Life & History 32: 47-74 (2008)
Lemann
Nicholas 
The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How it Changed America (New York, 1991)
Levine
  David 
Internal Combustion: The Races in Detroit, 1915-1926 (Westport, 1976).
Lieberson
 Stanley 
A Piece of the Pie: Blacks and White Immigrants Since 1880 (Berkeley, 1980) 
Lieberson
Stanley and Christy A. Wilkinson
"A Comparison between Northern and Southern Blacks Residing in the North," Demography 13 (May 1976), 199-224
Lyons
 Beverly A. Bunch-
Contested Terrain: African-American Women Migrate from the South to Cincinnati, Ohio, 1900-1950 (New York, 2002)
Marks
 Carole 
Farewell--We're Good and Gone: The Great Black Migration (Bloomington, 1989)
Meyer
Stephen Grant 
As Long as They Don’t Move Next Door: Segregation and Racial Conflict in American Neighborhoods (Lanham, MD, 2000)
Mohl
Raymond A. and Neil Betten
Steel City: Urban and Ethnic Patterns in Gary, Indiana, 1906-1950 (New York, 1986
Moon 
Elaine Latzman ed.
Untold Tales, Unsung Heroes: An Oral History of Detroit's African American Community, 1918–1967 (Detroit, 1994), 149.
Moore
 Shirley Ann Wilson 
To Place Our Deeds: The African American Community in Richmond, California, 1910–1963 (Berkeley, 2000)
Mossell
Sadie T. 
"The Standard of Living among One Hundred Negro Migrant Families in Philadelphia," Annals of the American Academy 98(1921), 176-177. 
Moynihan
  Daniel P. 
The Negro Family: The Case for National Action (Wash. D.C., 1965)
Murch
Donna Jean
Living for the City : Migration, Education, and the Rise of the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California (Chapel Hill, 2010)
Myrdal
Gunnar 
An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (New York, 1944
Osofsky
 Gilbert 
Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto: Negro New York, 1890-1930 (Chicago, 1996, orig.1966)
Ottley
Roi 
New World A-Coming: Inside Black America (Cambridge, 1943), 
Ouellet
Nelson
Chicago's New Negroes: Modernity, the Great Migration, and Black Urban Life (Durham, 2007)
Petersen
Gene B., Laure M. Sharp, Thomas F. Drury
Southern Newcomers to Northern Cities: Work and Social Adjustment in Cleveland (New York, 1977)
Phillips
 Kimberley L. 
AlabamaNorth: African-American Migrants, Community, and Working-Class Activism in Cleveland, 1915-45 (Urbana, 1999)
Santangelo
Gretchen Lemke
Abiding Courage: African American Migrant Women and the East Bay Community (Chapel Hill, 1996)
Self
 Robert 
American Babylon: Race and Power in Postwar Oakland (Princeton, 2003).
Spear
Allan H. 
Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto 1890-1920 (Chicago, 1967)
Sugrue
 Thomas J.
The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit (Princeton, 1996), 
Taeuber 
Konrad E. and A.F. Taeuber
Negroes in Cities: Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Change (Chicago, 1965).
Taylor
Quintard 
The Forging of a Black Community: Seattle's Central District, from 1870 through the Civil Rights Era (Seattle, 1994)
Taylor
Quintard
"Facing the Urban Frontier: African American History in the Reshaping of the Twentieth-Century American West," Western Historical Quarterly 43: 5-28 (2012)
Thomas
Richard W. 
Life For Us is What We Make it: Building Black Community in Detroit, 1915-1945 ((Bloomington, 1992), 161-73
Thompson
 Nathan 
Kings: The True Story of Chicago’s Policy Kings and Numbers Racketeers (Chicago, 2003?)
Tompkins Bates
Beth
The Making of Black Detroit in the Age of Henry Ford (Chapel Hill, 2012)
Trotter
Joe William Jr.
Black Milwaukee: The Making of an Industrial Proletariat, 1915-45 (Urbana, 1985)
Williams
Lillian Serece 
Strangers in the Land of Paradise: The Creation of an African American Community, Buffalo, New York 1900-1940 (Bloomington, 1999)
Wilson
 J. William Julius 
When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York, 1996)
Wolcott
Victoria W. 
Remaking Respectability: African American Women in Interwar Detroit (Chapel Hill, 2001)
Wright
Richard R. Jr.
The Negro in Pennsylvania: A Study in Economic History (New York, 1969, orig.1912)

 Resettlement Experiences and Community Building: White
     
Akers
Elmer 
"Southern Whites in Detroit" (unpublished ms, n.d., University Microfilms)
Archibald
Katherine 
Wartime Shipyard: A Study in Social Disunity (Berkeley, 1947), 75
Berry
Chad 
Southern Migrants, Northern Exiles (Urbana, 2000)
Beynon
Erdmann Doane 
"The Southern White Laborer Migrates to Michigan," American Sociological Review 3 (June 1938)
Bruno
Hal 
"The Hillbilly Ghetto," The Reporter June 4, 1962
Chicago Commission on Human Relations
 
The Uptown Community Area and the Southern White In-Migrant—a Human Relations Study (mimeograph np., May 1957)
Clarkson 
Atleia and W. Lynwood Montell
"Letters to a Bluegrass DJ: Social Documents of Southern Whites Migrants in Southeaster Michigan 1964-1974" Southern Folklore Quarterly 39(1975), 
Coles
Robert 
The South Goes North (Boston, 1972)
Deyling
Rosemary 
"Hillbillies in Steelville: A Study of Participation in Community Life," (MA thesis, University of Chicago, 1949), 41-52.
Fowler
Gary L. 
"Up Here and Down Home: Appalachians in Cities," in Perspectives on Urban Appalachians eds., Steven Weiland and Phillip Obermiller (Cincinnati, 1978), 197-209
Fuller
Varden 
Rural Worker Adjustment to Urban Life: An Assessment of the Research (Ann Arbor, 1970)
Ganzel
Bill 
Dust Bowl Descent (Lincoln, 1984).
Gitlin 
Todd and Nanci Hollander
Uptown: Poor Whites in Chicago (New York, 1970) 
Goldschmidt
Walter 
As You Sow: Three Studies in the Social Consequences of Agribusiness (Montclair, N.J., 1978 orig. 1947).
Gregory
James N. 
American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California (New York, 1989)
Gregory
James N.
"Southernizing the American Working Class: Post-War Episodes of Regional and Class Transformation," Labor History, 39:2(1998), 135-54
Guy
Roger Stephen 
“Diversity to Unity: Uptown’s Southern Migrants, 1950-1970” (Ph.D diss. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1996)
Harwood
Edwin S. 
“Work and Community Among Newcomers: A Study of Social and Economic Adaptation of Southern Migrants in Chicago” (PhD. Diss. University of Chicago, 1966)
Jamieson
Stuart M. 
“A Settlement of Rural Migrant Families in the Sacramento Valley, California,” Rural Sociology (March 1942), 49-61
Johnson
Marilynn S. 
The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in World War II (Berkeley, 1993)
Killian
Lewis M. 
"Southern White Laborers in Chicago's West Side" (Ph.D dissertation University of Chicago, 1949)
Killian
Lewis M. 
White Southerners (New York, 1970)
Killian
Lewis M. 
"Southern White Laborers in Chicago's West Side" (Ph.D dissertation University of Chicago, 1949)
Leybourne
Grace G. 
"Urban Adjustments of Migrants from the Southern Appalachia Plateaus" Social Forces 16:2 (December 1937), 238-46. 
Manes
Sheila Goldring
“Depression Pioneers: The Conclusion of as American Odyssey, Oklahoma to California, 1930-1950, a Reinterpretation” (Ph.D. diss. University of California, Los Angeles, 1982)
McKee
Dan M. and Phillip J. Obermiller
From Mountain to Metropolis: Urban Appalachians in Ohio (Cincinnati, 1978)
Merten
Don Edward 
"Up Here and Down Home: Appalachian Migrants in Northtown" (Ph.D diss. University of Chicago ,1974). 
Morgan
Dan 
Rising in the West: The True Story of an "Okie" Family from the Great Depression through the Reagan Years (New York, 1992). 
Nicolaides
Becky M. 
My Blue Heaven: Life and Politics in the Working-Class Suburbs of Los Angeles, 1920-1965 (Chicago, 2002)
Obermiller
Phillip J. and Thomas E. Wagner
“’Hands-Across-The Ohio’: The Urban Initiatives of the Council of the Southern Mountains, 1954-1971” in Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, eds., Phillip J. Obermiller, Thomas E. Wagner, and E. Bruce Tucker (Westport, 2000
Obermiller
Phillip J. and Michael E. Maloney
“Looking for Appalachians in Pittsburgh: Seeking Deliverance, Finding the Dear Hunter,” in From Mountain to Metropolis: Appalachian Migrants in American Cities, ed., Kathryn M Borman and Phillip J. Obermiller (Westport, 1994), 13-24.
Petersen
Gene B., Laure M. Sharp, Thomas F. Drury
Southern Newcomers to Northern Cities: Work and Social Adjustment in Cleveland (New York, 1977)
Philliber
William W.
Appalachian Migrants in Urban America: Cultural Conflict or Ethnic Group Formation? (New York, 1981)
Price 
Daniel O. and Melanie M. Sikes
Rural-Urban Migration Research in the United States (Wash. D.C., 1974)
Schloss
Bert P.
"The Uptown Community Area and the Southern White In-migrant" (Chicago Commission on Human Relations report May 1957)
Schwarzweller
Harry K., James S. Brown and Joseph J. Mangalam
Mountain Families in Transition (University Park, Penn., 1971). 
Spaulding
Charles B. 
“The Development of Organization and Disorganization in the Social Life of a Rapidly Growing Working-Class Suburb Within a Metropolitan District” (Ph.D. diss., University of Southern California, 1939)
Stein
Walter 
California and the Dust Bowl Migration (Westport, 1973)
Sutherland
Daniel E. 
The Confederate Carpetbaggers (Baton Rouge, 1988)
Sutherland
Daniel E. 
"Southern Fraternal Organizations in the North," Journal of Southern History, 53, no.4(November 1987): 587–612
Thompson
John Leslie 
"Industrialization in the Miami Valley: A Case Study of Interregional Labor Migration," (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1955)
Weisiger
Marsha L. 
Land of Plenty: Oklahomans in the Cotton Fields of Arizona, 1933-1942 (Norman, 1995).

Personal Stories: Memoirs, Biographies, Fiction
Albertson
Chris 
Bessie (New York, 1972).
Alexander
Charles C. 
Ty Cobb (New York, 1984).
Black
 Timuel D. Jr.
The Bridges of Memory: Chicago’s First Wave of Black Migration (Evanston, Ill, 2003)
Black
Timuel J.
Bridges of Memory Volume 2: Chicago's Second Generation of Black Migration (Chicago, 2008)
Boyle
Kevin 
Arc of Justice: A Sage of Race, Civil Rights, and Murder in the Jazz Age (New York, 2004). 
Buni
 Andrew 
Robert L. Vann of the Pittsburgh Courier: Politics and Black Journalism (Pittsburgh, 1974)
Caldwell
 Erskine 
Call it Experience (London, 1960)
Cayton Jr
Horace R. 
Long Old Road: An Autobiography (Seattle, 1964
Chung
 Haeja K. , ed.
Harriette Simpson Arnow: Critical Essays on Her Work (East Lansing, 1995).
Comer
James P. 
Maggie’s American Dream: The Life and Times of a Black Family (New York, 1989)
Cooper
John Milton  Jr
. Walter Hines Page: The Southern as American 1855-1918 (Chapel Hill, 1977)
Denby
Charles 
Indignant Heart: A Black Worker’s Journal (Boston, 1978 orig. 1952)
Donald
David Herbert 
 Look Homeward: The Life of Thomas Wolfe (Boston, 1987)
Eckley
Wilton 
Harriette Arnow (New York, 1975)
Faulkner
AO, MA Helser, W. Holbrook, S Geismar
When I Was Comin’ Up: An Oral History of Aged Blacks (Hamden, Conn., 1982).
Feather
 Carl E. 
Mountain People in a Flat Land: A Popular History of Appalachian Migration to Northeast Ohio, 1940-1965 (Athens, OH, 1998). 
Frady
Marshall 
Billy Graham: A Parable of American Righteousness (Boston, 1979).
Franklin
C.L. 
Give Me this Mountain: Life History and Selected Sermons, edited by Jeff Todd Titon (Urbana, 1989)
Franklin 
Aretha and David Ritz
Aretha: From These Roots (New York, 1999)
Greenfield
Eloise & Jan Spivey Gilchrist
The Great Migration : Journey to the North (New York: 2011)
Haggard 
Merle with Peggy Russell
Sing Me Back Home: My Story (New York, 1981).
Henderson
Robert M. 
D.W. Griffith: The Years at Biograph (New York, 1970).
Himes
Chester B. 
If He Hollers Let Him Go: A Novel (New York, 1986 orig. 1944)
Hobbs
Richard S. 
Cayton Legacy: An African American Family (Pullman WA, 2002)
Holloway
 Joanathan Scott 
Confronting the Veil: Abram Harris Jr., E. Franklin Frazier, and Ralph Bunche, 191-1941 (Chapel Hill, 2002). 
Horace
  Lillian B. 
"Crowned with Glory and Hope": The Life of Rev. Lacey Kirk Williams (Hicksville, NT, 1978) 
Irvin
Dona L. 
The Unsung Heart of Black America: A Middle–Class Church at Midcentury (Columbia MO, 1992)
Johnson
John H. with Lerone Bennett, Jr.
Succeeding Against the Odds (New York, 1989), 
Killian
Lewis M. 
Black and White: Reflections of a White Southern Sociologist (New York, 1994)
King
 Larry L. 
“Playing Cowboy: That Widespread Breed, the Expatriate” The Atlantic, March 1975, 40-45.
Lynn 
Loretta with George Vecsey
Loretta Lynn: Coal Miner’s Daughter (Chicago, 1976).
Mills
James R. 
A Disorderly House: The Brown-Unruh Years in Sacramento (Berkeley, 1987)
Moon 
Elaine Latzman ed.
Untold Tales, Unsung Heroes: An Oral History of Detroit's African American Community, 1918–1967 (Detroit, 1994), 149.
Morris
Willie 
North Toward Home (Boston, 1967)
Morris 
Willie 
New York Days (Boston, 1993)
Murray
 Albert 
South to a Very Old Place (New York, 1971)
Ottley
 Roi 
Lonely Warrior: The Life and Times of Robert S. Abbott (Chicago, 1955)
Platt
Anthony M.
E. Franklin Frazier Reconsidered (New Brunswick, 1991)
Reich
Steven A.
"The Great Migration and the Literary Imagination," Journal of the Historical Society 9: 87-128 (2009)
Richardson
James 
Willie Brown: A Biography (Berkeley, 1996).
Richardson Amos
Sharon L
Whose Dust is Rising? : Historical and Literary Narratives of the Northern Migration of African American Women (Phd Diss. SUNY Buffalo 2005)
Robbins
Richard 
Sidelines Activist: Charles S. Johnson and the Struggle for Civil Rights (Jackson Miss., 1996). 
Seale
Bobby 
Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton (New York, 1970)
Shaffer Jr.
Donald
"Making Space(s) : The Representation of Place and Identity in Black Migration Novels, 1902-1953" (PhD Dissertation University of Chicago 2005)
Sorensen
Jeff 
Lily Tomlin: Woman of a Thousand Faces (New York, 1989),
Stack
Carol 
Call to Home: African Americans Reclaim the Rural South (New York, 1996).
Still
 Mark Sumner 
"'Fighting Bob' Shuler: Fundamentalist and Reformer" (Ph.D. dissertation Claremont Graduate School, 1988), 
Weisbrot
Robert 
Father Divine (Boston, 1983)
White
  Walter 
A Man Called White: The Autobiography of Walter White (Bloomington, 1948)

Cultural Institutions, Cultural Effects: Black
 
 
 
Anderson
Jervis
This Was Harlem: 1900-1950, (New York, 1982)
Bak
Richard 
Turkey Stearnes and the Detroit Stars: The Negro Leagues in Detroit, 1919-1933 (Detroit, 1994)
Bankes
James
The Pittsburgh Crawfords: The Lives and Times of Black Baseball’s Most Exciting Team (Dubuque, 1991)
Banks
William M. 
Black Intellectuals: Race and Responsibility in American Life (New York, 1996)
Barlow
William
"Commercial and Noncommercial Radio" in Jannette L. Dates and William Barlow, eds., Split Image: African Americans in the Mass Media (Wash D.C., 1990), 176-84.
Barlow
William 
“’Looking Up at Down’” The Emergence of Blues Culture (Philadelphia, 1989)
Black Public Sphere Collective, eds.
The Black Public Sphere (Chicago, 1995)
Bogle
 Donald 
Toms, Coons, Mulattos, Mammies, & Bucks: An Interpretative History of Blacks in American Films, Rev. Ed. (New York, 1992), 
Boskin
 Joseph 
Sambo: The Rise & Demise of an American Jester (New York, 1986)
Bruce
 Janet
The Kansas City Monarchs: Champions of Black Baseball (Lawrence, 1985)
Bryant 
Clora, et. al., eds.
Central Avenue Sounds: Jazz in Los Angeles (Berkeley, 1998)
Buni
 Andrew 
Robert L. Vann of the Pittsburgh Courier: Politics and Black Journalism (Pittsburgh, 1974)
Carby
 Hazel V. 
Reconstructing Womanhood: The Emergence of the Afro-American Woman Novelist (New York, 1987).
Carby
Hazel V. 
“It Jus Be’s Dat Way Sometime: The Sexual Politics of Women’s Blues, “ Radical America 20(June-July 1986), 8-22
Cohn
 Lawrence, ed.
Nothing But the Blues: The Music and the Musicians (New York, 1993).
Cripps
Thomas 
Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942 (New York, 1977)
Cruse
 Harold 
The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual (New York, 1984 orig. 1967
Dates
Jannette L. and William Barlow, eds.
Split Image: African Americans in the Mass Media (Wash. D.C., 1990), 29-30.
Davis
 Angela 
Blues Legacies and Black Feminism (New York, 1998
De Barros
Paul 
Jackson Street After Hours: The Roots of Jazz in Seattle (Seattle, 1993)
De Jongh
James 
Vicious Modernism: Black Harlem and the Literary Imagination (New York, 1990). 
Detweiler
 Frederick G. 
The Negro Press in the United States (Chicago, 1922).
Douglas
 Ann 
Terrible Honesty: Mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s (New York, 1995) 
Ely
Melvyn Patrick 
The Adventures of Amos 'n' Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon (New York, 1991)
Erenberg
 Lewis A. 
Swingin’ The Dream: Big Band Jazz and the Rebirth of American Culture (Chicago, 1998)
Fabre
 Michel 
The Unfinished Quest of Richard Wright (New York, 1973 
Farrar
Haywood 
The "Baltimore Afro-American," 1892-1950 (Westport, 1998)
Floyd
 Samuel A. Jr.
The Power of Black Music: Interpreting its History from Africa to the United States (New York, 1995)
Gaines
Kevin K. 
Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century (Chapel Hill, 1996)
Gates 
Henry Louis Jr. and Cornell West 
The African-American Century: How Black Americans Have Shaped Our Country (New York, 2000)
Gerard
Charley 
Jazz in Black and White: Race, Culture, and Identity in the Jazz Community (Westport, 1998)
Gioia
 Ted 
The History of Jazz (New York, 1997)
Gist
Noel P. 
"The Negro in the Daily Press, Social Forces 10:3 (March 1932), 405-11
Green
Adam 
"Selling the Race: Cultural Production and Notions of Community in Black Chicago, 1940-1955," (Ph.D. diss. Yale University 1998)
Griffin
Farah Jasmine 
"Who Set You Flowin'": The African-American Migration Narrative (New York, 1995)
Harris
  Michael W. 
The Rise of Gospel Blues: The Music of Thomas Andrew Dorsey in the Urban Church (New York, 1992), 117-24
Harrison
Daphne Duval 
Black Pearls: Blues Queens of the 1920s (New Brunswick, 1988).
Hogan
Lawrence W. 
A Black National News Service: The Associated Negro Press and Claude Barnett, 1991-1945 (Rutherford N.J., 1984)
Holloway
 Joanathan Scott 
Confronting the Veil: Abram Harris Jr., E. Franklin Frazier, and Ralph Bunche, 191-1941 (Chapel Hill, 2002). 
Holtzman
Jerome ed.
No Cheering in the Press Box (New York, 1974)
Huggins
Nathan Irvin 
Harlem Renaissance, (New York, 1971) 
Hughes
Langston
The Big Sea (New York, 1940)
Hutchinson
George 
The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White (Cambridge, 1995)
Johnson
James Weldon 
Black Manhattan (New York, 1968 orig.1930), 1.
Jordan
William G. 
Black Newspapers & America's War for Democracy, 1914-1920 (Chapel Hill, 2001). 
Kenney
 William Howland 
Chicago Jazz: A Cultural History 1904-1930 (New York, 1993)
LaBrie III
 Henry G. 
A Survey of Black Newspapers in America (Kennebunkport, 1979)
Lester
Larry 
Black Baseball's National Showcase: The East-West All-Star Game, 1933-1953 (Lincoln NB 2001)
Levine
 Lawrence W. 
Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought From Slavery to Freedom (New York, 1975)
Lewis
David Levering 
When Harlem was in Vogue (New York, 1979)
Marks
Carole and Diana Edkins
The Power of Pride: Stylemakers and Rulebreakers of the Harlem Renaissance (New York, 1999).
Martindale
Carolyn 
The White Press and Black America (New York, 1986) 
Mean
Chris 
Champion--Joe Louis: Black Hero in White America (New York, 1985)
Meier
 August 
Negro Thought in America 1880-1915 (Ann Arbor, 1968).
Melnick
 Jeffrey 
A Right to Sing the Blues: African Americans, Jews, and American Popular Song (Cambridge, 1999).
Mullen
 Bill V. 
Popular Fronts: Chicago and African-American Cultural Politics, 1935-1946 (Urbana, 1999)
Natanson
Nicholas 
The Black Image in the New Deal: The Politics of FSA Photography (Knoxville, 1992), 
Neal
 Mark Anthony
What the Music Said: Black Popular Music and Black Public Culture (New York, 1999). 
Oak
 Vishnu V. 
The Negro Newspaper (Westport, 1948)
Ostransky
Leroy 
Jazz City: The Impact of Our Cities on the Development of Jazz (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1978).
Ottley
 Roi 
Lonely Warrior: The Life and Times of Robert S. Abbott (Chicago, 1955)
Ouellet
Nelson
Chicago's New Negroes: Modernity, the Great Migration, and Black Urban Life (Durham, 2007)
Peterson
 Robert 
Only the Ball Was White (New York, 1970)
Pride 
Armistead S. and Clint C. Wilson II
A History of the Black Press (Wash. D.C., 1997)
Reich
Steven A.
"The Great Migration and the Literary Imagination," Journal of the Historical Society 9: 87-128 (2009)
Reisler
Jim 
Black Writers/Black Baseball: An Anthology of Articles from Black Sportswriters Who Covered the Negro Leagues (Jefferson NC, 1994).
Ribowsky
 Mark 
A Complete History of the Negro Leagues 1884 to 1955 (New York, 1995).
Riis
Thomas L. 
Just Before Jazz: Black Musical Theater in New York, 1890 to 1915 (Wash. D.C. 1989).
Rodgers
Lawrence R. 
Canaan Bound: The African-American Great Migration Novel (Urbana,1997)
Rogosin
 Donn 
Invisible Men: Life in Baseball’s Negro Leagues (New York, 1983).
Russell
Ross 
Jazz Style in Kansas City and the Southwest (New York, 1997).
Savage
Barbara Dianne 
Broadcasting Freedom: Radio, War, and the Politics of Race 1938-1948 (Chapel Hill 1999)
Scott
Daryl Michael 
Contempt & Pity: Social Policy and the Image of the Damaged Black Psyche 1880-1996 (Chapel Hill, 1997)
Scruggs
Charles 
Sweet Home: Invisible Cities in the Afro-American Novel (Baltimore, 1993), 
Shankman
Arnold 
"Black Pride and Protest: The Amos ‘n Andy Crusade," Journal of Popular Culture 12(Fall 1979), 238-47
Simmons
 Charles Alexander 
"A Comparative Look at Four Black Newspapers and their Editorial Philosophies During the Eras of the Northern Migration and World War I, World War II, and the Civil Rights Movement" ( Ed.D diss. Oklahoma State University 1995)
Simpson
 George E. 
The Negro in the Philadelphia Press (Philadelphia, 1936)
Singh
Nikhil Pal 
Black is a Country: Race and the Unfinished Struggle for Democracy (Cambridge, Mass., 2004)
Smith
 Susanne E. 
Dancing in the Street: Motown and the Cultural Politics of Detroit (Cambridge Mass., 1999). 
Smith
Willie (the Lion) 
Music on My Mind: The Memoirs of An American Pianist (New York, 1964) 112.
Squires
Catherine R. 
“Rethinking the Black Public Sphere: An Alternative Vocabulary for Multiple Public Spheres,” Communication Theory 12 (November 2002
Stewart
Jacqueline Najuma
Migrating to the Movies : Cinema and Black Urban Modernity (Berkeley, 2005)
Suggs
Henry Lewis
The Black Press in the Middle West, 1865-1985 (Westport, 1996)
Suggs
 Henry Lewis 
The Black Press in the South, 1865-1979 (Westport, 1983)
Suggs 
Henry Lewis 
 P.B. Young Newspaperman: Race, Politics, and Journalism in the New South 1910-1962 (Charlottesville, 1988)
Walker
Juliet E. K. 
"The Promised Land: The Chicago Defender and the Black Press in Illinois: 1862-1970" in Henry Lewis Suggs, ed., The Black Press in the Middle West, 1865-1985 (Westport, 1996), 24-25.
Warren
Nagueyalti 
"From Uncle Tom to Cliff Huxtable, Aunt Jemima to Aunt Nell: Images of Blacks in Film and the Television Industry," Jessie Carney Smith, ed., Images of Blacks in American Culture (New York, 1988), 59.
Watson
Steven 
The Harlem Renaissance: Hub of African American Culture, 1920-1930 (New York, 1995).
Werheim
 Arthur Frank 
Radio Comedy (1979)
White
 G. Edward 
Creating the National Pastime: Baseball Transforms Itself 1903-1953 (Princeton, 1996)
White
Deborah Gray 
Too Heavy a Load: Black Women in Defense of Themselves 1894-1994 (New York, 1999)
Wolseley
Roland E. 
The Black Press USA (Ames, Iowa, 1990)

Cultural Institutions, Cultural Effects: White
     
Arnow
Harriette 
The Dollmaker (New York, 1954)
AuCoin
Bill 
Redneck (Matteson, Ill., 1977)
Averill
 
Patricia 
"Can the Circle Be Unbroken: A Study of the Modernization of Rural Born Southern Whites Since World War I Using Country Music" (Ph.D. dissertation, 1975, University of Pennsylvania).
Banes
Ruth A. 
“Southerners Up North: Autobiographical Indications of Southern Ethnicity” in Perspectives on the American South Vol. 3, eds., James C Cobb and Charles R. 
Berryhill
Bruce Ray 
"The Relationship between Regional and Social Dialects and Linguistic Adaptation" (MA thesis, California State University, Fresno, 1976). 
Caldwell
 
Erskine 
Call it Experience (London, 1960)
Carney
 
George O., ed.
The Sounds of People and Places: A Geography of American Folk and Popular Music (Lanham, Md., 1994)
Carney
George O. 
“Country Music and the Radio: A Historical Geographic Assessment, Rocky Mountain Social Science Journal 11(January 1974), 
Ching
Barbara 
Wrong’s What I Do Best: Hard Country Music and Contemporary Culture (New York, 2001).
Chung
 
Haeja K. , ed.
Harriette Simpson Arnow: Critical Essays on Her Work (East Lansing, 1995).
Cook
Sylvia Jenkins 
 
Erskine Caldwell and the Fiction of Poverty (Baton Rouge, 1991)
Cook
 
Sylvia Jenkins 
From Tobacco Road to Route 66: The Southern Poor White in Fiction (Chapel Hill, 1976) 
Country Music Foundation
Country: The Music and the Musicians
Davenport
 
Walter 
'California, Here We Come", Colliers, (August 10, 1935), 10-11+
Di Maggio
Paul, Richard A. Peterson, and Jack Esco, Jr.
"Country Music: Ballad of the Silent Majority," in The Sounds of Social Change, R. Serge Denisoff and Richard A. Peterson, eds. (New York, 1972),
Eckley
Wilton 
Harriette Arnow (New York, 1975)
Edmonds
 
Anthony O. 
"Myths and Migrants: Images of Rural and Urban Life in Country Music," Indiana Social Studies Quarterly 28(Winter 1975/76), 67-72.
Ellison
Curtis W. 
Country Music Culture: From Hard Times to Heaven (Jackson Miss., 1995)
Freedman
 
Alex 
"The Sociology of Country Music," Southern Humanities Review 3(February 1969), 358-62.
Green
Archie 
"Hillbilly Music: Source and Symbol," Journal of American Folklore 78(July-Sept. 1965) 204-28
Green
 
Douglas B. 
Country Roots: The Origins of Country Music (New York, 1976).
Hale
 
Grace Elizabeth 
Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940 (New York, 1998), 251-84.
Harding
Susan Friend 
The Book of Jerry Falwell: Fundamental Language and Politics (Princeton, N.J., 2000) 
Harkins
 
Anthony 
Hillbilly: A Cultural History of an American Icon (New York, 2004).
Hartigan
John Jr.,
Racial Situations: Class Predicaments of Whiteness in Detroit (Princeton, 1999)
Haslam
 
Gerald W. 
Workin' Man Blues: Country Music in California (Berkeley, 1999)
Hemphill
Paul 
The Nashville Sound: Bright Lights and Country Music (New York, 1970), 90,162
Horstman
Dorothy 
Sing Your Heart Out, Country Boy (Nashville, 1996)
Jensen
Joli 
The Nashville Sound: Authenticity, Commercialization, and Country Music (Nashville, 1998). 
LeMasters
 
E.E. 
Blue-Collar Aristocrats: Life-Styles at a Working-Class Tavern (Madison, 1975), 143-44.
Lund
Jens 
"Fundamentalism, Racism, and Political Reaction in Country Music," in The Sounds of Social Change, R. Serge Denisoff and Richard A. Peterson, eds. (New York, 1972), 
Lynn 
Loretta with George Vecsey
Loretta Lynn: Coal Miner’s Daughter (Chicago, 1976).
Malone
Bill C. 
Country Music U.S.A.: A Fifty Year History (Austin, 1968).
Malone
Bill C. 
Don’t Get Above Your Raisin’: Country Music and the Southern Working Class (Urbana, 2002)
Malone
Bill C. 
Southern Music American Music (Lexington, 1979)
McIlwaine
Shields 
The Southern Poor-White from Lubberland to Tobacco Road (Norman, Ok, 1939)
McLaurin
Melton 
“Country Music and the Vietnam War” in Perspective on the American South Vol. 3, ,eds. James C. Cobb and Charles R. Wilson (New York, 1985), 145-61.
McLaurin 
Melton A. and Richard A. Peterson, eds.
 
You Wrote My Life: Lyrical Themes in Country Music (Philadelphia, 1992)
Mell
Mildred Rutherford 
"Poor Whites of the South," Social Forces 17 (Dec.1938)
Newcomb
Horace 
"Appalachia on Television: Region as Symbol in American Popular Culture," Appalachia Journal 7(Fall-Winter 1979-80), 155-64
Peterson
Richard A. and Paul Di Maggio
"From Region to Class, the Changing Locus of Country Music: A Test of the Massification Hypothesis," Social Forces 53(March 1975), 497-506. 
Peterson
Richard A.
Creating Country Music: Fabricating Authenticity (Chicago,1997)
Peterson 
Richard A. and Russell Davis, Jr.
"The Fertile Crescent of Country Music," Journal of Country Music (Spring 1975), 19-27
Shapiro
Henry D. 
Appalachia on Our Mind: The Southern Mountains and Mountaineers in the American Consciousness, 1870-1920 (Chapel Hill, 1978)
Shindo
Charles J. 
Dust Bowl Migrants in the American Imagination (Lawrence, KS, 1997).
Taylor
Paul S. 
"Again the Covered Wagon" Survey Graphic, (July 1935), 348-351+
Tichi
Cecilia 
High Lonesome: The American Culture of Country Music (Chapel Hill, 1994)
Tribe
Ivan M. 
"The Hillbilly Versus the City: Urban Images in Country Music," John Edwards Memorial Foundation Quarterly 10( 1974), 41-51
Verschuure
Eric Peter 
"Stumble, Bumble, Mumble: TV's Image of the South" Journal of Popular Culture 16, (Winter 1982), 92-96.
Wilgus
D.K. 
"Country-Western Music and the Urban Hillbilly," Journal of American Folklore 83(April-June, 1970), 157-79
Williamson
J.W. 
Hillbillyland: What the Movies Did to the Mountains and What the Mountains Did to the Movies (Chapel Hill, 1995)

Political Initiatives, Political Effects: Black

     
Anderson
Alan B and George W. Pickering
Confronting the Color Line: The Broken Promise of the Civil Rights Movement in Chicago (Athens, Ga., 1986)
Arnesen
Eric 
Brotherhoods of Color: Black Railroad Workers and the Struggle for Equality (Cambridge, 2001)
Bates
Beth T.
“’Double V for Victory’ Mobilizes Black Detroit, 1941-1946” in Freedom North: Black Freedom Struggles Outside the South, 1940-1980, eds., Jeanne F. Theoharis and Komozi Woodard,(New York, 2003), 17-40. 
Bates
Beth Tompkins
Pullman Porters and the Rise of Protest Politics in Black America 1925-1945 (Chapel Hill, 2001)
Bennett
  Lerone Jr.
The Shaping of Black America: The Struggles and Triumphs of African Americans, 1619 to the 1990s (New York, 1993)
Bennett 
Lerone Jr.
Confrontation: Black and White (Chicago, 1965), 169
Berry
Mary Frances and John W. Blassingame
Long Memory: The Black Experience in America (New York, 1982)
Biondi
Martha 
To Stand and Fight: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Postwar New York (Cambridge, 2002).
Bloom
 Jack M. 
Class, Race, & The Civil Rights Movement (Bloomington, 1987)
Brooks
 Thomas R. 
Walls Come Tumbling Down: A History of the Civil Rights Movement 1940-1970 (Englewood Cliffs N.J., 1974).
Browning
Rufus P., Dale Rogers, Marshall, David H. Tabb
Racial Politics in American Cities, 2nd ed. (New York, 1997)
Bunche
 Ralph J. 
The Political Status of the Negro in the Age of FDR, Dewey W. Grantham, ed., (Chicago, 1973)
Carmichael
Stokley and Charles V. Hamilton
Black Power: Politics of Liberation in America (New York, 1967).
Cayton
Horace R. and George S. Mitchell
Black Workers and the New Unions (Chapel Hill, 1939)
Cohen
William 
"The Great Migration as a Lever for Social Change" in Alferdteen Harrison, Black Exodus: The Great Migration from the American South (Jackson, Miss., 1991), 73
Countryman
Mathew 
“Civil Rights and Black Power in Philadelphia, 1945-1971: (Ph.D. diss. Duke, 1999)
Dudziak 
Mary L. 
Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy (Princeton, 2000)
Ershkowitz
Miriam and Joseph Zikmund II, eds.
Black Politics in Philadelphia (New York, 1973)
Fairclough
 Adam 
Race and Democracy, the Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 1915-1972 (Athens, Ga., 1995)
Fairclough
 Adam 
Better Day Coming: Blacks and Equality, 1890-2000 (New York, 2001)
Finkle
 Lee 
Forum for Protest (Cranbury N.J., 1975)
Franklin
John Hope and Alfred A. Moss Jr.
From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans (New York, 1994)
Frazier
E. Franklin
"The American Negro's New Leaders, " Current History, Vol. 28 (April 1928), 56-59
Frymer
Paul 
Uneasy Alliances: Race and Party Competition in America (Princeton, 1999)
Fuchs
Lawrence H. 
American Kaleidoscope: Race, Ethnicity, and the Civic Culture (Hanover, NH, 1990)
Garfinkel
Herbert 
When Negroes March: The March on Washington Movement in the Organizational Politics for FEPC (New York, 1969 orig. 1959), 
Gilmore
 Glenda Elizabeth 
Gender & Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920 (Chapel Hill, 1996)
Glazer
Nathan and Daniel Patrick Moynihan
Beyond the Melting Pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and Irish of New York City (Cambridge, Mass., 1963).
Goldberg
David, and Trevor Griffey
Black Power at Work: Community Control, Affirmative Action, and the Construction Industry (Ithaca, 2010)
Gosnell
  Harold F. 
Negro Politicians: The Rise of Negro Politics in Chicago (Chicago 1966, orig. 1935)
Greenberg
Cheryl Lynn 
“The Politics of Disorder: Re-examining Harlem’s Riots of 1935 and 1943” Journal of Urban History 18 (August 1992)
Grimshaw
William J.
Bitter Fruit: Black Politics and the Chicago Machine, 1931-1991 (Chicago, 1992)
Halpern
 Rick 
Down on the Killing Floor: Black and White Workers in Chicago’s Packinghouses, 1904-54 (Urbana, 1997).
Harmon
  David Andrew 
Beneath the Image of the Civil Rights Movement and Race Relations: Atlanta, Georgia, 1946-1981 (New York, 1996). 
Harris
William H. 
The Harder We Run: Black Workers Since the Civil War (New York, 1982), 95-122
Hill
 Robert, ed.
The FBI’s RACON: Racial Conditions in the United States During World War II (Boston, 1995). 
Hill 
Robert A. and Barbara Bair, eds.
Marcus Garvey: Life and Lessons : a Centennial Companion to The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association papers (Berkeley, 1987)
Honey
 Michael K. 
Southern Labor and Black Civil Rights: Organizing Memphis Workers (Urbana, 1993).
Horne
Gerald 
Communist Front?: The Civil Rights Congress, 1946-1956 (Cranbury, N.J., 1988).
Horowitz
Roger 
“Negro and White, United and Fight!” A Social History of Industrial Unionism in Meatpacking, 1930-90 (Urbana, 1997)
Katznelson
 Ira 
Black Men, White Cities: Race, Politics, and Migration in the United States, 1900-1930, and Britain, 1948-68 ( New York, 1973). 
Keiser
Richard A. 
Subordination or Empowerment? African-American Leadership and the Struggle for Urban Political Power (New York, 1997)
Kelley
 Robin D.G.
Race Rebels: Culture, Politics, and the Black Working Class (New York, 1994)
Kelley
Robin D.G., and Earl Lewis,  eds.
To Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans (New York, 2000). 
Kellogg
Charles Flint 
NAACP: A History of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 1909-1920 (Baltimore, 1967)
Kelly
Robin D. G.
Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists During the Great Depression (Chapel Hill, 1990)
Kersten
Andrew Edmund
Race, Jobs, and the War: The FEPC in the Midwest, 1941-46 (Urbana, 2000). 
Kilson
Martin
“Political Change in the Negro Ghetto, 1900-1940” in Key Issues in the Afro-American Experience, eds., Nathan I Huggins, Martin Kilson, and Daniel M. Fox (New York, 1971) Vol. 2, 167-92.
Kirby
  John B. 
Black Americans in the Roosevelt Era: Liberalism and Race (Knoxville, 1980),18-35.
Klinkner
Philip A. with Rogers M. Smith
The Unsteady March: The Rise and Decline of Racial Equality in America (Chicago, 1999)
Korstad
Robert and Nelson Lichtenstein
“Opportunities Found and Lost: Labor, Radicals and the Early Civil Rights Movement,” Journal of American History 75 (December, 1988).
Lawson
 Steven F. 
Running for Freedom: Civil Rights and Black Politics in America Since 1941 (Philadelphia, 1991)
Lawson
 Steven F. 
Running for Freedom: Civil Rights and Black Politics in American Since 1941 (Philadelphia, 1991)
Lee
 Chana Kai 
For Freedom's Sake: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer (Urbana, 1999) 
Letwin
Daniel 
The Challenge of Interracial Unionism: Alabama Coal Miners, 1878-1921 (Chapel Hill, 1998)
Lewinson
Edwin R. 
Black Politics in New York City (New York, 1974), 44-69
Marable
 Manning 
Black American Politics: From the Washington Marches to Jesse Jackson (London, 1985)
Marable
 Manning 
Race, Reform, and Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction in Black America, 1945-1990, 2nd ed. (Jackson, Miss., 1990)
Martin
Tony 
Race First : The Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (Westport, 1976). 
Martin
  John Frederick 
Civil Rights and the Crisis of Liberalism: The Democratic Party 1945-1976 (Boulder, 1979).
Maxwell
William J.
New Negro, Old Left: African-American Writing and Communism Between the Wars (New York, 1999)
McAdam
Doug 
Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930–1970 (Chicago, 1982)
McKiven, Jr.
Henry M.
Iron and Steel: Class, Race and Community in Birmingham, Alabama, 1875-1920 (Chapel Hill, 1995)
McMahon
Kevin J.
Reconsidering Roosevelt on Race: How the Presidency Paved the Road to Brown (Chicago, 2003)
Meier
August and Elliot Rudwick, eds.
Along the Color Line: Explorations in the Black Experience (Urbana 1976)
Moon
Henry Lee 
Balance of Power: The Negro Vote (Westport, 1977 orig. 1948)
Moore
Jesse Thomas Jr.
A Search for Equality: The National Urban League, 1910-1961 (University Park, PA, 1981)
Morris
 Aldon D. 
The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change (New York, 1984)
Murch
Donna Jean
Living for the City : Migration, Education, and the Rise of the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California (Chapel Hill, 2010)
Naison
Mark 
Communists in Harlem During the Depression Years (New York, 1983)
Nelson
Bruce 
Divided We Stand: American Workers and the Struggle for Black Equality (Princeton, 2001), 
Norrell
Robert J. 
Reaping the Whirl-Wind: The Civil Rights Movement in Tuskegee (New York, 1985)
Painter
 Nell Irvin
The Narrative of Hosea Hudson, His Life as a Negro Communist in the South (Cambridge, 1979).
Payne
 Charles M. 
I’ve Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle (Berkeley, 1995)
Rabinowitz
Howard N. 
Race Relations in the Urban South, 1865-1890 (Urbana, 1980).
Record
Wilson 
Race and Radicalism: The NAACP and the Communist Party in Conflict (Ithaca, 1964)
Reed
Merl E. 
Seedtime for the Modern Civil Rights Movement: The President’s Committee on Fair Employment Practice, 1941-1946 (Baton Rouge, 1991)
Reed
  Christopher Robert 
The Chicago NAACP and the Rise of Black Professional Leadership, 1910-1966 (Bloomington, 1997). 
Rich
Wilbur C. 
Coleman Young and Detroit Politics: From Social Activist to Power Broker (Detroit, 1989).
Ross
Barbara Joyce
J.E. Springarn and the Rise of the NAACP, 1911-1939 (Boston, 1972)
Ruchames
  Louis 
Race, Jobs, & Politics: The Story of FEPC (New York,, 1953), 209
Seale
Bobby 
Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton (New York, 1970)
Sitkoff
  Harvard 
The Struggle for Black Equality 1954-1980 (New York, 1981)
Sitkoff
 Harvard 
A New Deal for Blacks: The Emergence of Civil Rights as a National Issue (New York, 1978), 
Smith
Douglas L.
The New Deal in the Urban South (Baton Rouge,1988), 
Stone
Chuck 
Black Political Power in America (Indianapolis, 1968). 
Strikland
 Arvarh E. 
History of the Chicago Urban League (Urbana, 1966), 
Sugrue
Thomas
Sweet Land of Liberty: The Forgotten Struggle for Civil Rights in the North (New York, 2008),
Theoharis
Jeanne and Komozi Woodard, eds.
Freedom North: Black Freedom Struggles Outside the South, 1940-1980 , (New York, 2003)
Thompson
Heather Ann 
Whose Detroit? Politics, Labor, and Race in a Modern American City (Ithaca, 2001)
Trotter
 Joe William Jr.
Coal, Class, and Color: Blacks in Southern West Virginia, 1915-32 (Urbana, 1990)
Tushnet
 Mark 
The NAACP’s Legal Strategy Against Segregated Education, 1925-1950 (Chapel Hill, 1992)
Walter
 John C. 
The Harlem Fox : J. Raymond Jones and Tammany, 1920-1970 (Albany, 1989).
Walton
 Hanes Jr., ed.
Black Politics and Black Political Behavior: A Linkage Analysis (Westport, 1994). 
Walton 
Hanes Jr.
Invisible Politics: Black Political Behavior (Albany, 1985).
Washburn
Patrick S. 
A Question of Sedition: The Federal Government's Investigation of the Black Press During World War II (N.Y.,1986)
Weiss
Nancy J. 
Farewell to the Party of Lincoln: Black Politics in the Age of FDR (Princeton, 1983)
Weiss
 Nancy J. 
The National Urban League 1910-1940 (New York, 1974
White
  Walter 
A Man Called White: The Autobiography of Walter White (Bloomington, 1948)
Wilson
  James Q. 
Negro Politics: The Search for Leadership (New York, 1960)
Wolters
Raymond 
Negroes and the Great Depression: The Problem of Economic Recovery (Greenwood, 1970)

Political Initiatives, Political Effects: White

     
Bollens 
John C. and Grant B. Geyer
Yorty: Politics of a Constant Candidate (Pacific Palisades, 1973)
Carlson
Jody 
George C. Wallace and the Politics of the Powerless: The Wallace Campaigns for the Presidency, 1964-1976 (New Brunswick, N.J., 1981), 88. 
Carter
Dan T. 
The Politics of Range: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics (New York, 1995)
Chester
Lewis, Godfrey Hodgson, and Bruce Page
An American Melodrama: The Presidential Campaign of 1968,
Circuit Court for the County of Oakland
 
Report of Black Legion Activities in Oakland County, George B. Hartwick, Circuit Judge (September 1930), 
Cox
Karen L. 
Dixie’s Daughters: The United Daughters of the Confederacy and the Preservation of Confederate Culture (Gainesville, Fla., 2003).
Crass
Phillip 
The Wallace Factor (New York, 1975)
Durr
 
Kenneth D. 
Behind the Backlash: White Working-Class Politics in Baltimore, 1940-1980 (Chapel Hill, 2003). 
Dvorak
Kenneth R. 
“Terror in Detroit: The Rise and Fall of Michigan’s Black Legion” (PhD. diss. Bowling Green State University, 2000)
Edsall 
Thomas Byrne
Chain Reaction
Egerton
John 
Speak Now Against the Day: The Generation Before the Civil Rights Movement in the South (Chapel Hill, 1994)
Formisano
 
Ronald P.
Boston Against Busing: Race, Class, and Ethnicity in the 1960s and 1970s (Chapel Hill, 1991)
Goldberg
Robert Alan 
Hooded Empire: The Ku Klux Klan in Colorado (Urbana, 1981), 40
Greenberg
Stanley B. 
Middle Class Dreams: The Politics and Power of the New American Majority (New Haven, 1996). 
Horowitz
David A., ed.
Inside the Klavern: The Secret History of a Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s (Carbondale, Ill., 1999)
Howe
Irving, ed.
The World of the Blue-Collar Worker, (New York, 1972)
Jackson
Kenneth T. 
The Ku Klux Klan in the City 1915-1930 (New York, 1967)
Jenkins
Philip 
Hoods and Shirts: The Extreme Right in Pennsylvania, 1925-1950 (Chapel Hill, 1997).
Kazin
Michael 
The Populist Persuasion: An American History (New York, 1995), 
Lesher
 
Stephan
George Wallace: American Populist (Reading Mass, 1994)
Lipset
Seymour Martin and Earl Raab
The Politics of Unreason: Right Wing Extremism in America, 1790-1970 (New York, 1970), 
Lukas
J. Anthony 
Common Ground (New York, 1985)
MacLean
 
Nancy 
Behind the Mask of Chivalry: The Making of the Second Ku Klux Klan (New York, 1994).
Moore
 
Leonard J. 
Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928 (Chapel Hill, 1991), 
Phillips
Kevin 
The Emerging Republican Majority (New Rochelle, 1969)
Rieder
 
Jonathan 
Canarsie: The Jews and Italians of Brooklyn Against Liberalism ( 1985)
Rubin
Lillian B.
Busing and Backlash: White Against White in a California School District (Berkeley, 1972)
Rubin
Lillian B. 
Worlds of Pain: Life in the Working-Class Family (New York, 1976).
Ryan
Joseph A., ed.
White Ethnics: Life in Working-Class America, (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973).
Sexton
Patricia Cayo and Brendan Sexton
Blue Collars and Hard-Hats (New York, 1971)
Shostak
Arthur B. 
Blue-Collar Life (New York, 1969)
Sosna
 
Morton 
In Search of the Silent South: Southern Liberals and the Race Issue (New York, 1977).
Weaver
Norman F. 
“The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan” (Ph.D. diss. University of Wisconsin, 1954)

Church Building and Religious Legacies: Both
     
Ammerman
Nancy Tatom 
Baptist Battles: Social Change and Religious Conflict in the Southern Baptist Convention (New Brunswick, N.J., 1990) 
Boyd
Robert
"Too Many Preachers? Black Participation in the Ministry in Northern U.S. Cities during the Great Migration," Sociological Inquiry 78: 290-309 (2008)
Carpenter
Joel A. 
Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism (New York, 1997)
Falwell
Jerry with Ed Dobson and Ed Hindson, eds.
The Fundamentalist Phenomenon: The Resurgence of Conservative Christianity (New York, 1981)
Frady
Marshall 
Billy Graham: A Parable of American Righteousness (Boston, 1979).
Franklin
C.L. 
Give Me this Mountain: Life History and Selected Sermons, edited by Jeff Todd Titon (Urbana, 1989)
Gregg
Robert 
Sparks From the Anvil of Oppression: Philadelphia's African Methodists and Southern Migrants, 1890-1940 (Philadelphia, 1993)
Hankins
 Barry 
God's Rascal: J. Frank Norris and the Beginnings of Southern Fundamentalism (Lexington, 1996)
Hankins
 Barry 
Uneasy in Babylon: Southern Baptist Conservatives and American Culture (Tuscaloosa, 2002)
Hardy
Clarence
From Exodus to Exile: Black Pentecostals, Migrating Pilgrims, and Imagined Internationalism," American Quarterly 59(2007): 737-57
Harvey
Paul
Redeeming the South: Religious Cultures and Racial Identities Among Southern Baptists 1865-1925 (Chapel Hill, 1997)
Higginbotham
 Evelyn Brooks
Righteous Discontent: The Women's Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880-1920 (Harvard, 1993)
Lincoln 
C. Eric and Lawrence H. Mamiya
The Black Church in African American Experience (Durham: 1990) 
Martin
 William 
With God On Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America (New York, 1996)
Queen II
Edward L. 
In the South the Baptists are the Center of Gravity: Southern Baptists and Social Change, 1930-1980 (Brooklyn, 1991)
Russell
 C. Allyn 
Voices of American Fundamentalism (Philadelphia, 1976)
Salvatore 
 Nick 
 Singing in a Strange Land: The Life and Ministry of C.L. Franklin (Boston, 2005)
Sernett
Milton C. 
Bound for the Promised Land: African American Religion and the Great Migration (Durham, 1997). 
Shibley
Mark A. 
Resurgent Evangelicalism in the United States Mapping Cultural Change since 1970(Columbia, S.C., 1996).
Taylor
Clarence 
The Black Churches of Brooklyn (New York, 1994)
Taylor
Clarence 
Black Religious Intellectuals: The Fight for Equality from Jim Crow to the Twenty-first Century (New York, 2002)
Wilmore
Gayraud S. 
Black Religion and Black Radicalism: An Interpretation of the Religious History of Afro-American People (Maryknoll, NY: 1983), 152-60
Wilson
 Charles Reagan, ed.
Religion in the South ( Jackson, 1985).