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Wagner, J.J., Terman, G.W. and Chavkin, C. (1993) Endogenous dynorphins inhibit excitatory neurotransmission and block long term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature 363: 451-454.

Drake, C., Terman, G.W., Simmons, M.L., Kunkel, D., Milner, T.,Schwartzkroin, P.A. and Chavkin, C (1994) Dynorphin opioids present in dentate granule cells may function as a retrograde inhibitory neurotransmitters, Journal of Neuroscience 14: 3736-3750.

Simmons, M.L., Terman, G.W., Gibbs, S.M., and Chavkin. C. (1995) L-type calcium channel types mediate dynorphin neuropeptide release from dendrites but not axons of hippocampal granule cells. Neuron 14: 1265-1272.

Simmons, M. L. and Chavkin, C., (1996) Kappa opioid receptor activation of a dendrotoxin-sensitive potassium channel mediates presynaptic inhibition of mossy fiber neurotransmitter release. Molecular Pharmacology 50: 80-85.

Drake, C., Patterson, T.A., Simmons, M.L., Chavkin, C, and Milner, T., (1996) Kappa opioid receptor-like immunoreactivity in guinea pig brain: ultrastructural localization in presynaptic terminals in hippocampal formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology 370: 377-397.

Kovoor, A., Nappey, V., Kieffer, B.L., and Chavkin, C. (1997) Mu and delta opioid receptors are differentially desensitized by the coexpression of β-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 and β-arrestin 2 in Xenopus oocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272: 27605-27611.

Rogalski, S., Cyr. C., and Chavkin C. (1999) Activation of the endothelin receptor inhibits the G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel by a PLA2 mediated mechanism. Journal of Neurochemistry 72: 1409-1416.

Kovoor, A., Celver, J., Abdryashitov R.I., Chavkin, C and Gurevich, V.V. (1999) Targeted construction of phosphorylation-independent β-arrestin mutants with constitutive activity in cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 6831-6834.

Jin, W., Brown, S., Hsieh, C., Celver, J.P., Kovoor, A., Chavkin, C., Mackie, K. (1999) Distinct domains of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor control desensitization and internalization. Journal of Neuroscience 19: 3773-3780.

Appleyard, S.M., Celver, J., Pineda, V., Kovoor, A., Wayman, G.A., and Chavkin, C. (1999) Agonist-dependent desensitization of the kappa opioid receptor by G protein receptor kinase and β-arrestin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 23802-23807.

McLaughlin, J.P., Marton, M. and Chavkin, C. (2003) Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonism and Prodynorphin Gene Disruption Block Stress-Induced Behavioral Responses. Journal of Neuroscience 23(13): 5674-5683.

Xu, M., Petraschka, M., McLaughlin, J.P., Westenbroek, R., Caron MG, Lefkowitz RJ, Czyzyk TA, Pintar, J.E. and Chavkin, C. (2004) Neuropathic pain activates the endogenous kappa opioid system in mouse spinal cord and induces opioid receptor tolerance. Journal of Neuroscience 24: 4576-4584.

McLaughlin, J.P., Myers LC, Zarek PE, Caron MG, Lefkowitz RJ, Czyzyk TA, Pintar JE, and Chavkin, C. (2004) Prolonged kappa-opioid receptor phosphorylation mediated by G-protein receptor kinase underlies sustained analgesic tolerance Journal of Biological Chemistry 279: 1810-1818.

McLaughlin, J.P., Land, B.B., Li, S., Pintar, J.E. and Chavkin, C., (2005) Prior Activation of Kappa Opioid Receptors by U50488 Mimics Repeated Forced Swim Stress to Potentiate Cocaine Place Preference Conditioning. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 787-794.

McLaughlin, J.P., Li, S., Valdez, P, Chavkin, T.A. and Chavkin, C. (2006) Social Defeat Stress-Induced Behavioral Responses are Mediated by the Endogenous Kappa Opioid System. Neuropsychopharmacology 31(6): 1241-1248.

Bruchas, M.R., Macey, T.A., Lowe, J.D. and Chavkin, C. (2006) Kappa opioid receptor activation of p38 MAPK is GRK3 and arrestin dependent in neurons and astrocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 281(26): 18081-18089.

Macey, T.A., Lowe, J.D. and Chavkin, C. (2006) Mu opioid receptor activation of ERK/2 is GRK3 and arrestin dependent in striatal neurons. Journal of Biological Chemistry 281(45): 34515-34524.

Recent papers:

Xu, M., Bruchas, M.R., Ippolito, D.L, Gendron, L., and Chavkin, C. (2007) Sciatic nerve ligation-induced proliferation of spinal cord astrocytes is mediated by kappa opioid activation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase. Journal of Neuroscience 27(10):2570-2581.

Petraschka, M., Li, S., Gilbert T.L., Westenbroek, R.E., Bruchas, M.R., Schreiber, S., Lowe, J.D., Low, M., Pintar, J.E., Chavkin, C. (2007) The absence of endogenous b-endorphin selectively blocks phosphorylation and desensitization of mu opioid receptors following partial sciatic nerve ligation. Neuroscience 146(4):1795-1807.

Bruchas, M.R., Yang, T., Schreiber, S., DeFino, M., Kwan, S., Li, S., and Chavkin, C. (2007) Long-acting kappa opioid antagonists disrupt receptor signaling and produce noncompetitive effects by activating c-Jun N-terminal Kinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 282(41):29803-29811.

Bruchas, M.R., Land, B.B., Aita, M., Xu, M., Barot, SK, Li, S. and Chavkin, C. (2007) Stress-induced p38 MAPK activation mediates kappa opioid-dependent dysphoria. Journal of Neuroscience 27(43):11614-11623.

Redila, V. and Chavkin, C. (2008) Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine conditioned place preference is mediated by activation of the kappa opioid system. Psychopharmacology 200(1):59-79.

Land, B.B., Bruchas, M.R., Melief, E., Xu, M., Lemos, J.C., and Chavkin, C. (2008) The dysphoric component of stress is encoded by activation of the dynorphin-kappa opioid system. Journal of Neuroscience 28(2):407-414.

Xu, M, Aita, M, and Chavkin, C. (2008) Partial infraorbital nerve ligation as a new model of trigeminal nerve injury: behavioral and neuroanatomical correlates. Journal of Pain (in press).

Bruchas, MR, Xu, M, Chavkin, C (2008) Repeated Swim-Stress Induces Kappa Opioid-Mediated Activation of ERK1/2 MAPK. Neuroreport 19(14):1417-1422.

Land, B.B., Bruchas, M.R., Schattauer, S., Messinger, D., Giardino W.J., Aita M., Hnasko, T.S., Palmiter, R.D., and Chavkin C. (2009) Activation of the kappa opioid receptor in the dorsal raphe nucleus mediates the aversive effects of stress and reinstates drug seeking. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 106: 19168-19173.

Clayton, C.C., Xu, M., Chavkin, C. (2009) Tyrosine phosphorylation of Kir3 following kappa opioid receptor activation of p38-MAPK causes heterologous desensitization. Journal of Biological Chemistry 284: 31872-31881.

Bruchas, M.R., Land, B.B., Lemos, J.C., Chavkin C. (2009) CRF1-R activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid system in the mouse basolateral amygdala mediates anxiety-like behavior. PLoS One 4(12): e8528. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008528.

Clayton, C.C., Bruchas, M.R., Lee, M.L., Chavkin, C. (2010) Phosphorylation of the mu opioid receptor at tyrosine 166 in the DRY motif (Y3.51) reduces agonist efficacy. Molecular Pharmacology 77: 339-347.