All three tentaculate ctenophores above have been called "Pleurobrachia bachei " at one time or another.
They are (left to right): Pleurobrachia bachei, Euplokamis dunlapae, and Hormiphora sp., all from Friday Harbor, Washington, USA.
Photographic image copyright 1998 Claudia E. Mills.


maintained (update log) and published by

(email: cemills"at"

Friday Harbor Laboratories and the Department of Biology
Friday Harbor WA 98250


The suggested citation for this work is listed below:

Mills, C.E. Internet 1998-present. Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid species names. Electronic internet document available at Published by the author, web page established March 1998, last updated (see date at end of page).

Because the scientific literature on the Ctenophora is widely dispersed and much of it is difficult to locate, I have compiled here a list of all classes, orders, families, genera and species of ctenophores that seem to be in use at the present time. This list is the result of an extensive search of the literature, combined with a little independent thinking. The phylogenetic order used in this list is derived primarily from the morphological work of Richard Harbison (1984, 1996) and Harbison and Madin (1982). There is little question that some of the species listed are the same as others, but in most cases, no author has dealt with the problem species in the peer-reviewed, published literature, so the redundant names are still "current" and valid.

Recent work by Steve Haddock and others using molecular genetic techniques to study relationships between ctenophore species has shown that the present phylogenetic framework on which we hang the names of known ctenophore species needs to be radically revised. Until that is done, however, the list here is what is available and in use.

As of March 2014, I have removed the obscure class/subclass names Typhlocoela and Cyclocoela, proposed by Ospovat (1985), leaving the long-established class names Tentaculata and Nuda as the only useful higher level taxonomic names. Ospovat's paper has been nearly unknown and certainly not discussed in the past thirty years; subsequent molecular work including Podar et al. has not supported these groups as a natural or imformative assemblage. I included Ospovat's taxonomy in my original 1998 ctenophore species list out of a sense of thoroughness for consideration by ctenophore biologists, but use of the terms Typhlocoela and Cyclocoela has proliferated without any sort of discussion into a number of databases including WoRMS (World Register of Marine Species), the Encyclopedia of Life, NCBI, and GenBank, whose lists of ctenophores derive directly from this list of names -- it was never my intention that this list would be moved around wholesale by others without some additional thought. It is obvious at this point that the taxonomy of the Ctenophora needs a massive revision, so I am now opting for the simplicity and clarity of the widely accepted classes Tentaculata and Nuda until such a revision occurs. I will make the same adjustment to the WoRMS taxonomic list of ctenophores and hope that over time it filters down through other lists for which I am not responsible and can not make changes.

Below I list nearly 200 species names that seem to be valid today. I have included only some of the additional 50 or so now-synonomized old names ("nominal") no longer in use (I just never completed the job, but am gradually adding synonyms to the list below), in parentheses on the line following the presently-accepted name. There must be many other synonyms in this list of valid names (the genus Beroe, for instance, has many names that might ultimately be synonomized in future studies, but that may be a very distant future for lack of study). I suspect that there are actually 150-200 good species of described ctenophores, of which about 45 (the platyctenids) are benthic in habitat. There are probably at least 25 more known, but undescribed, ctenophores, many of them in the deep-sea -- stay tuned for descriptions of most of these eventually. A number of other lists of ctenophores, many of which seem to derive from this one, can be found elsewhere on the web; I do not claim to be the only authority determining which names are presently in use for the Ctenophora. One of the purposes of this page is to give accurate access to the spelling, as well as the describing author and date, for each species name.

I was recently asked how many species of ctenophores might still be out there, undiscovered. I estimate that we may now know about half of the ctenophores in the sea. Use of deep-sea submersibles and ROVs have greatly extended our view into the oceans in the last three decades, and with this has already come the discovery of more than 25 new deep-sea species. C.N. Dawydoff spent five years in Vietnam and subsequently published descriptions of 23 new species (all listed below) from those waters, between 1929 and 1946. Dawydoff's species haven't been studied since, and surely there are many similarly unexplored corners of the world's oceans. Claude and Danielle Carré discovered four new ctenophore species in the well-studied surface waters off southeastern France during the 1980s and 1990s in the course of careers spent studying planktonic animals there.

Note that genus and species names are always written in italics. If the author and date following a species name are within parentheses, that is the taxonomists' code for indicating that the species has been moved from the genus in which it was originally described; author and date not in parentheses indicates that the genus has not changed from the original description. (I am not making this format up - it is strictly formalized and governed by an international body of taxonomists.)

This list has taken me several years to put together and I would really appreciate it if you cite it as an electronic publication if you use it in your studies (suggested citation above). The list is an ongoing work and is subject to modification at any time. I consider it my intellectual property and do not want to find it dumped wholesale onto someone else's web page - links to it are fine. I welcome any additions or corrections that anyone may wish to make - please contact me at the above address. In order to be true to its in-progress nature, I have left my personal shorthand in the electronic manuscript, so any entry preceeded by . means that I have not yet been able to check the original citation for accuracy. Although I have chosen to put this list of species names and authors on the web, it will be noted that I have not included the bibliography from which it derives on the web at this time.

I have included links to ctenophore images located elsewhere on the web. In the event that there is more than one good image of the same species, I have linked the best one or two, whose identification I am sure about, for you. In a few cases, I have linked images to species that I do not know well, so the identifications could be wrong, and I wouldn't know - such links are clearly labeled. Any additions to these photograph links are welcome - please let me know. Be aware that many ctenophore photographs on the web are misidentified.


Phylum CTENOPHORA Eschscholtz, 1829

Class Tentaculata Eschscholtz, 1825


Order Cydippida Gegenbaur, 1856 (or Lesson, 1843?)

Family Haeckeliidae Krumbach, 1925

( = Chlorellidae of Stechow, 1921)

Haeckelia Carus, 1863

beehleri (Mayer, 1912)

bimaculata C. Carré and D. Carré, 1989 - image contains B. beehleri, B. rubra, and B. bimaculata

filigera (Chun, 1880)

(= Euchlora filigera Chun, 1880)

(= Chlorella filigera (Chun, 1880) of Stechow 1921)

rubra (Kölliker, 1853)

(= Owenia rubra Kölliker, 1853 by Moser 1909)

(= Euchlora rubra (Kölliker, 1853))

(= Chlorella rubra (Kölliker, 1853) of Stechow 1921)

Family Ctenellidae C. Carré and D. Carré, 1993

Ctenella C. Carré and D. Carré, 1993

aurantia C. Carré and D. Carré, 1993

Family Bathyctenidae Mortensen, 1932

Bathyctena Mortensen, 1932

chuni (Moser, 1909)

latipharyngea (Dawydoff, 1946)

sp. of Lindsay and Hunt, 2005

Family Aulacoctenidae Lindsay and Miyake, 2007

Aulacoctena Mortensen, 1932

acuminata Mortensen, 1932

Family Lampeidae Krumbach, 1925

( = Family Gastridae Stechow, 1923)

Lampea Stechow, 1921

. elongata (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824)

(= Lampetia elongata (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) by Stechow, 1921)

fusiformis (A. Agassiz and Mayer, 1902)

komai (Dawydoff, 1937)

(= Gastrodes komai Dawydoff, 1937)

lactea (Mayer, 1912)

pancerina (Chun, 1879) - another image showing this species eating a salp chain

(= Lampetia pancerina Chun, 1880 by Stechow, 1921)

(= Gastrodes parasiticum Korotneff, 1888 by Harbison, Madin and Swanberg, 1978)

(= Gastra parasitica (Korotneff, 1888) of Stechow, 1921, who placed it in a new Cnidarian class Gastroidea)

Family Pleurobrachiidae Chun, 1880

Ceroctena C. Carré and D. Carré, 1991

bicornis C. Carré and D. Carré, 1991

Hormiphora L. Agassiz, 1860 (see also the illustration at the top of this web page)

(= Cydippe Gegenbaur 1856 (by L. Agassiz 1860))

californensis (Torrey, 1904) (moved by Mills (1987))

cilensis (Ghigi, 1909) (may = californensis above (Mills 1987))

cucumis (Mertens, 1833) (moved to Hormiphora by Bigelow, 1912, p. 381)

(= Janira cucumis (by Agassiz 1860 and Agassiz 1865))

(= Euplokamis cucumis (by Torrey, 1904))

elliptica (Eschscholtz, 1829) moved to Hormiphora by Moser 1909, p. 152

(= Janira elliptica of Lesson 1843 (by Moser, 1909, p. 152))

foliosa (Haeckel, 1904?) Plate 27, Fig. 3 Kunstformen der Natur (1904) See H. hormiphora

(=Hormiphora sp. (by Haeckel, 1904, Plate 27)).

hormiphora (Gegenbaur, 1856) The type species of this genus.

(= H. plumosa Chun, 1880 (by Bigelow 1912, p.378))

(= Cydippe densa Spagnolini, 1870 (by Chun, 1880 p. 281))

(= H. palmata Chun, 1898, in part (by Bigelow 1912))

(probably = H. foliosa Haeckel, 1904 (by Mills, here))

"coeca" (= Hormiphora coeca Stanford, 1931, a nomen nudem)#

labialis Ghigi, 1909

luminosa Dawydoff, 1946

ochracea (A. Agassiz and Mayer, 1902)

octoptera (Mertens, 1833)

palmata Chun, 1898

(= Hormiphora amboinae Moser, 1907 (by Bigelow, 1912, p. 379))

(= Lampetia fusiformis Agassiz and Mayer, 1902, p. 171 (by Bigelow 1912, p. 381))

(= Hormiphora fusiformis Mayer, 1906, p. 1134 (by Bigelow 1912, p. 381))

(= Hormiphora japonica Moser, 1907 (by Bigelow, 1912, p. 379))

piriformis Ghigi, 1909

plumosa (M. Sars, 1859)

(= Cydippe plumosa M. Sars, 1859)

polytrocha Dawydoff, 1946

punctata Moser, 1909

sibogae Moser, 1903

spatulata Chun, 1898

(= Pleurobrachia brunnea Mayer, 1912, according to Bigelow, 1912, p. 377)

Minictena C. Carré and D. Carré, 1993

luteola C. Carré and D. Carré, 1993

Moseria Ghigi, 1909 (likely absorbed by Pleurobrachia and Hormiphora)

This genus as established included M. australis (Benham), M. pigmentata (Moser) and M. striata (Moser). These assignments do not seem to be in current use, but Ghigi's' 1909 paper is not widely known. Moseria is also in use as a siphonophore genus name.

Pleurobrachia Fleming, 1822

. arctica Wagner, 1885 (in Moser)

australis (Benham, 1907) (moved to genus Pleurobrachia by Ralph (1950))

bachei A. Agassiz, 1860 (see another illustration at the top of this web page)

brunnea Mayer, 1912

. cyanea (Chun, 1889) = Tinerfe? - see below

. globosa Moser, 1903

var. ceylonensis Browne, 1905

var. bengalensis Annandale and Kemp, 1915

pigmentata Moser, 1903

pileus (O. F. Müller, 1776)

( = Beroe pileus Fabricius, 1780 by Mortensen 1918)

( = Cydippe pileus Müll. Mörch. by Mortensen 1918)

(= Pleurobrachia rhododactyla L. Agassiz, 1860 by Mayer, 1912 and by Bigelow, 1912)

( = "Die 6 eckige Beroe" von Slabber in Moser 1909)

( = "Zeshoekige Beroe" of Slabber, 1778 (by Bennema and van Moorsel, 2011))

( = Beroe hexagona (Modeer, 1790) (by Bennema and van Moorsel, 2011))

( = Callianira hexagona (Slabber, 1778) (by Bennema and van Moorsel, 2011))

( = Callianira triploptera Lamarck, 1816 in reference ONLY to the illustrations in plate 90, figs 5, 6 of Bruguière (1791) (by Bennema and van Moorsel, 2011))

( = Callianira slabberi De Haan, 1827 (by Bennema and van Moorsel, 2011))

( = Callianira hexagona (Modeer, 1790) of Eschscholtz 1829 (by Bennema and van Moorsel, 2011))

rhodopis Chun, 1879

striata Moser, 1907

Sabaudia Ghigi, 1909

liguriae Ghigi, 1909

Tinerfe Chun, 1898

cyanea (Chun, 1889)

Family Pukiidae Gershwin, Zeidler and Davie, 2010

Pukia Gershwin, Zeidler and Davie, 2010

falcata Gershwin, Zeidler and Davie, 2010

ohtsukai Lindsay, 2017

Family Euplokamididae Mills, 1987 ( = Euplokamidae, changed in agreement with Cairns et al., 2002)

Euplokamis Chun, 1879

crinita (Moser, 1909) (moved to Euplokamis by Mills (1987))

dunlapae Mills, 1987 (see another more detailed illustration at the top of this web page)

evansae Gershwin, Zeidler and Davie, 2010 - the tentacles of this species do not seem to justify its inclusion in Euplokamis (C.E.M.)

helicoides (Ralph and Kaberry, 1950) (moved to Euplokamis by Mills (1987))

octoptera (Mertens, 1833) - likely to be Mertensia ovum (moved to Euplokamis by Mills (1987))

stationis Chun, 1879

Family Cryptocodidae Leloup, 1938

Cryptocoda Leloup, 1938

gerlachi Leloup, 1938

Family Mertensiidae L. Agassiz, 1860

Callianira Péron and Lesueur, 1810

antarctica Chun, 1897 - see more images on the sidebar to the left of this image

bialata Della Chiaje, 1841

(= Eschscholtzia cordata Kölliker, 1853)

cristata Moser, 1909

compressa (Mertens, 1833) - may be Mertensia ovum

diploptera Lamarck, 1816 - The species upon which the genus Callianira is based.
Callianira diploptera
Lamarck, 1816, was mentioned by Péron and Lesueur (1810) as "Callianire triploptère."
They considered their Australian specimen to be a pteropod mollusc (see Bennema and van Moorsel, 2011),
but the possibility that Larmarck was right by placing it under ctenophores cannot be excluded.

ficalbi Curreri, 1900

hexagona (Bruguière, 1789) (see De Haan, 1827) (from Madagascar: a 10 cm high ctenophore with two branched tentacles, present in great abundance and producing so much light that you can read a book "in the grande chambre" -- thanks to Floris Bennema for getting me straight on this -- species gender corrected by Bennema and van Moorsel, 2011)

( = Beroe hexagonus Bruguière, 1789 (by Bennema and van Moorsel, 2011))

( = Callianira triploptera Lamarck, 1816 (by Bennema and van Moorsel, 2011))

Charistephane Chun, 1879

fugiens Chun, 1879

. Mertensia Lesson, 1830

ovum (Fabricius, 1780) another image of this species - a little too technicolor

( = Beroe ovum Fabricius, 1780 by Mortensen 1918)

( = Cydippe (Mertensia) ovum Fabr. Mörch. by Mortensen 1918)

"Undescribed genus" Harbison and Mills, in prep. (with masses of fine pink-red tentilla)

"Species 1" Harbison and Mills, in prep.

"Species 2" Harbison and Mills, in prep.

"Species 3" Harbison and Mills, in prep.

Family Dryodoridae Harbison, 1996 (earlier?)

. Dryodora L. Agassiz, 1860

glandiformis (Mertens, 1833) note similarity of sheaths and canals to Cambodgia


Family not determined

Big red undescribed cydippid "Agmayeria tortugensis"- but never formally described (also known as "Tortugas Red")

Cydippida, but family affiliation not determined (mostly juveniles):

Cydippe Eschscholtz, 1829

. densa Forskal, 1775 (in Moser)

ovata Lesson, 1843

. quadricostata Sars, 1835 (in Moser)

Eschscholthia Lesson 1836

dimidiata (Eschscholtz, 1829)

Eschscholtzia Kölliker, 1853

. borealis Wagner, 1885 (in Moser)

Paracelsia Dawydoff, 1946

quadriloba Dawydoff, 1946

Thoe Chun, 1879 1878?

paradoxa Chun, 1879 or 1878?

. Tinerfe coerulea Chun

Tizardia Dawydoff, 1946

phosphorea Dawydoff, 1946


FOSSIL CTENOPHORA - The number of new fossil species described as Ctenophora has grown considerably in the last few decades. I make no value judgments here on whether or not I think these species are in fact ctenophores, but list all species described as ctenophores until such time as they are discussed in the scientific literature and moved elsewhere.


Archeocydippida Stanley and Stürmer, 1987 - reinterpreted by Otto, 1994 and accepted by Dzik et al. 1997 as perhaps echinoderm or other shelly fossil

hunsrueckiana Stanley and Stürmer, 1987. Devonian: Hunsrück Slate, Germany

Paleoctenophora Stanley and Stürmer, 1983 - reinterpreted by Otto, 1994 and accepted by Dzik et al. 1997 as perhaps echinoderm or other shelly fossil

brasseli Stanley and Stürmer, 1983. Devonian: Hunsrück Slate, Germany

. Podolites Ljaschendo 1969? (Berger 1981 Zoo. Record). Silurian


Family Ctenorhabdotidae Conway Morris and Collins, 1996

Ctenorhabdotus Conway Morris and Collins, 1996

capulus Conway Morris and Collins, 1996. Middle Cambrian: British Columbia, Canada

Family Fasciculidae Conway Morris and Collins, 1996

Fasciculus Simonetta and Della Cave, 1978

vesanus Simonetta and Della Cave, 1978. Middle Cambrian: British Columbia, Canada

Family Xanioascidae Conway Morris and Collins, 1996

Xanioascus Conway Morris and Collins, 1996

canadensis Conway Morris and Collins, 1996. Middle Cambrian: British Columbia, Canada

Family not determined

. Batofasciculus ramificans Hou et al. 1999. Chengjiang Biota, Cambrian: Yunnan, China - Hu et al. 2007 say affinity is uncertain. Ou et al. 2015 include this species among their new group of "sclerotized" ctenophores.

Dickinsonia spp. Ediacaran Biota, Precambrian. Interpreted as possible ctenophore by Zhang and Reitner 2006

Eoandromeda octobrachiata Tang et al. 2008. Ediacaran Biota, Precambrian: South China - "spiral organism" interpreted as early stem-group ctenophore by Tang et al. 2011

Galeactena hemispherica Ou et al., 2015

Gemmactena actinala Ou et al., 2015

. Maotianoascus octonarius Chen and Zhou, 1997. Chengjiang Biota, Cambrian: Yunnan, China

. Petalilium latus Luo et al. 1999. Chengjiang Biota, Early Cambrian: Yunnan, China - interpreted as ctenophore by Chen et al. 2002, but Hu et al. 2007 say affinity remains uncertain. This species has been synonomized with the cephalopod-like nectocaridid Nectocaris pteryx Conway Morris 1976 by Smith 2013 in Paleobiology.

. Sinoascus papillatus Chen and Zhou, 1997. Chengjiang Biota, Lower Cambrian: Yunnan, China - Hu et al. 2007 say affinity is uncertain

Stromatoveris psygmoglena Shu et al. 2006. Chengjiang Biota, Lower Cambrian: Yunnan, China - interpreted as early stem-group ctenophore by Shu et al. 2006

Thaumactena ensis Ou et al., 2015

. Trigoides aclis Luo and Hu, 1999. Chengjiang Biota, Early Cambrian: Yunnan, China - considered as a ctenophore by Chen et al. 2002.

Yunnanoascus haikouensis Hu et al. 2007. Chengjiang Biota, Lower Cambrian: Yunnan, China

. Order Platyctenida Bourne 1900 = Coeloplanidea Stechow, 1922

Family Ctenoplanidae Willey, 1896

Ctenoplana Korotneff, 1886

bengalensis Gnanamuthu and Nair, 1948

duboscqui Dawydoff, 1929

korotneffi Willey, 1896

kowalevskii Korotneff, 1886

maculomarginata Yosii (Yoshi), 1933 (also as maculomarainata in
original description)

muculosa Yosii (Yoshi), 1933 (also maculosa, in original description's figure)

perrieri (Dawydoff, 1930)

rosacea Willey, 1896

sub-genus Diploctena Fricke and Plante, 1971

neritica Fricke and Plante, 1971

sub-genus Planoctena Dawydoff, 1936

agnae (Dawydoff, 1929) - subsequently referred to as Ctenoplana Planoctena agniae by Dawydoff, 1936

caulleryi Dawydoff, 1936

jurii (Dawydoff, 1929) - subsequently referred to as Ctenoplana Planoctena yuri by Dawydoff, 1936

Family Tjalfiellidae Komai, 1922

( = Family Tjalfiellidae Stechow, 1922)

Tjalfiella Mortensen, 1910

tristoma Mortensen, 1910

Family Lyroctenidae Komai, 1942

Lyrocteis Komai, 1941

flavopallidus Robilliard and Dayton, 1972

imperatoris Komai, 1941 Scroll down three images.

Family Savangiidae Harbison and Madin, 1982 (?)

Savangia Dawydoff, 1950

atentaculata Dawydoff, 1950

Family Coeloplanidae Willey, 1896

. Coeloplana Kowalevsky, 1880 - I do not know this species and cannot verify that the photo ID is as stated on that website, but it certainly is beautiful (C.E.M).

agniae Dawydoff, 1930 - apparently not the same as Ctenoplana agnae.
(Tentacles of both spp. compared in same figure, Dawydoff (1933) p. 122)

var. striata Dawydoff, 1938

anthostella Song and Hwang, 2010

astericola Mortensen, 1927 - I do not know this species and cannot verify that the photo ID is as stated on that website (C.E.M).

bannwarthii Krumbach, 1933 - Scroll down. I do not know this species and cannot verify that the photo ID is as stated on that website (C.E.M).

bocki Komai, 1920

duboscqui Dawydoff, 1930

echinicola Tanaka, 1932

fishelsoni Alamaru, Brokovich and Loya, 2015

gonoctena Krempf, 1920

var. natalensis Pople, 1960

var. rosea Dawydoff, 1938

huchonae Alamaru, Brokovich and Loya, 2015

indica Devanesen and Varadarajan, 1942

komaii Utinomi, 1963

krusadiensis Devanesen and Varadarajan, 1942

lineolata Fricke, 1970

loyai Alamaru and Brokovich, 2015

mellosa Gershwin, Zeidler and Davie, 2010

mesnili Dawydoff, 1938

meteoris Thiel, 1968

metschnikowii Kowalevsky, 1880

mitsukurii Abbott, 1902

perrieri Dawydoff, 1930

punctata Fricke, 1970

reichelti Gershwin, Zeidler and Davie, 2010

scaberiae Matsumoto and Gowlett-Holmes, 1996

sophiae Dawydoff, 1938

sp. on the underside of corals in the Indo-West Pacific (Hoeksema et al. 2013)

tattersalli Devanesen and Varadarajan, 1942

thomsoni Matsumoto, 1999

waltoni Glynn, Bayer and Renegar, 2014

weilli Dawydoff, 1938

willeyi Abbott, 1902

wuennenbergi Fricke, 1970

yulianicorum Alamaru, Brokovich and Loya, 2015

sub-genus Benthoplana Fricke and Plante, 1971

meteoris Thiel, 1968

Vallicula Rankin, 1956

multiformis Rankin, 1956


Order Cambojiida Ospovat, 1985

Family Cambojiidae Ospovat, 1985

Cambodgia Dawydoff, 1946 (also spelled in same paper Cambodjia Dawydoff, 1946)

elegantissima Dawydoff, 1946. Note similarity of sheaths and canals to Dryodora.


. Order Ganeshida Moser, 1908

Family Ganeshidae Moser, 1907

Ganesha Moser, 1907

elegans (Moser, 1903)

(= Lampetia elegans Moser in Moser 1908)

annamita Dawydoff, 1946


Order Cryptolobiferida Ospovat, 1985

Family Cryptolobatidae Ospovat, 1985

Cryptolobata Moser, 1909 (Ospovat, 1985, says this may be larva of Lobocrypta)

primitiva Moser, 1909

Lobocrypta Dawydoff, 1946

annamita Dawydoff, 1946


Lobata with uncertain affinity:

Axiotima Eschscholtz, 1829

gaedii Eschscholtz, 1829

Calya Stechow, 1921

( = Calymma Eschscholtz, 1820 by Stechow, 1921)

trevirani Eschscholtz, 1829

( = Calymma trevirani Eschscholtz, 1820 by Stechow, 1921)

Order Thalassocalycida Madin and Harbison, 1978

Family Thalassocalycidae Madin and Harbison, 1978

Thalassocalyce Madin and Harbison, 1978

inconstans Madin and Harbison, 1978


Order Lobata Eschscholtz, 1825

Family Bathocyroidae Harbison and Madin, 1982

Bathocyroe Madin and Harbison, 1978

fosteri Madin and Harbison, 1978

longigula Horita, Akiyama and Kubota, 2011

paragaster (Ralph and Kaberry, 1950)

Family Bolinopsidae Bigelow, 1912 (= Bolinidae Agassiz, 1860)

Bolinopsis L. Agassiz, 1860

(= Bolina Mertens, 1833)

ashleyi Gershwin, Zeidler and Davie, 2010

. chuni (von Lendenfeld, 1884)

elegans (Mertens, 1833)

indosinensis Dawydoff, 1946

infundibulum (O.F. Müller, 1776)

( = Beroe infundibulum Fabricius, 1780 by Mortensen 1912)

( = Bolina septentrionalis Mertens, 1833 by Mayer 1912 and Mortensen 1912)

( = Mnemia norvegia Sars, 1835 by Mortensen 1912)

( = Cydippe quadricostata Sars, 1835 by Mortensen 1912)

( = Bolina alata A. Agassiz, 1850 by Mortensen 1912)

( = Bolina norvegica (Sars, 1835) by Mortensen 1912)

( = Lesueuria vitrea of M'Intosh 1888 by Mortensen 1912)

( = Bolina microptera A. Agassiz, 1865 by Mortensen 1912)

( = Bolina infundibulum Chun, 1880 by Mortensen 1912)

mikado (Moser, 1907)

ovalis (Bigelow, 1904)

rubripunctata Tokioka 1964

vitrea (L. Agassiz, 1860)

(= Bolina hydatina Chun, 1879)

Lesueuria Milne Edwards, 1841 - this genus was synonymized with Bolinopsis by Mortensen (1912), but revived by Ralph and Kaberry (1950) for their new species L. pinnata.

hyboptera A. Agassiz, 1865

pinnata Ralph and Kaberry, 1950

tiedemanni (Eschscholtz, 1829) moved by Moser, 1908

vitrea Milne Edwards, 1841

Mnemiopsis L. Agassiz, 1860 - apparently all one species, but I am waiting for the definitive publication that says so and also justifies using the name M. leidyi for all morphs, since this is not the oldest name, but it is the name that scientists seem to have chosen to use in the 2000s.

gardeni L. Agassiz, 1860 (said to be junior synonym of M. leidyi by Seravin (1994),
which it should not be, because it has seniority by date)

leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865

( = mccradyi Mayer, 1900 = junior synonym of M. leidyi by Seravin, 1994)

Family Leucotheidae Krumbach, 1925 ( = Leucothoeae Lesson 1843; = Eucharidae Chun, 1880)

Leucothea Mertens, 1833 (= Alcinoe Della Chiaje, 1841, = Chiaia Lesson, 1843)

filmersankeyi Gershwin, Zeidler and Davie, 2010

grandiformis Agassiz and Mayer, 1899

. harmata

japonica Komai, 1918

multicornis (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824)

(= Eucharis multicornis Eschscholtz, 1829)

(= Chiaia neapolitana Lesson, 1843)

(= Chiaja palermitana Milne Edwards, 1857)

(= Cydippe brevicostata Will, 1844 - larva, by Chun, 1879)

(= Eschscholtzia pectinata Kölliker, 1853 - larva, by Chun, 1879)

ochracea Mayer, 1912

pulchra Matsumoto, 1988

. Family Ocyropsidae (= Ocyroidae Lesson, 1843)

Alcinoe Rang, 1828 (in Moser 1908)

. rosea Mertens, 1833

vermicularis Rang, 1828 (in Moser 1908))

Ocyropsis Mayer, 1912 (= Ocyroe Péron and Lesueur, 1810; = Ocyroé Rang, 1827)

crystallina (Rang, 1827)

(in 1828 Rang used the French vernacular "Ocyroé cristalline" for this species)

subsp. crystallina Harbison and Miller, 1986

subsp. guttata Harbison and Miller, 1986

fusca (Rang, 1827)

(in 1828 Rang used the French vernacular "Ocyroé brune" for this species)

maculata (Rang, 1827)

(in 1828 Rang used the French vernacular "Ocyroé tachée" for this species)

subsp. immaculata Harbison and Miller, 1986

subsp. maculata Harbison and Miller, 1986

pteroessa Bigelow 1904

vance Gershwin, Zeidler and Davie, 2010

Family Eurhamphaeidae L. Agassiz, 1860

Eurhamphaea Gegenbaur, 1856 = probably only one species, E. vexilligera

chamissonis (Eschscholz, 1829)

heteroptera (Chamisso and Eysenhardt, 1821)

kuhlii (Eschscholtz, 1829)

schweiggeri (Eschscholtz, 1829)

vexilligera Gegenbaur, 1856

(= Mnemia elegans M. Sars, 1856)

[Family Deiopeidae Chun, 1880 (Harbison (1996) and Harbison, Matsumoto and Robison (2001) combined this family into the Eurhamphaeidae)]

Deiopea Chun, 1879

kaloktenota Chun, 1879

Kiyohimea Komai and Tokioka, 1940

aurita Komai and Tokioka, 1940

usagi Matsumoto and Robison, 1992

Family Lampoctenidae Harbison, Matsumoto and Robison, 2001

Lampocteis Harbison, Matsumoto and Robison, 2001

cruentiventer Harbison, Matsumoto and Robison, 2001

Family Lobatolampeidae Horita, 2000

Lobatolampea Horita, 2000

tetragona Horita, 2000


Order Cestida Gegenbaur, 1856

Family Cestidae Gegenbaur, 1856

Cestum Lesueur, 1813

veneris Lesueur, 1813 another image of this species

(= Cestus pectinalis Bigelow 1904)

(= Cestus veneris Chun, 1879 and 1880)

Velamen Krumbach, 1925

parallelum (Fol, 1869) another image of this species

(= Vexillum parallelum Fol, 1869)

(= Folia parallela Mayer, 1912)


Class Nuda Chun 1879 (at least, perhaps earlier?)


Order Beroida Eschscholtz, 1829 or 1825?

Family Beroidae Eschscholtz, 1825

Beroe Browne, 1756

abyssicola Mortensen, 1927

australis Agassiz and Mayer, 1899

baffini Kramp, 1942

. basteri Lesson, 1830

campana Komai, 1918

compacta Moser, 1909

constricta Chamisso and Eysenhardt, 1821

cucumis Fabricius, 1780

(= Idyia roseola Agassiz, 1860 by Mayer, 1912)

(= Beroe shakespeari Benham, 1907 by Ralph, 1950)

. culcullus Martens, also Eschscholtz, 1829

cyathina A. Agassiz, 1860

flemingii (Eschscholtz, 1829)

forskalii Milne Edwards, 1841 another image of this species

gilva Eschscholtz, 1829

hyalina Moser, 1907

gracilis Künne, 1939 another image of this species

. macrostoma Péron and Lesueur, 1808 or 1809 (in Moser)

. mitraeformis Lesson, 1830 (in Moser)

mitrata (Moser, 1907)

. ovale Bosc 1802 (in Moser)

. ovata Bruguière, 1789 or Eschscholtz, 1829 - two quite different animals go by the name Beroe ovata; for a full description of the taxonomic problem presented by Beroe ovata see the paragraph written by Richard Harbison in Mills et al. 1996, Scientia Marina, vol. 60(1), p. 161.

(= Idyiopsis affinis L. Agassiz, 1860 by Mayer, 1912)

(= Beroe clarkii (Agassiz, 1860) by Mayer, 1912)

(= Idya mertensii Mertens, 1833 by Mayer, 1912)

(= Beroe capensis Chamisso and Eysenhardt, 1821 by Chun, 1880)

(= Beroe punctata Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821 by Mayer, 1912)

(= Beroe shakespeari Benham, 1907 by Bigelow, 1912)

. pandorina (Moser, 1903)

penicillata (Mertens, 1833)

ramosa Komai, 1921

roseus Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 (and in Moser 1908)

rufescens (Eschscholtz, 1829)

. Neis Lesson, 1843 or 1829? (this picture of Neis does not show bioluminescence, despite its caption) another image which might be slow to download

cordigera Lesson, 1829

This site is maintained by C. E. Mills and all photographs are copyrighted by the author
** This page was established March 1998; last updated 12 June 2017 **

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