Resources for the Study of Biblical Hebrew and Ancient Near Eastern Texts

Hebrew Bible Research Tools

Hebrew Dictionaries and Specialized Lexical Studies
Hebrew Concordances
Hebrew Grammars and Related References Works
Northwest Semitic Inscriptions
Research Paper Resources
Encyclopedias
Textual criticism, Biblia Hebraica, and Masorah
Online Tools for Learning Biblical Hebrew

Research Tools for Other Near Eastern Languages

Septuagint, including dictionaries, grammars, and reference works
Comparative Semitics
Ugaritic Texts, Dictionaries, and Grammars
Phoenician Dictionaries and Grammars
Aramaic Dictionaries and Grammars
Akkadian Dictionaries, Grammars, and Sign Lists
Egyptian Dictionaries, Grammars, and Resources
Arabic Dictionaries and Grammars
South Semitic Dictionaries and Grammars

Useful Web Sites

Aramaic Bibliography
Biblical Abbreviations List
ETANA (ancient texts, bibliographies, archaeological reports.)
Okeanos (interdisciplinary resource site: online Bibles, archaeological reports, etc.)
Perseus (Classical Greek resource site)

Hebrew Dictionaries and Specialized Lexical Studies

Barr, James, Comparative Philology and the Text of the Old Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968).

Baumgartner, Walter, and Ludwig Koehler, eds., Hebräisches und Aramäisches Lexicon zum Alten Testament (4 vols; Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1967-1990).

Brown, Francis, et al., eds., The New Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon (Peabody, MA.: Hendrickson, 1979).

Clines, David J. A., The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993-).

Cohen, H. R., Biblical Hapax Legomena in the Light of Akkadian and Ugaritic (Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1978).

Greenspahn, Frederick E., Hapax Legomena in Biblical Hebrew: A Study of the Phenomenon and Its Treatment since Antiquity with Special Reference to Verbal Forms (Chico, CA.: Scholars Press, 1984).

Kaltner, John, The Use of Arabic in Biblical Hebrew Lexicography (Washington, D.C.: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1996).

Koehler, L., and W. Baumgartner, eds., Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti libros (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1958).

Ma'agarim: Online Historical Dictionary of Hebrew from the 2nd c. BCE-11th c. CE (Jerusalem: Academy of the Hebrew Language).

Meyer, Rudolf and Herbert Donner, Hebräisches und Aramäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament (18th ed.; Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1987-):

Richardson, M. E. J., ed., The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (HALOT). Vols. 1-5 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1994-2000).

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Hebrew Concordances

Even-Shoshan, Abraham, ed., New Concordance of the Bible: Thesaurus of the Language of the Bible, Hebrew and Aramaic, Roots, Words, Proper Names, Phrases, and Synonyms (Jerusalem: Kiryat Sefer Pub. House, 1985).

Mandelkern, Solomon, Veteris Testament Hebraicae Atque Chaldaicae (Tel Aviv: Schoken, 1986).

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Hebrew Grammars and Related References Works

Bauer, H., and P. Leander, Historische Grammatik der Hebräischen Sprache des Alten Testaments (Hildesheim: Olms, 1962).

Ben-Hayyim, Zev, A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew: Based on the Recitation of the Law in Comparison with the Tiberian and Other Jewish Traditions (Winona Lake, IN.: Eisenbrauns, 2000).

Blau, J., A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1976).

Fernández, Miguel Pérez, An Introductory Grammar of Rabbinic Hebrew. Trans. John Elwolde (Leiden: Brill, 1997).

Kautzsch, E., ed., Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Trans. A. E. Cowley (Oxford: Clarendon, 1910).

Joüon, P., and T. Muraoka, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Vols. 1-2 (Subsidia Biblica 14/I and II; Rome: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1991).

Kutscher, E. Y., A History of the Hebrew Language (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University, 1982).

Meyer, Rudolf, Hebräische Grammatik. Vols. 1-4 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1966-1972).

Putnam, Frederic Clarke, A Cumulative Index to the Grammar and Syntax of Biblical Hebrew (Winona Lake, IN.: Eisenbrauns, 1996).

Segal, M. H., A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew (Eugene, OR.: Wipf and Stock, 2001).

Seow, C. L., A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1987).

Smith, Mark S., and Simon B. Parker, A Bibliography of Ugaritic Grammar and Biblical Hebrew Grammar in the Twentieth Century, downloadable in various formats.

Qimron, E., The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Atlanta, GA.: Scholars Press, 1986).

Saenz-Badillos, A., A History of the Hebrew Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

Waldman, Nahum, The Recent Study of Hebrew: A Survey of the Literature with Selected Bibliography (Winona Lake, IN.: Eisenbrauns, 1989).

Waltke, B., and M. P. O'Connor, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1990).

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Northwest Semitic Inscriptions

Ahituv, S., Asupatot `Ivriyot: mi-yeme Bayit-rishon ve-reshit yeme Bayit-sheni [= Handbook of Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions] (Yerushalayim: Mosad Byalik veha-Hevrah la-hakirat Erets-Yisra'el ve-`atikoteha, 1992).

Deutsch, R., and M. Heltzer, Forty New Ancient West Semitic Inscriptions (Tel Aviv-Jaffa: Archaeological Center Publication, 1994).

Dobbs-Allsopp, F. W., J. J. M. Roberts, C. L. Seow, and R. E. Whitaker, Hebrew Inscriptions: Texts from the Biblical Period of the Monarchy with Concordance (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2005).

Donner, Herbert, and Wolfgang Röllig, Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften. Vols. 1-3 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowiz Verlag, 1966- 1969)

Gibson, John C. L., Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions. Vols. 1-3 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1971-1982).

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Research Paper Resources

Biblical studies [computer file]: RIO/RIT on CD-ROM. Evanston, IL : American Theological Library Association, 1994. CD-ROM version of three print indexes: Religion index one. Periodicals; Religion index two. Multi-author works; and: Index to book reviews in religion. Mounted on the networked CD-ROM terminal in Suzzallo Reference.

Borger, Riekele, Handbuch der Keilschriftliteratur. Vols. 1-3 (Berlin, de Gruyter, 1967-1975). CALL #=Z7055.B6; V=v.1-3

Call numbers and abbreviations of journals in Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies at the University of Washington. Click here.

Ecole biblique et archéologique française. Bibliothèque, Catalogue de l'École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem [electronic resource] = Catalogue of the French Biblical and Archaeological School of Jerusalem (Leiden: Brill, c2000).

Elenchus of Biblica (Roma: Pontificio Istituto biblico, 1988-).

Elenchus bibliographicus biblicus of Biblica (Roma: Pontifical Biblical Institute Press, 1982-1987).

Endnote: Bibliographic Search Databases (Berkeley, CA : ISI ResearchSoft, 2001).

Martinez, Garcia, The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1994).

RAMBI = Reshimat Ma'amarim be-Mada`ei ha-Yahadut (= Index of Articles on Jewish Studies).

Smith, Mark S., and Simon B. Parker, A Bibliography of Ugaritic Grammar and Biblical Hebrew Grammar in the Twentieth Century, downloadable in various formats.

Toorn, K. van der, B. Becking, and P. W. van der Horst, eds., Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (Leiden: Brill, 1999).

Tov, Emanuel, Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche [microform]: A Comprehensive Facsimile Edition of the Texts from the Judean Desert (Leiden: Brill, 1995).

Writing Tips for students working on research papers. Click here.

 

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Encyclopedias

Avi-Yonah, M., and E. Stern, Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land ( Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall 1975-).

Encyclopaedia Judaica. Vols. 1-16 (Jerusalem: Macmillan 1971-1972).

Entsyqlopedia Miqra'it. Vols. 1-8 (Yerushalayim: Mosad Byalik, 1950-1988).

Freedman, David Noel, ed., The Anchor Bible Dictionary. Vols. 1-6 (New York: Doubleday, 1992).

The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible. Vols. 1-4, + supp. (Nashville: Abingdon, 1976).

Meyers, Eric M., ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Redford, Donald., ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

Sasson, Jack M. ed., Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Vols. 1-4 (New York: Scribner, 1995).

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Textual Criticism, Biblia Hebraica, and Masorah

Deist, F., Towards the Text of the Old Testament (Pretoria: N. G. Kerkboekhandel Transvaal, 1981).

Esteban, Fernando Díaz, Sefer ’Oklah we-’Oklah (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1975).

Fitzmyer, J., The Dead Sea Scrolls: Major Publications and Tools for Study (Missoula, MT.: Scholars Press, 1975).

Kelley, Page H., Daniel S. Mynatt, and Tomothy Crawford, The Masorah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Grand Rapids, MI.: Eerdmans, 1998).

Marrow, Stanley, Basic Tools of Biblical Exegesis (Rome: Pontifical Institute Press, 1976).

Orlinsky, H. M., "The Textual Criticism of the OT," in G.E. Wright, ed., The Bible and the Ancient Near East (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961), pp. 140-169.

Rüger, Hans Peter, An English Key to the Latin Words and Abbreviations and the Symbols of Biblica Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Stuttgart: German Bible Society, 1985).

Scott, William R., A Simplified Guide to BHS: Critical Apparatus, Masora, Accents, Unusual Letters & Other Markings (3rd edition; N. Richland Hills, TX.: BIBAL Press 1995).

Textus: Annual of the Hebrew University Bible Project (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University, 1960-).

Tov, Emanuel, Textual Criticism and the Hebrew Bible (2nd ed.; Minneapolis, MN.: Fortress Press, 2001).

Tov. Emanuel, The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research (Jerusalem : Simor, 1981).

Washburn, David, L., A Catalog of Biblical Passages in the Dead Sea Scrolls (Atlanta, GA.: Society of Biblical Literature, 2002).

Wonneberger, R., Understanding BHS: A Manual for the Users of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1984).

Würthwein, E., The Text of the Old Testament: An Introduction to Biblia Hebraica. Trans. Erroll F. Rhodes (2nd ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995).

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Septuagint, including Dictionaries, Grammars, and Reference Works

Brenton, Sir Lancelot C., The Septuagint Version of the Old Testament. With an English Translation, and with Various Readings and Critical Notes (Peabody, Ma.: Hendrickson Publishers, 1986).

Brock, S. P., Charles T. Fritsch, and Sidney Jellicoe, A Classified Bibliography of the Septuagint (Leiden, Brill, 1973).

Dogniez, Cecile, Bibliography of the Septuagint [= Bibliographie de la Septante] (1970-1993) (VTS, 60; Leiden: Brill, 1995).

Hatch, E., and H. A. Redpath, A Concordance to the Septuagint and the other Greek versions of the Old Testament (including the Apocryphal Books) (Grand Rapids, MI.: Baker Books, 1998).

Jellicoe, Sidney, The Septuagint and Modern Study (Ann Arbor: Eisenbrauns, 1978).

Jobes, K. H., and M. Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint (Grand Rapids MI: Baker Academic, 2000).

Lust, Johan, Erik Eynikel, and Katrin Hauspie, Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint (Rev. ed.; Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2003).

Muraoka, T., A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint. Twelve Prophets (Louvain: Peeters, 1993).

Muraoka, T., Hebrew/Aramaic Index to the Septuagint: Keyed to the Hatch-Redpath Concordance (Grand Rapids, MI.: Baker Books, 1998).

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Comparative Semitics

Bennett, P. R., Comparative Semitic Linguistics: A Manual (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1998).

Daniels, Peter T., Introduction to the Semitic Languages: Text Specimens and Grammatical Sketches (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983).

Garr, W. R., A Dialect-Geography of Syria-Palestine, 1000 to 586 B.C.E. (Philadelphia, PA.: University of Pennsylvania, 1985).

Hoftijzer, J., and K. Jongeling, Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. Vols. 1-2 (Leiden: Brill, 1995).

Huehnergard, J., "Semitic Languages," in Jack M. Sasson, ed.,Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Vol. 4 (New York: Scribners, 1995), pp. 2117-2134.

Lipinski, E., Semitic Languages: Outline of a Semitic Grammar (Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters en Departement Oosterse Studies, 1997).

Milatarev, A., Semitic Etymological Dictionary (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2000-).

Moscati, S. et al., An Introduction to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages: Phonology and Morphology (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1964).

Sivan, Daniel, Grammatical Analysis and Glossary of the Northwest Semitic Vocables in Akkadian texts of the 15th-13th BCE. from Canaan and Syria (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1984).

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Ugaritic Texts, Dictionaries, and Grammars

Aistleitner, J., Wörterbuch der ugaritischen Sprache (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1974).

Aistleitner, J., Untersuchungen zur Grammatik des Ugaritischen (Berichte Ÿber die Verhandlungen der sŠschsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Phil.-hist. Kl. 106/3; Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1954.

Cunchillos, Jesus-Luis, Banco de Datos Filologicos Semiticos Noroccidentales (Madrid : Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient’ficas, 1995-).

Cunchillos, Jesus-Luis, Manual de Estudios Ugariticos (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1992).

Dietrich, M., O. Loretz and J. Sanmartín, Die keilalphabetischen Texte aus Ugarit: Einschliesslich der keilalphabetischen Texte ausserhalb Ugarits. Teil 1 (AOAT 24/1; Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker; Neukichen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1976) = KTU.

Dietrich, M., O. Loretz and J. Sanmartín, The Cuneiform Alphabetic Texts from Ugarit, Ras Ibn Hani and Other Places: (KTU: second, enlarged edition) (ALASP 8; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1995) = CAT.

Dietrich, M., and O. Loretz, Word-List of the Cuneiform Alphabetic Texts from Ugarit, Ras Ibn Hani and Other Places: (KTU: second, enlarged edition) (ALASP 1; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1996).

Gordon, C. H., Ugaritic Textbook (AnOr 38; Rome: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1965; reeditio photomechanica, 1967; fourth ed., 1999) = UT.

Olmo Lete, G. del, and J. Sanmartín, Diccionario de la Lengua Ugarítica. Vol. 1-2 (Aula Orientalis Supplementa 7-8; Sabadell: Editorial AUSA, 1996-2000).

Olmo Lete, G. del, and J. Sanmartín, A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition. Vols. 1-2 (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2003).

Segert, S., A Basic Grammar of the Ugaritic Language with Selected Texts and Glossary (Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California, 1998).

Sivan, Daniel, A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language (HdO 1/28; Leiden: Brill, 1997).

Smith, Mark S., Ugaritic Narrative Poetry (Atlanta, GA.: Scholars Press, 1997).

Smith, Mark S., and Simon B. Parker, A Bibliography of Ugaritic Grammar and Biblical Hebrew Grammar in the Twentieth Century, downloadable in various formats.

Tropper, J., Ugaritisch. Kurzgefasste Grammatik mit Übungstexten und Glossar (Elementa Linguarum Orientis 1; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2002).

Tropper, J., Ugaritische Grammatik (AOAT 273; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2000).

Watson, Wilfred, G. E., and N. Wyatt, Handbook of Ugaritic Studies (Boston: Brill, 1999).

Watson, Wilfred, G. E., B. Spuler, and H. Altenmüller, Handbuch der Orienalistik (Leiden: Brill, 1999).

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Phoenician Dictionaries and Grammars

Krahmalkov, C. R., A Phoenician-Punic Grammar (Leiden: Brill, 2001).

Krahmalkov, C. R., Phoenician-Punic Dictionary (OLA 90; Leuven: Peeters, 2000).

Segert, S., A Grammar of Phoenician and Punic (München: Beck, 1976).

Tomback, R. S., A Comparative Semitic Lexicon of the Phoenician and Punic Languages (SBLDS 32; Missoula, Montana: Scholars, 1978).

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Aramaic Dictionaries and Grammars

Jastrow, Marcus, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature (New York: Pardes, 1950).

Fassberg, A Grammar of the Palestinian Targum Fragments from the Cairo Genizah (Atlanta, GA.: Scholars Press, 1990).

Johns, Alger, A Short Grammar of Biblical Aramaic (Berrien Springs, MI.: Andrews University Press 1972).

Muraoka, T., and B. Porten, A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic (Leiden: Brill, 1998).

Qimron, E., Diqduq ha-Aramit ha-Mikra'it (Be'er-Sheva`: Universitat Ben-Guryon ba-Negev, 1990).

Rosenthal, F., A Grammar of Biblical Aramaic (Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1995).

Sabar, Yona, A Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dictionary: Dialects of Amidya, Dihok, Nerwa and Zakho, Northwestern Iraq (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2002).

Segert, S., Altaramäische Grammatik: mit Bibliographie, Chrestomathie und Glossar (Leipzig: Verlag Enzyklopädie, VEB, 1975).

Sokoloff, Michael, A Dictionary of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic of the Talmudic and Geonic Periods (Baltimore, MD.; Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002).

Sokoloff, Michael, A Dictionary of Jewish Palestinian Aramaic of the Byzantine Period (Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University Press, 1990).

Sokoloff, Michael, A Dictionary of Judean Aramaic (Ramat-Gan: Bar Ilan University Press, 2003).

Sokoloff, Michael, A Syriac Lexicon: A Translation from the Latin, Correction, Expansion, and Update of C. Brockelmann's Lexicon Syriacum (Winona Lake, IN./Piscataway, NJ.: Eisenbrauns/Gorgias Press, 2009).

Smith, J. Payne, A Compendious Syriac Dictionary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1903).

Stevenson, William, Grammar of Palestinian Jewish Aramaic (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962).

Tal, A., Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic (Leiden: Brill, 2000).

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Akkadian Dictionaries, Grammars, and Sign Lists

Black, Jeremy, A. George, and N. Postgate, A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian (SANTAG, 5; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 1999). = CDA.

Borger, R., Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon (Alter Orient und Altes Testament, 305; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2004).

Gelb, I., et al, eds., The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (Chicago, IL: Oriental Institute, 1956-). = CAD.

Huehnergard, John, A Grammar of Akkadian (Atlanta, GA.: Scholars Press, 1996).

Labat, R., Manuel d'épigraphie akkadienne (Paris: Librarie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner).

Soden, Wolfram von, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch. Vols. 1-3 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965-1981).

Soden, Wolfram von, Grundriss der akkadischen Grammatik (Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1952).

Ungnad, A., and Lubor Matous, Akkadian Grammar. Trans. Harry A. Hoffner, Jr. (Atlanta, GA.: Scholars Press, 1992).

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Egyptian Dictionaries, Grammars, and Resources

Ahituv, Shmuel, Canaanite Toponyms in Ancient Egyptian Documents (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University, 1984).

Albright, W. F., The Vocalization of the Egyptian Syllabic Orthography (American Oriental Series 6; New Haven: American Oriental Society, 1934).

Allen, James, P., Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

Erman, Adolf, and Hermann Grapow, Wörterbuch der Aegyptischen Sprache. Vols. 1-7 (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1982).

Faulkner, Raymond O., A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum, 1988).

Gardiner, Sir Alan, Egyptian Grammar (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1957).

Hannig, Rainer, Die Sprache der Pharaonen. Grosses Handwörterbuch Deutsch-Ägyptisch (Kulturgeschichte der antiken Welt, 64; Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 1997).

Hannig, Rainer, Die Sprache der Pharaonen. Grosses Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch-Deutsch (2800-950 v. Chr.) (Kulturgeschichte der antiken Welt, 86; Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 2000).

Hannig, Rainer, and Petra Vomberg, Kulturhandbuch Ägyptens. Wortschatz der Pharaonen in Sachgruppen (Kulturgeschichte der antiken Welt, 72; Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 1999).

Hoch, J. E., Semitic Words in Egyptian Texts of the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period (Princeton: Princeton University, 1994).

Junge, Friedrich, Late Egyptian Grammar: An Introduction. Trans. David Warburton (Oxford: Griffith Institute, 2001).

Muchiki, Yoshtyuki, Egyptian Proper Names and Loan Words in Northwest Semitic (SBL Dissertation Series, 1973; Atlanta, GA.: Society of Biblical Literature, 1999).

Sivan, D., and Z. Cochavi-Rainey, West Semitic Vocabulary in Egyptian Script in the 14th to the 10th Centuries BCE (Studies by the Department of Bible and Ancient Near East VI; Beer-Sheva: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 1992).

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Arabic Dictionaries and Grammars

Cowan, J. M., Arabic-English Dictionary: The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Written Arabic (Ithaca, NY.: Spoken Language Services, 1976).

Lane, E., and S. Lane-Poole, Arabic-English Lexicon (New York: F. Ungar Publishing, 1955-1956).

Wright, William, A Grammar of the Arabic Language (London: Cambridge U.P., 1967).

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South Semitic Dictionaries and Grammars

Beeston, A. F. L., et al., Sabaic Dictionary (Louvain-la-Neuve: Editions Peeters, 1982).

Beeston, A. F. L., Sabaic Grammar (Journal of Semitic Studies, 6; Lancaster: University of Manchester, 1984).

Biella, Joan Copeland, Dictionary of Old South Arabic (Harvard Semitic Museum Studies, 25; Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982).

Lambdin, Thomas O., Introduction to Classical Ethiopic (Ge`ez) (Harvard Semitic Studies, 24; Ann Arbor, MI.: Edwards Brothers, 1978).

Leslau, Wolf, Comparative Dictionary of Ge`ez (Classical Ethiopic): Ge`ez-English, English-Ge`ez, with an Index of the Semitic Roots) (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1987).

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