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CLUE

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Philosophy 120A
Autumn 2007

Introduction to Logic

Syllabus

Professor: S. Marc Cohen
Office: Condon 608
Office Hours: M and W 3:30 – 4:20 pm
e-mail:

Phone: 543-6895

Class Meeting Times and Location:
MWF 10:30 – 11:20, Gowen 301

Text

Required: Language, Proof and Logic, by Barwise and Etchemendy (CSLI Publications, 2002). Referred to hereafter as LPL.

LPL consists of a textbook, a CD containing software, and a software manual. The CD contains both Windows and Macintosh versions of four computer programs: Tarski’s World, Boole, Fitch and Submit.

Each copy of the textbook-software package comes with a non-transferable license that will permit its owner (you) to use the resources of the LPL web site, including the Grade Grinder. Using the Grade Grinder is a required part of this course, which means that you must hold a valid license to use the site.

It is extremely likely that the license associated with a used copy of LPL will have already been registered by the book's former owner and therefore will no longer be valid for your use. Therefore your only way to guarantee that you have a valid license to use the Grade Grinder is to purchase a new copy of LPL.

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Grading Policy

Grades will be based on the total number of points achieved out of a possible 600. Points will be awarded as follows:

Exams 300 points
Homework assignments 300 points

Most homework assignments are to be carried out using one or another of the computer programs Boole, Fitch, or Tarski’s World, and submitted electronically with the Submit program for grading. Some are to be done on paper and submitted in sections.

The chart below indicates the minimum grade that will be assigned for the corresponding number of points. Grade assignments will be raised, if necessary, to insure a median grade of not less than 2.7

Point total Grade

560

4.0

500

3.0

440

2.0

380

1.0

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Exams

There will be two examinations during the quarter.

  • Midterm: Friday, October 26.
  • Final: Monday, December 10, 8:30 – 10:20 am.

The midterm will be worth 100 points; the final will be worth 200 points.

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Problem Sets

There will be 20 problem sets during the quarter, due each Tuesday and Thursday. They will be worth a total of 300 points. For more detail, see Assignments. For a complete list of assignments, see Assignment Schedule.

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Lecture Schedule

Topics for each of the MWF lectures are listed below, along with the corresponding reading assignments in Language, Proof and Logic (LPL), listed by section numbers. In addition to the readings in LPL, you should read the relevant sections of the Software Manual, as needed. Look at chapters 2 and 3 immediately, along with the assignment for September 27. Look at chapter 4 by October 1, and chapter 5 by October 8. You will very likely want to use these chapters for subsequent reference. The Supplement for class on December 7 can be downloaded from the Lecture Notes web page.

Date
Topics Covered
Reading
September 26 Using the software: how to submit homework files. Individual constants; predicate symbols; atomic sentences. Introduction, pp. 1–10; §1.1 – §1.3
September 28 General first-order languages; valid and sound arguments; methods of proof. §1.4, §2.1, §2.2
October 1 Formal proofs; constructing proofs in Fitch; demonstrating nonconsequence. §2.3 – §2.5
October 3 Negation symbol ; conjunction symbol ∧; disjunction symbol ∨; remarks about the game. §3.1 – §3.4
October 5 Ambiguity and parentheses; equivalent ways of saying things; translation. §3.5 – §3.7
October 8 Tautologies and logical truth; logical and tautological equivalence; logical and tautological consequence. §4.1 – §4.3
October 10 Tautological consequence in Fitch; valid inference steps; proof by cases. §4.4,  §5.1, §5.2
October 12 Indirect proof (proof by contradiction); arguments with inconsistent premises; conjunction rules. §5.3,  §5.4, §6.1
October 15 Disjunction rules; negation rules. §6.2, §6.3
October 17 The proper use of subproofs; strategy and tactics; proofs without premises. §6.4 – §6.6
October 19 Material conditional symbol →; biconditional symbol ↔; conversational implicature. §7.1 – §7.3
October 22 Informal methods of proof; formal rules of proof for → and ↔. §8.1, §8.2
October 24 Soundness and completeness; valid arguments: some review exercises. §8.3, §8.4
October 26 MIDTERM EXAM
October 29 Variables and atomic wffs; the quantifier symbols ∀ and ∃; wffs and sentences. §9.1 – §9.3
October 31 Semantics for the quantifiers; the four Aristotelian forms. §9.4, §9.5
November 2 Translating complex noun phrases; tautologies and quantification. §9.6, §10.1
November 5 First-order validity and consequence; first-order equivalence and DeMorgan’s laws. §10.2, §10.3
November 7 Other quantifier equivalences; multiple uses of a single quantifier. §10.4,  §11.1
November 9 Mixed quantifiers; the step-by-step method of translation; paraphrasing English. §11.2 – §11.4
November 12 HOLIDAY  
November 14 Ambiguity and context sensitivity; prenex form. §11.5, §11.7
November 16 Prenex form (continued); some extra translation problems. §11.8
November 19 Valid quantifier steps; the method of existential instantiation; the method of general conditional proof. §12.1 – §12.3
November 21 Proofs involving mixed quantifiers; universal quantifier rules. §12.4, §13.1
November 23 THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY  
November 26 Existential quantifier rules; strategy and tactics. §13.2 – §13.3
November 28 Soundness and completeness; review exercises: practice with proofs. §13.4 – §13.5
November 30 Numerical quantification. §14.1
December 3 Proving numerical claims. §14.2
December 5 The: Russell’s theory of definite descriptions. §14.3
December 7 Properties of relations; infinite domains. Supplement, §15.5
December 10 FINAL EXAM: 8:30 - 10:20 am

To print a copy of just the above class schedule (without the rest of the syllabus), go to Class Schedule.

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Computer Notes

  • To take this course, you will need access to a computer (either a PC or a Mac) and to an Internet connection.
  • You are advised to load the programs and exercises onto your hard drive, rather than running them from the CD.
  • When you do homework problems, you will typically load an exercise file from the “LPL Software” folder, then modify or add to it, and finally save the result. In doing this, it is important to save the modified file to a different folder, both to make it easier to submit the results when necessary and to preserve the original file unaltered in case you make a mistake and need to try again.
  • Spend some time exploring and experimenting with the computer programs. They contain various short-cuts and alternative ways of doing things that you may find helpful. Pay attention especially to the keyboard shortcuts in Tarski’s World and Fitch, which often seem to work faster than the pull-down menu alternatives.
  • If you experience any problems with the programs or with submitting files to the Grade Grinder, there are a couple of things you can do. First, consult the FAQ page at the LPL web site. If that doesn’t solve your problem, contact the Help Desk at LPL. There are two ways to do that: you can fill out a bug report at
    http://ggww2.stanford.edu/GUS/lpl/bugreport.jsp
    or send an email directly to LPLbugs@csli.stanford.edu.

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Discussion List

As a student in PHIL 120 you have been made a subscriber, under your UW e-mail address, to the discussion list for this class. (If you do not have a UW e-mail address, you must get one so that you can be subscribed to the list.) Messages addressed to

logic@u.washington.edu

will be sent to the entire class (including the instructor). Private mail to Professor Cohen should be sent to

Remember, mail to logic@u will go to everyone in the class, so use it judiciously. If your question or comment is less than urgent, or not likely to be of general interest, please consider using GoPost (see next section).

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GoPost

In addition to the class discussion list (logic@u), I’ve set up a GoPost message board for this class. The board is called “PHIL 120: Introduction to Logic” and it is restricted to members of this class. In order to access it, you must log on using your UW Net ID.

The URL for the message board is:
https://catalysttools.washington.edu/gopost/board/smcohen/1897/
Instructions on how to use GoPost can be found at:
http://catalyst.washington.edu/help/gopost/index.html

The main difference between the GoPost and the Discussion List is that the former is active and the latter is passive. That is, you must log on to the GoPost discussion area to particpate; it does not invade your email inbox. Messages to logic@u, on the other hand, automatically go to everyone in the class. Please use your own judgment in deciding which forum to use.

I would suggest limiting your messages to logic@u to matters of some urgency that should be brought to everyone’s attention. If you have a non-urgent question, wish to start a discussion, or want to find out what’s being talked about by other members of the class, try using GoPost.

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CLUE

There will be a free optional weekly discussion session for this class sponsored by the Center for Learning and Undergraduate Enhancement (CLUE). It will be held on Tuesday evenings from 6:30 to 8:00 pm in MGH 228. The sessions will be conducted by Joe Ricci, graduate student in Philosophy.

For more information about CLUE, see
http://depts.washington.edu/clue/index.php.

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LPL Web Site

The LPL team maintains a web site that is devoted to our text and software. I would recommend that you check out this site and bookmark it for future reference.

In fact, there are two web sites. The newer one is:
http://ggww2.stanford.edu/GUS/lpl/

If you have any difficulty accessing this site, try the old site at:
http://www-csli.stanford.edu/LPL/

Of particular interest to students in this class will be the Student Resources section, which includes hints on selected exercises in LPL. If you experience any problems with the programs or with submitting files to the Grade Grinder, contact the Help Desk at LPL. There are two ways to do that: you can fill out a bug report at
http://ggww2.stanford.edu/GUS/lpl/bugreport.jsp
or send an email directly to LPLbugs@csli.stanford.edu.

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Classroom Courtesy

The ringing of a cell phone in class is certain to be disruptive and annoying to your fellow students (and to the instructor). You are therefore earnestly requested to turn off, before class begins, all cell phones, beepers, and the alarms on any watches, PDA's, or other electronic devices you may be carrying. Thanks for your cooperation.

If your quiz section is held in a computer lab, you will have a live internet connection. This may tempt you to read email, surf the web, etc. during class. You are urged and requested to resist this temptation. Apart from being rude to your instructor, such behavior is detrimental to your learning — which is, after all, the reason you are in class in the first place.

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Students with Disabilities

If you would like to request academic accommodations due to a disability, please contact Disabled Student Services, 448 Schmitz, (206) 543-8924 (V/TTY). If you have a letter from Disabled Student Services indicating you have a disability that requires academic accommodations, please present the letter to me so we can discuss the accommodations you might need for the class.

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