Patricia Ann Kramer, PEng PhD
Peer-Reviewed Publications:

Sylvester AD, Mahfouz MR, Kramer PA. (2011) The effective mechanical advantage of the A.L. 129-1a for knee extension. Anat. Rec. epub 1 August 2011.

Kramer PA, Sylvester AD. (2011) The energetic cost of walking: a comparison of predictive methods. PLoS One. Epub 22 June 2011

Duncan AE, Colman RJ, Kramer PA. (2011) A longitudinal study of radiographic spinal osteoarthritis in a macaque model. Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 29:1152-60.

Benirschke, SK, Kramer PA. (2011) High energy acute Lisfranc fractures and dislocations. Techniques in Foot and Ankle Surgery. 9:82-91.

Been E, Barash A, Marom A, Aizenberg I, Kramer PA (2010) A new model for calculating the lumbar lordosis angle in early homnids and in the spine of the Neanderthal from Kebara, Anatomical Record. 7:1140-1145

Dahl MC, Kramer PA, Reinhall PG, Benirschke SK, Hansen ST, Ching RP (2010) The efficacy of using vibrometry to detect osteointegration of the Agility total ankle. J Biomechanics. 43:1840-1843

Kramer PA (2010) The effect on energy expenditure of walking on gradients or carrying burdens. J Human Biology. 22:497-507.

Kramer PA and Sylvester AD (2009) Bipedal form and locomotor function: Understanding the affects of size and shape on velocity and energetics. PaleoAnthropology, 238-251.

Been E, Barash A, Marom A, and Kramer PA (2009) The acquisition of upright posture: the role of the vertebral bodies and the intervertebral disks in the evolution of the lumbar lordosis. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research.

Summers H, Kramer PA and Benirschke SK (2009) Pediatric Calcaneal Fractures. Orthopedic Reviews, 1:30-33.

Summers H, Kramer PA and Benirschke SK (2008) Percutaneous Stabilization of Traumatic Peroneal Tendon Dislocation. Foot and Ankle International, 29:1229-1231.

Sylvester AD, Kramer PA and Jungers WL. (2008) Modern humans are not (quite) isometric. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 137:371-383.

Nuckley DJ, Kramer PA, Del Rosario A, Fabro N and Ching RP. (2008) Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in a naturally occurring primate model: radiographic and biomechanical evidence. Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 26:1283-8.

Sylvester AD and Kramer PA. (2008) Stand and Shuffle: When does it make energetic sense? American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 135:484-8.

Kramer PA and Sarton-Miller I. (2008) The energetics of human walking: is Froude Number (Fr) useful for metabolic comparisons? Gait and Posture. 27:209-215.

Gardner MJ, Nork SE, Barei D, Sangeorzan BJ, Kramer PA and Benirschke SK (2008) Secondary soft tissue compromise in tongue-type calcaneus fractures. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. 22:439-45.

Kramer PA, Simkin PA, Newell-Morris LL and Wener MH. (2007) Markers of matrix metabolism differ between the sera of macaque and squirrel monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology. 36:143-147.

Benirschke SK and Kramer PA. (2007) Chapter 19 Malleolar Fractures. In Core Knowledge in Orthopaedics: Foot and Ankle, DiGiovanni C and Greigsburg J, (eds.) Elsevier Co., New York.

Kramer PA. (2006) Prevalence and distribution of spinal osteoarthritis in women. Spine. 31:2843-2848.

Sylvester AD, Christensen AM and Kramer PA. (2006) Factors influencing osteological changes in the hands and fingers of rock climbers. Journal of Anatomy. 209:597-609.

Benirschke SK and Kramer PA (2004) Wound healing complications in closed and open calcaneal fractures. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. 18(1):1-6.

Kramer PA (2003) The Behavioral Ecology of Locomotion. In From Biped to Strider: The Emergence of Modern Human Walking, Running, and Resource Transport, J. Meldrum and C. E. Hilton, (eds). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, p 99-115.

Kramer PA, Newell-Morris LL and Simkin PA (2002) Spinal Degenerative Disk Disease (DDD) in Female Macaque Monkeys: Epidemiology and comparison with women. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 20:1-10.

Kramer PA and Eck GG (2000) Locomotor Energetics and Leg Length in Hominid Bipedality. Journal of Human Evolution, 38:651-666.

Kramer PA (1999) Modeling the Locomotor Energetics of Extinct Hominids. Journal of Experimental Biology, 202:2807-2818.

Benirschke SK and Kramer PA (1999) Fractures of the Os Calcis. Medscape General Medicine, December 23, 1999. Available at:

Kramer PA (1998) The Costs of Human Locomotion: Maternal Investment in Child Transport. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 107:71-86.

Forthcoming publications:

Duncan AE, Colman RJ, Kramer PA. Sex Differences in Spinal Osteoarthritis in Humans and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Spine

Been E, Gómez-Olivencia A, Kramer PA. Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins. American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

Working papers

These papers are reports of research that is ongoing and details are available by contacting Patricia Kramer.

Kramer PA, Newell-Morris LL, Simkin PA, Mattison JA, Lane MA, and Ingram DA. Osteological status of calorically restricted (CR) and control rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): cross-sectional analysis of osteoarthritis, osteophytosis and joint space narrowing.