History 490 B/C, Winter 2007
Biology, Society, and Human Diversity

Extra sources & items of interest

Pre-Darwinian biology
Aristotle, Galen
Thomas Laqueur, "Destiny is Anatomy" (pdf) about the one-sex model in antiquity.
Aristotle, Generation of Animals excerpts (pdf 280kb)
"mutilated male" passage (pdf)
Galen, On the Usefulness of the Parts excerpt (pdf 970kb)
Maryanne Cline Horowitz, "Aristotle and Woman" (pdf 640kb) argues for Aristotle's sexism influencing his philosophy.
Daryl McGowan Tress, "The Metaphysical Science of Aristotle's Generation of Animals and Its Feminist Critics" (pdf 480kb) argues a more nuanced and contextual view of A's theory of reproduction, refuting the feminist critique.
Sophia Connell, "Aristotle and Galen on Sex Difference and Reproduction" (pdf 130kb)

19th Century
G. Blair Nelson, "Men Before Adam: American Debates over the Unity and Antiquity of Humanity" (pdf)
Anne Fausto-Sterling, "Gender, Race, and Nation: The Comparative Anatomy of 'Hottentot' Women in Europe, 1815-1817" (pdf 300kb)
Nancy Leys Stepan,"Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science" (pdf 270kb)
Alice Dreger, "Doubtful Sex" (pdf 400kb)
Not a historical site, but useful FAQ about intersex conditions at the Intersex Society of North America (http://www.isna.org/)
Nancy Tuana, "The Hysteria of Woman" (pdf)

"The History of Phrenology on the Web" (http://pages.britishlibrary.net/phrenology/)
"A History of Evolutionary Thought" (http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/evothought.html)
"Charles Darwin," Victorian Web (http://www.victorianweb.org/science/darwin/darwinov.html)
William Coleman, "Transformation" (pdf, history of evolution)
Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species (pdf excerpts)
Book of Genesis (http://www.genesis.net.au/~bible/kjv/genesis/)

Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement (http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/eugenics/)
"Against Their Will: North Carolina's Sterilization Movement" (http://againsttheirwill.journalnow.com/)
"Eugenics in California" (http://www.csus.edu/cshpe/eugenics/)
"Davis's Apology Sheds No Light on Sterilizations in California" (http://hnn.us/comments/9561.html)
Stephen Jay Gould, "Carrie Buck's Daughter" (weblink)
The Black Stork (http://www.npr.org/programs/disability/ba_shows.dir/children.dir/children.html)
Beyond Affliction: The Disability History Project (http://www.npr.org/programs/disability/index.html)
Nazi Persecution of the Disabled (http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/disabilities_02/)

Primary sources:
Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race (pdf)
Carl Brigham, A Study of American Intelligence (pdf)
Karl Pearson, National Life from the Standpoint of Science (pdf)
Charles Davenport, "Inheritance of Physical and Mental Traits" (pdf)

Wendy Kline, "Motherhood, Morality, and the Moron" (pdf)
Diane Paul, "What Is Eugenics? Why Does It Matter" (pdf)
Review of Henry Friedlander's Origins of Nazi Genocide (pdf)
Daniel Kevles, "Francis Galton, Founder of the Faith" (pdf)
Peter Bowler, "The Social Implications of Darwinism" (pdf)
Garland Allen, "Genetics, Eugenics, and the Medicalization of Social Behavior" (pdf)
Alexandra Stern, "Sterilized in the Name of Public Health: Race, Immigration, and Reproductive Control in California" (pdf)
Philip Reilly, "Involuntary Sterilization Today" (pdf)
Nancy Ordover, "Delineating Deviance" (pdf about homosexuality and eugenics)

"Mendelism" and "Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance" from Biology 310 Genetics course page (link)
"Journey into DNA" (NOVA Cracking the Code of Life, website animations)
"Understanding Genetics" (Stanford University site)
DNA: The Secret of Life (PBS website)
"The DNA Story" (link to video clips of Watson & Crick)

Peter Bowler, The Mendelian Revolution (pdf 530kb)
Ruth Hubbard and Elijah Wald, "A Brief Look at Genetics" (pdf)

Animations of genetics concepts:
http://www.maxanim.com/genetics/index.htm (link)
http://www.mhhe.com/socscience/anthropology/stein2003/stein.html (link)
http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/biology/biology.html (link)

Look up your favorite trait! Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man homepage (National Center for Biotechnology Information)
Human Genome Project website
National Human Genome Research Institute website (NIH)
Genome Programs of the Dept of Energy website
Your Genes Your Health homepage (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Genetic Disorder Information on the Web (HGP)
Gene Tests NIH (http://genetests.org/)

Genetics watchdog and advocacy groups:
Genetic Alliance (consumers & parents who advocate for more genetic disease research) (http://www.geneticalliance.org/)
Center for Genetics and Society (http://www.genetics-and-society.org/)
Human Genetics Alert (http://www.hgalert.org/)
Council for Responsible Genetics (http://gene-watch.org/) ("Do Genes Determine if We are Gay or Straight?")

Genomics, HGP, genetic testing, gene therapy:
Robert Proctor, "Genomics and Eugenics: How Fair is the Comparison?" (pdf)
Daniel Kevles, "Out of Eugenics: The Historical Politics of the Human Genome" (pdf)
Philip Kitcher, "Research in an Imperfect World" (pdf)

"Genetic Testing" (Burlington Northern case, PBS NewsHour, June 2001)
"Labs turn DNA into personal health forecasts" (Washington Post, Apr 7, 2005)
"FDA seeks to regulate new kinds of diagnostic tests" (NY Times, Sept 6, 2006)
"Quest for the $1000 human genome" (NY Times, July 18, 2006)
Jesse Gelsinger death during gene therapy experiment (Washington Post, 2000)

Science in the media
David Kirby, "The New Eugenics in Cinema: Genetic Determinism and Gene Therapy in Gattaca" (html, http://www.depauw.edu/sfs/essays/gattaca.htm)
Kathleen Ellis, "Reinforcing the Stigma: The Representation of Disability in Gattaca" (html)
Anne Finger, "Invalids, de-generates, high-tech zombies, and old-fashioned Hollywood cripples," (html, review of Gattaca in RaggedEdge)

John Pickrell, "Are reports of gene X for disease Y always correct?" (http://genome.wellcome.ac.uk/doc_wtd020836.html)

History of Race in Science (http://www.racesci.org/), with media links

articles about flaws in science reporting, The Scientist, Sept 22, 2003 (pdf)
EurekAlert! http://www.eurekalert.org/ (website with daily brief science journal reports)
Science Daily http://www.sciencedaily.com/
Science News at Biotechnology Industry Organization website http://science.bio.org/
BBC News science page http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/default.stm

Disability & pre-natal genetic testing issues
"Jack or Jill? The Era of Consumer-Driven Eugenics Has Begun" (Atlantic Monthly, March 2002)
Ruth Hubbard, "Yuppie Eugenics: Creating a World with Genetic Have and Have-nots"
"Stupidity Should be Cured, Says DNA Discoverer" (New Scientist, Feb 2003)

"Wanting babies like themselves, some parents choose genetic defects" (NY Times, Dec 5) (blog responses)
"Using genetic tests, Ashkenazi Jews vanquish a disease" (NY Times, Feb 18, 2003)

Tom Shakespeare, "Choices and Rights: Eugenics, Genetics, and Disability Equality" (pdf)
Cynthia Powell, "Current State of Prenatal Genetic Testing" (pdf)
Abby Lippman, "Genetic Construction of Prenatal Testing" (pdf)
Adrienne Asch, "Prenatal Diagnosis and Selective Abortion" (pdf)
Deborah Kaplan, "Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis: Impact on Persons with Disabilities" (pdf)
Ruth Chadwick, "Can Genetic Counselling Avoid the Charge of Eugenics?" (pdf)
Diane Paul, "Eugenic Anxieties, Social Realities, and Political Choices" (pdf)
Rayna Rapp, "Refusing Prenatal Diagnosis: The Meanings of Bioscience in a Multicultural World" (pdf)
Bill Albert, "Curing What? Curing Whom?" (pdf)
Harriet McBride Johnson, "Unspeakable Conversations [with Peter Singer]" (pdf)

Carol Padden, "Talking Culture: Deaf People and Disability Studies" (Word doc, on deaf history & culture vs "disabled")
"Couple 'Choose' to Have Deaf Baby," BBC, April 8, 2002.
Julian Savulescu, "Deaf Lesbians, 'Designer Disability', and the Future of Medicine," BMJ Oct 5, 2002.
"A World of Their Own," Washington Post, March 31, 2002.

Race and genetics
The Bell Curve debate:
Bell Curve table of contents (Word)
Pioneer Fund (http://www.pioneerfund.org/index.html)
Bradley Foundation: neoconservative funders of Charles Murray (website) (on welfare reform)
Southern Poverty Law Center synopsis of mainstream right-wing funding organizations, some of which support The Bell Curve people.
"The Right's Race Desk [American Enterprise Institute]" (http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1449)
"Racism resurgent: how the media let the Bell Curve's pseudo-science set the agenda on race" (http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1271)
Jack Fischel, "Strange bell fellows" (pdf)
Anna Dagg, "Bypassing academic standards--race" (pdf)
"The Bell Curve: Roadmap to the ideal society" (Media Transparency, Jan 1, 1997)
Institute for the Study of Academic Racism run by Barry Mehler (website)
Mehler, "Foundation for fascism" (pdf)
Nicholas Lemann, "The Bell Curve Flattened" (Slate.com, Jan 18, 1997)

Rushton, "Darwin's really dangerous idea--the primacy of variation" (pdf for some of his science)
J. Phillipe Rushton (website) (Charles Darwin Research Institute)
Richard Lynne (website)
Mankind Quarterly (journal funded by Pioneer) (http://www.mankindquarterly.org/)
Roger Pearson, "Concept of heredity in western thought" (on David Duke website) (Pearson runs the Institute for the Study of Man, funded by Pioneer)
Hans Eysenck, "Science, Racism, and Sexism" (pdf)
Charles Murray, "Intelligence in the classroom" (OpinionJournal, Jan 16, 2007)

Richard Lewontin, "Analysis of variance and analysis of causes" (pdf classic 1974 paper refuting idea of genetic racial differences)
Lewontin, "Confusions about human races" (html)
Steven Rose, "Heritability estimates--long past their sell-by date" (pdf)
Steven Rose, et al, Not in Our Genes (pdf)
Richard Lewontin, "Irrelevance of Heritability" (pdf)
Jerry Coyne, "Not an inkling" (Apr 27, 2000 review of evolutionary psychology book on intelligence)

"Genographic Society is seeking a genealogy of humankind" (NY Times, Apr 13, 2005)
National Geographic Society's Genographic Project (website) (How to participate)
"DNA gatherers hit snag: tribes don't trust them" (NY Times, Dec 10, 2006)
International HapMap Project (http://www.hapmap.org/) (http://www.genome.gov/10001688) (wikipedia)
"Seeking ancestry in DNA ties uncovered by tests" (NY Times, Apr 12, 2006)
ancestry tests/companies: AncestrybyDNA African Ancestry Roots for Real DNAPrint (list of sites and labs) (Wikipedia)
PBS "African American Lives" (website)
"Genome test nets suspected serial killer" (Genome News Network, June 13, 2003)

Race-based drugs:
"Genome in black and white (and gray)" (NY Times, Oct 10, 2004)
"Genetic find stirs debate on race-based medicine" (NY Times, Nov 11, 2005)
"Does Race Exist?" (Scientific American, Dec 2003)
Sally Satel (MD and AEI fellow), "Medicine's Race Problem" (2001 Policy Review, Hoover Institution)
"Shades of doubt and fears of bias in the doctor's office" (Chronicle of Higher Ed, May 25, 2001)
Howard University Human Genome Center (link)

Evolutionary psychology and behavioral genetics
Thornhill and Brownmiller interview, NPR Talk of the Nation (Jan 26, 2000)
"In rape debate, controversy trumps credibility" (Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting, May 2000)
Susan Brownmiller review of Natural History of Rape (http://www.susanbrownmiller.com/html/review-thornhill.html)
"Born to rape?" (Salon, Feb 29, 2000)

"Evolutionary pscyhology" in Wikipedia
"Courage not denial, an interview with David Buss" (Enterstageright, Feb 2004)
"In conversation with David Buss" (The Evolutionist)
David Barash, "Evolution, Males, and Violence" (Chronicle, May 24, 2002)
Barash, "Myth of Monogamy" (pdf)

"Our Genes/Our Choices" (PBS, Fred Friendly Seminars)
Behavioral Genetics, HGP Information (http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/behavior.shtml)
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (alcohol dependence) (MAOA criminal)
Mitchell Cohen, "Is Violence in your genes" (pdf)
"jungle" quotation by Dr Goodwin (Word)

Stephen Jay Gould, "Darwinian Fundamentalism" (NY Review of Books)
"Looking for personality in animals, of all people" (NY Times, Mar 1, 2005, pdf)
Dorothy Nelkin, "Dismantling the welfare state" (pdf)
Eric Parens, "On Why Talking about Behavioral Genetics is Important and Difficult" (pdf 7Bb)
Anne Innis Dagg, "How would inheritance work--aggression" (pdf)
Anne Fausto-Sterling, "Beyond difference: feminism and evolutionary psychology" (pdf)

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science (NSF website)
Math Forum: Girls' Attitudes, Self-Expectations, and Performance in Math: an Annotated Bibliography (website)

Lawrence Summers controversy (Jan 17, 2005 report) (defense) (his response) (Harvard initiative to hire women) (transcript of remarks) (report on transcript) (Slate)
"The Math Myth" (Time Magazine cover story, Mar 7, 2005)
"Gray matter and the sexes: a gray area scientifically" (NY Times, Jan 24, 2005)
"Where the elite teach, it's still a man's world" (html Chronicle of Higher Education, Dec 3, 2004)

"He Thought, She Thought" (NY Times, Dec 10, 2006)
"Women talk three times as much as men, study says" (Daily Mail, Nov 28, 2006)
"The main job of the girl brain" (Language Log, Sep 2, 2006)
"Sex on the brain" (Boston Globe, Sept 24, 2006)
Doreen Kimura (website) (Scientific American, May 13, 2002)
"Steven Pinker: in nature vs nurture, a voice for nature" (NY Times, Sep 17, 2002)

Emily Martin, "Medical Metaphors of Women's Bodies: Menstruation and Menopause" (pdf)
Ruth Bleier, "Sex Differences Research: Science or Belief?" (pdf)
Lynda Birke, "In Pursuit of Difference: Scientific Studies of Women and Men" (pdf)
Nelly Oudshoorn, "The Birth of Sex Hormones" (pdf)
Marianne van den Wijngaard, "The Liberation of the Female Rodent" (pdf)

NPR Hamer vs Hubbard (Talk of the Nation, June 25, 1998)
Dean Hamer, "Linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation" (pdf with questionnaire)
Molecular Genetic Study of Sexual Orientation (http://gaybros.com/) (article about)
"Born gay? how biology may drive orientation" (Seattle Times, June 19, 2005 on gay sheep)
"Of gay sheep, modern science, and bad publicity" (NY Times, Jan 25, 2007)
"Wool and graze: gay sheep revisited" (Slate, Feb 8, 2007)
"The science of sexual orientation" (CBS 60 Minutes, Aug 27, 2006)
Born Different (webpage)

Suzanne Kessler, "Medical Construction of Gender: Case Management of Intersexed Infants" (pdf)
"Being Brenda" (Guardian, May 12, 2004)
"Gender Gap: David Reimer's Suicide" (Slate, June 3, 2004)
"The cutting edge: why some doctors are moving away from perforning surgery on babies of indeterminate gender" (Slate, June 8, 2004)
"What if it's sort of a boy and sort of a girl?" (NY Times, Sep 24, 2006)
Intersex Society of North America (http://www.isna.org/index.php)
Alice Dreger "why not change minds instead of bodies" (homepage)
Send mail to: jwoiak@u.washington.edu
Last modified: 3/07/2007 12:55 PM