Classification Description Notes
Grade 1 Luminal irregularity or a dissection/intramural hematoma with <25% luminal narrowing
Grade 2 Dissection or intramural hematoma ≥25% luminal narrowing
Grade 3 Pseudoaneurysm
Grade 4 Vessel occlusion
Grade 5 Vessel transection


Biffl, W. L., et al. (1999). “Blunt carotid arterial injuries: implications of a new grading scale.” J Trauma 47(5): 845-853.


Arthurs, Z. M. and B. W. Starnes (2008). “Blunt carotid and vertebral artery injuries.” Injury 39(11): 1232-1241.