REFLECTIONS ON THE NEW SYSTEMS STUDY PROJECT
by H. William Merritt (deceased, 1999)
Principal, TechNai International, 12211 Riverview Road,
Fort Washington, Maryland 20744--6014
1993 marks the 25th anniversary of the New Systems Study Project (published in 1968). This project produced a report that was sent by President Lyndon Johnson to the Congress entitled Tomorrow's Transportation : New Systems for the Urban Future. An excerpt from this report is available on-line.
The study popularized such terms as Personal Rapid Transit, Major Automated Activity Centers and Dial-a-Bus. It delineated concepts which have become known as Automated People Movers (APM's) and Automated Guideway Transit (AGT). This paper describes how the study came about, the legislative requirements which initiated it and lists study project participants. Descriptions of some of the concepts which were analyzed are included. The influence the project had on government transit research programs in the United States and other parts of the world are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of some "new systems" developments that originated with or were encouraged by the project.
The author was Director of the New Systems Study Project in the Department of Housing and Urban Development and was the first Associate Administrator for Research in the newly created Urban Mass Transportation Administration of the Department of Transportation.
Until 1965 Federal urban mass transportation functions were vested with the Administrator of the Housing and Home Finance Agency (HHFA). The Department of Housing and Urban Development Act (P.L. 89-174, Sept. 9, 1965) transferred those functions to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The first Secretary of HUD was Robert C. Weaver; the Assistant Secretary for Metropolitan Development who had direct responsibility for urban mass transportation was Charles M. Haar.
In addition to filling a need for a comprehensive and current body of scientific data on urban transportation research, there were two motivations for undertaking New Systems Study Project.
o As a new Federal agency, HUD needed to establish a constituency for its programs with urban officials.
o HUD wanted to retain its urban transportation role in a pending consolidation of transportation programs under the new Department of Transportation.
The first reason for undertaking the New Systems Study Project was related to HUD's mission. Whereas HHFA's role was primarily concerned with financing housing, HUD's role was considerably expanded. Assistant Secretary Haar envisaged HUD as a focal point where mayors could seek help on a wide range of problems affecting metropolitan areas. Such problems were to include not only housing but crime, sewers, waste disposal, water supply, urban planning and development as well as urban transportation. The Model Cities and New Communities Programs were two approaches conceived to help address these problems.
Mr. Haar considered improved urban transportation another important approach to ameliorating some of the difficulties with urban living. He felt that urban transportation was inextricably interwoven with metropolitan development and with the environmental concerns over congestion, noise and air pollution related to excessive automobile use. Urban transportation could influence how cities thrive, the future shape of urban areas and the quality of life for urban residents.
The New Systems Study Project was conceived as a way to make HUD pivotal in all aspects of urban transportation. The study was to address all facets of urban travel--needs of pedestrians as well as air travelers. It was to consider means for improving existing bus, rail, even automobile modes--including both services and equipment. The study was to apply new technology and scientific innovation where applicable not only to hardware but to improved methods for analyzing, planning and operating urban transportation systems. Mr. Haar wanted tangible products from the study--something people could see and relate to--results that would garner interest in and support for HUD and its programs.
The second reason for initiating the New Systems Study Project was associated with proposals to realign all Federal transportation responsibilities. The Department of Transportation Act (P.L.89-670, Oct. 15 1966) established a new executive department at the seat of the government. This Act provided that:
"The Secretary of Transportation and Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall study and report within one year after effective date of this Act to the President and the Congress on the logical and efficient organization and location of urban mass transportation functions in the Executive Branch."
The New Systems Study Project was expected to establish a comprehensive program for national leadership in urban transportation research, development and demonstration. Significant study results would verify HUD's capability to administer meaningful research projects that would complement HUD's other programs to help improve the nation's cities. In so doing it was felt the New Systems Study Project would provide a strong argument for retaining Federal urban transportation programs in HUD. (1)
The Banking and Currency Committees of the House and Senate had cognizance of authorizations for urban transportation programs in HUD. Congressman Henry S. Reuss, Chairman of the House Banking and Currency Committee, was approached by Assistant Secretary Haar in 1966 on his willingness to sponsor legislation that would authorize HUD to undertake the proposed study. Congressman Reuss was not only amenable--he expressed hope that the study would find useful applications of space-age technologies and methods (i.e. systems analysis) to urban transportation problems. Congressman Reuss wished that the same approaches that had made the space program so successful could be utilized in addressing urban travel. (2)
An Act to Amend the Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 (P.L.89-562, Sept. 8, 1966) required the following:
"Subsection 6(b). The Secretary shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, undertake a project to study and prepare a program of research, development and demonstration of new systems of urban transportation that will carry people and goods within metropolitan areas speedily, safely, without polluting the air and in a manner that will contribute to sound city planning. The program shall (1) concern itself with all aspects of new systems of urban transportation for metropolitan areas of various sizes including technological, financial, economic, governmental and social aspects; (2) take into account the most advanced available technologies and materials; and (3) provide national leadership to efforts of States, localities, private industry, universities and foundations. The Secretary shall report his findings and recommendations to the President for submission to the Congress as rapidly as possible and in any event not later than eighteen months after the effective date of this subsection."
In June 1966, HUD sponsored a Summer Study on Science and Urban Development at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. The transportation panel suggested short term technological innovations which could be initiated within five years as well as longer term ideas with a development period of five to 20 years. Short term suggestions were schemes to make better use of busses, taxis and jitneys. Longer term suggestions addressed the possibilities of automation, bimodal vehicles and door-to-door service. The panel's overriding concern was with the interaction between transportation systems and urban design. Mr. Haar had many ideas on how he thought the new systems project might proceed. The summer panel offered some notions on how the study could be structured, possible participants and what concepts might be analyzed. (3)
Mr. Walter G. Hansen, of Alan M.Voorhees and Associates, was retained to initiate the project. Mr. Hansen, with help from Mr. Peter Lewis of the HUD staff designed the study and prepared solicitations calling for responses in four areas:
o Projects were to be described which could demonstrate improved results using existing technologies within a time frame of six months to three years.
o Evolutionary improvements to existing technologies that could be accomplished in three to eight years were to be developed.
o Futuristic technological solutions based on assessments of distant needs and incentives were to be described.
o In-depth studies of available knowledge of demand patterns and the interrelationships of transportation with urban land use and the shape of urban life were to be prepared.
Requests for proposals were issued and HUD was overwhelmed with offers. The volume of material to be read and screened was formidable. Evaluation and selection of study contractors became a challenge. Secretary Weaver brought the matter up at a Cabinet meeting and asked for assistance. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara tendered an evaluation team of two individuals from research agencies in each of the three military services. The evaluation process resulted in 17 contract awards.
Summary of New System Study Contracts
Appendix A presents a summary description of study contracts with names of the contractors' project managers and principal investigators. These 17 contracts involved 11 organizations representing private industry, research institutes, universities, as well as planning, engineering and economic consultants. The study project produced a library totaling 35 volumes of documents.
A project staff of four people managed these 17 contracts, valued at just under $3-million over the 18-month duration of the study. In addition to the Director, H. Wm. Merritt, the team was made up of David M. Glancy, Edmond L. Kanwit and Thomas C. Muranyi. Technical support throughout the study was provided by Donald E. Cleveland, John Nolen Jr. and Frank J. Leary.
New System Concepts
Dr. Leon Cole, with assistance from the Institute for Public Administration developed an RD&D program structure and outlined a set of projects from which a new Federal urban transportation research program could be inaugurated. Dr. Cole identified nearly 250 concepts and study recommendations from within the new system project reports as the basis for his documentation. (4) Though some of the research subjects were original with the New Systems Study Project many had been around for some time. Most of the ideas originated in colleges and universities, industrial research centers, and with private entrepreneurs. A major contribution of the study project was to assemble these ideas into one body of literature and relate them to urban travel problems or types of services to be provided. In many instances the costs and time required to develop and demonstrate these new systems were also documented.
Space does not permit elaboration on all the ideas advanced during the project. These ideas were grouped into four categories:
o Improved planning and operating methods.
o Immediate systems improvements.
o Components for future systems.
o New systems for the future.
This paper is necessarily limited to a discussion of those new system concepts which may be of particular interest to this audience.
Public Automobile Service (PAS), was envisioned as a car rental service for short trips operated as a private enterprise or as an adjunct to public transportation. It would use small, low-performance vehicles designed to carry two adults with parcels or small children, or four adults. PAS cars would complement public transit service by providing service to and from transit terminals, shopping centers, or for local area travel. PAS was not deemed appropriate for service within major activity centers or for long home-to-work commuting trips.
Dial-a-Bus was conceived as a combination of bus economy and taxi-cab flexibility and responsiveness. Patrons would telephone for service, advising their desired departure time, origin and destination. With assistance from tracking devices and computer-aided dispatching, vehicles would be routed to provide the service. Several kinds of service were envisioned: unscheduled door-to-door for single passengers, groups of passengers calling from a Dial-a-Bus call station, many-to-one services between a low-density area and an employment center or a line-haul system, and a fixed-route service with deviations to make special pick-ups.
Automated Dual-Mode Bus (ADMB) would operate as a conventional bus on city streets to pick up and discharge passengers. For line-haul high-speed runs, the bus would be run on a private guideway under full automation. During the collection and distribution phases, the ADMB might operate as a Dial-a-Bus. Early experiments with non-automated versions of Dual-Mode Buses were known as By-Rail and Ryd-a-Rail.
Major Activity Center Systems encompass a number of concepts intended to move people and goods in such places as airports, shopping centers, industrial parks, central business districts and universities. The New Systems Study Project included moving walkways, capsule transit and network cab transit in this category. Subsequently, as development and applications progressed, new terms were found to describe systems serving major activity centers: shuttle-loop transit (SLT), group rapid transit (GRT) and downtown people mover (DPM). All these systems are automated, all operate on exclusive guideways , more sophisticated systems have off-line loading/unloading.
Major variations are in vehicle capacities:
o Moving belts have no cabs, but capsules moving on a belt could carry two passengers.
o Vehicles in the other systems might carry two or up to fifty passengers.
o In SLT, GRT, or DPM systems, vehicles may travel singly or coupled in trains.
Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) was conceived as a system which could carry one person or a group of up to six persons traveling together by choice. Operation would be fully automated to provide an optimum route over a network of guideways from origin to destination without intermediate stops. Stations would be off-line to allow through service. Small, unobtrusive, guideways would form a grid throughout the service area. At the outer reaches of such a grid, where walking access would be too far or where other forms of transit were not available, PRT cars might be dual mode. These vehicles could be manually driven to or from a PRT terminal, as with a PAS car , but would be operated under computer control while on the PRT guideway.
Fast Intraurban Transit Link services were envisioned between:
o Suburban growth centers and central cities.
o Central business districts and distant airports.
o Urban complexes comprising two or more adjacent cities.
o New or renewed satellite communities.
Vehicles would travel at speeds up to 150 mph, under automatic controls, with 50 to 80 seated passengers. They would operate on exclusive guideways which could provide linear induction propulsion and lateral guidance. Levitation could be either air cushion or magnetic suspension. Station spacings would not be closer than four miles.
Drafting the report to Congress began in the fall of 1967. The above concepts along with many other research recommendations, examples of project plans, illustrations and budgets were prepared for publication. The report was designed by an editorial advisory group which included John Deutch, Frederick Gutheim, Gyorgy Kepes, John Meyer and Sumner Meyers. A forwarding letter was cleared with the White House for President Johnson's signature. Arrangements were made for printing by the U.S. Government Printing Office. Publication was completed and the report, Tomorrow's Transportation, New Systems for the Urban Future, was delivered to Congress in May 1968.
Executive Reorganization Order No. 2 "Urban Mass Transportation", was issued effective June 30, 1968. This order transferred most urban mass transportation functions from HUD to DOT. Research, technical studies and university training programs totaling $7.25 million remained with HUD. Administration of the remaining research, technical studies and university training programs ($24.5 million) and all the capital grant programs were shifted to DOT. The new Urban Mass Transportation Administration was established on July 1, 1968.
Effect on Transit Research Programs
In the United States, Federal urban transportation research was influenced by the New Systems Study Project for many years. An "Agenda for the Urban Mass Transportation Administration's Transit Planning and Research Program", published by UMTA in January 1991, stated:
"In 1966, an amendment to the 1964 UMTA Act ...authorized a research program for developing new urban transportation systems. The resulting 1968 report to Congress, Tomorrow's Transportation: New Systems for the Urban Future, brought to public attention such new technology concepts as dial-a-bus, personal rapid transit, dual mode and tracked air-cushioned vehicle systems. Reinforced by the TRANSPO '72 Exposition, the 1968 report set the tone for UMTA's research and development for the next few years. During the 10 years that followed the report's publication, UMTA's attention was focused on developing automated guideway transit technology and advanced vehicle systems (TRANSBUS, new rail vehicle subsystems, State-of-the-Art Cars)."
In Europe there was an acceleration of interest in urban transportation research in the late 1960's and early 1970's. For example:
-- Krauss-Maffe began development of "Transurban", a magnetically suspended (attractive), LIM-powered, APM in 1970. The Ministry of Research and Technology began sharing costs on October 1, 1971.
-- Magnetbahn GmbH commenced development of an "M-Bahn System", an attractive, permanent-magnet, transit system in the early 1970's. German Federal government support began with a letter of intent in 1971.
-- Dial-a-Bus emerged in 1970: MBA conceived "RETAX" and Dornier started work on "RUFBUS". The Ministry of Research and Technology sponsored a computer simulation of these systems from 1974 to 1976.
-- In 1970 plans were initiated for Vehicules Automatiques Legers (VAL) to serve the community of Lille. MATRA became system manager in February 1972.
-- Development of ARAMIS started in 1970 with a one-km test track and three prototype vehicles near Orly Airport. Vehicles were electronically coupled. Tests continued through 1975.
-- Development of POMA 2000 , SK and VEC APM systems began between 1971 and 1972.
Tomorrow's Transportation has been translated into German and French and is generally credited with giving some incentives to these new developments. However, in England development of "Cabtrack" by L.R. Blake of Brush Electrical Company preceded the new systems study. After a trip to the United States, Blake was inspired by pioneering work with staRRcar and Teletrans. (5)
In Japan monorails have been used for public transportation since 1957. Incentives for developing more recent innovations stem directly from the New Systems Study Project. Tomorrow's Transportation has been translated into Japanese. Some Japanese new systems are listed below with the corporations involved in their acquisition or development.
"Demand Bus System": Isuzu Motors Ltd.
-- Automated Dual-Mode Bus
Dual-Mode Bus and Dual-Mode Truck Systems : Public Works Research Institute and Architecture Research Institute, Ministry of Construction, Technology Center for National Land Development, Dual-Mode System Research Association, including: Kobe Steel, Ltd.; Shinko Electric Co.,Ltd.; Nippon Steel Corp.; Fujitsu, Ltd.
-- Major Activity Center Systems
Moving-Way Systems (Capsule Transit) "Beltica"--Toshiba Electric Co.
- Automated People Movers:
. "KCV"--Kawasaki Heavy Industry and Fuji Electric Co.
. "MAT"--Mitsubishi Heavy Industry with Mitsubishi Electric Co. and Mitsubishi Trading Co.
. "MiniMonorail"--Toshiba Electric Co.,Ltd. and Anzen Sakudo
. "NTS"--Niigata Tekko, Sumitomo Electric Co., Toyo Electric Co., Sumitomo Trading Co. (Licensed from LTV)
. "Paratran"--Hitachi and Tokyu Car Corp.
. "KRT"--Kobe Steel, Ltd.,Nissho Iwai Trading Co. (Licensed from Boeing)
. "VONA"--Mitsui & Co. and Nippon Sharyo Seizo Kaisha
. "FAST"--Fuji and Bendix/Dashaveyor
-- Personal Rapid Transit
. "CVS"--Managed by teams from the University of Tokyo and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Sponsored by the Mechanical Social Systems Foundation and supported by Toyo Kogyo, Mitsubishi Jukogyo, Tokyo Shibaura Denki, Hitachi Seisakusho, Fugipsu, Sumitomo Denki Kogyo Nippon Denki and Shin-Nihon Seitetsu.
. "Expo Future Car"--This was a CVS Dual-Mode system demonstrated at the International Ocean Exposition in Okinawa, 1975. Development started in 1973 by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
Summary of New System Developments and Deployments
This summary is intended to provide an overview of some developments and deployments attributed to the study project. Again, time and space do not permit documenting the history of all such developments.
Public Automobile Service (PAS) . A HUD demonstration grant to the University of Pennsylvania developed performance criteria for a vehicle and analyzed the potential transportation demand for a PAS system. Minicars, Inc. built and tested a prototype of the vehicle. Plans to test a PAS system with up to 150 cars did not materialize because DOT officials did not consider it appropriate to use transit funds to subsidize building and operating such a fleet. The project was discontinued in March 1970.
However, the PAS idea is still alive. A Washington Post story on February 2, 1992, "How Urban America Can Drive Itself Out of Commuter Gridlock" reexamines the notion of a PAS system to complement MetroRail, to make short suburb-to-suburb work trips, or other short trips for shopping medical care banking or recreation. The Center for Continuing Study of the California Economy in Palo Alto, California, is looking for a demonstration site.
Dial-a-Bus. UMTA sponsored a market test of "Dial-a-Ride" in Haddonfield, New Jersey, commencing in February 1971. The project started with 12 vehicles under manual control and progressed to computer control with 18 vehicles. The project ceased in March 1975--local authorities felt they could no longer subsidize the service. By 1976 there were more than 70 demand-responsive systems operating of which 20 could be directly traced to Haddonfield's test. (6) Exploitation of Dial-a-Bus concepts took a twist not anticipated by early advocates. Renamed "Para-Transit", the concepts became a popular way to meet special transportation needs for many groups not served well by fixed-route, fixed-schedule public transit. Social service programs addressed needs of elderly, handicapped or other transportation disadvantaged clients. Para-transit has taken many forms, all essentially demand responsive including: shared-ride, taxicabs, subscription bus services, commuter clubs, van pools, jitneys and the concepts of a "brokerage", wherein an independent agency coordinates all transit services within a certain region. According to Sandra Rosenbloom, development of computer software programs to aid in dispatching and routing Para-transit vehicles has become a backyard industry.
Para-transit may be integrated with a local transit authority, or services may be provided by any number of local government agencies, churches, or social service organizations. Funding may come from the U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, state and local governments. Para-transit use in the United States can be illustrated by the state of Michigan Dial-a-Ride Transportation Project which started in 1972. The state now sponsors 71 "Small Bus" para-transit systems and 121 specialized bus operations primarily for elderly and handicapped patrons. In FY1991 these Michigan systems carried 103,285,000 passengers.(7) Implementation of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 may make Para-transit an even more important part of public transportation service.
In Japan, the Dial-a-Bus system developed by Isuzu Motors was first implemented by the Hankyuo Bus Company in the town of Nose, Ousaka Prefecture. Operations began in July,1972; 75,000 passengers were carried the first year. Patronage has declined to nearly 2,300 per month since a new railway station opened about ten minutes by automobile from the town center. The Hankyuo Bus Company has converted all operations to demand service and is subsidized by the town of Nose at about $60,000 a year.
Dial-a-Buses also operate in the towns of Kinugawa and Kawaji' in Tochigi' prefecture. These Towns are noted for their hot springs--there are 49 hotels located here. The Daial Bus Service Company began Dial-a-Bus service in April 1974 to transport customers between the hotels and two railway stations. Initially, dispatching was done by computer but it is now manual. Five 45-passenger and twelve 27-passenger buses provide the service. Before the demand bus operation began, over 50 standard buses were required to provide service.
In addition, six semi-demand bus systems, operated by the Toukyuo Coach System, provide service to and from areas in Tokyo, Kanagawa prefecture and stations of the Toukyou Electric Railway. Each system has two routes: one is a conventional fixed route, the other makes detours for passengers who signal the buses from busstops on the detour routes. (8)
Automated Dual-Mode Bus. In September 1973, UMTA initiated the first phase of a three-phase Dual-Mode Transit System development program. Phase one developed three alternative design concepts. System development contractors were given specific performance guidelines and requirements but were permitted broad latitude in design detail. The three system design developers in a cost-shared arrangement were General Motors Corporation, Rohr Industries and Transportation Technology, Inc. Funding was not continued beyond the first phase. (9)
Japanese Dual-Mode Bus and Dual-Mode Truck systems progressed to a stage where prototype vehicles were built and tested at the Public Works Research Institute proving grounds. Tests continued until 1980. In 1989 at the Asia and Pacific Ocean Exposition in Fukuoka city, a Dual-Mode bus system was demonstrated. Nagoya city plans to build a Dual-Mode bus system, 11.3 km long, between Ouzone Metro and Japan Railway station to Shidami New Town. (10)
Major Activity Center Systems . The number of APM's operating throughout the world is tabulated below:
Locale Inst. (*) Transit Airports Leisure Total U.S.A. 7 1 10 16 34 Canada - 2 - 1 3 Europe 7 4 3 2 16 Japan - 9 - - 9 Australia 1 - - 1 2 Jakarta - - - - 1 Israel 1 - - - 1 Singapore - - 1 1 1 So. Africa - - - 1 1 Total 16 16 14 22 68
(*)Note: Institutional systems are those operating at locations such as campuses or medical centers. DPM's in Miami and Detroit are shown as Institutional since their funding and operating arrangements are different from the local public transit authority.
These 68 systems carry about 1.5-million passengers daily. Distribution is approximately:
Institutional--164,000 (11%); Transit--690,000 (48%)
Airports--460,000 (32%); Leisure--135,000 (9%)
(Source: L. J. Fabian, Trans21 , Boston Mass. Nov. 1992)
o United States
"Transit Expressway South Park Project" received funding support from HUD for the purpose of developing, testing and evaluating an APM for medium density urban areas. The project was sponsored by the Port Authority of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and included the Pennsylvania State Department of Commerce and Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Participants shared $5-million in total costs. The project was initiated in June 1963 and concluded in June 1971. The system was operated for test and evaluation purposes between August 4, 1965 and June 7, 1966. During this period it logged 21,316 vehicle miles and carried a total of 40,998 revenue passengers.
Plans to construct a Transit Expressway Revenue Line to the South Hills area of Pittsburgh encountered stiff political opposition and were abandoned. However Westinghouse was able to successfully commercialize the system; there are now 13 successors to the Transit Express-way throughout the world.
"AIRTRANS" began in 1970 when an UMTA grant of $1-million was made to the Dallas-Ft.Worth Regional Airport Board to finance studies and test tracks to evaluate Dashaveyor and Varo systems being considered for the new airport. A 1972 capital grant from UMTA of $7.6-million helped finance installation of the LTV Aerospace Corporation's "AIRTRANS" system.
" Morgantown People Mover " (MPM) at West Virginia University was conceived in 1967. An UMTA grant in 1969 helped fund feasibility studies. Another grant in September 1970 started preliminary designs. MPM was then made a demonstration project; UMTA took charge of funding and management and awarded design and construction contracts in April 1971. Ground breaking occurred on October 9, 1971. One year later, construction of guideways, stations and controls had progressed sufficiently that a public demonstration was held with five vehicles. Secretary John Volpe presided at a dedication on October 24, 1972, with Tricia Nixon representing her father.
The system was constructed in two phases; the first phase was completed and operations commenced in October 1975. Operations were suspended in July 1978 during construction of the second phase and for corrections to the first phase. The final system consists of 8.7 miles of single guideway, five stations, a fleet of 71 vehicles and two maintenance facilities--one with a control center. All would agree with Edward S. Neumann that "The MPM is the most sophisticated APM in existence and the only one featuring non-stop direct origin-to-destination service, provided between twenty different station pairs."
On the 20th Anniversary of its dedication, the University estimated that MPM had carried 40-million passengers. The system typically carries 13-15,000 passengers per day on weekdays and 2-10,000 passengers on a Saturday depending on whether there is a home game. There have been no injuries or fatalities which could be attributed to MPM design or operations. (11)
"Downtown People Mover" (DPM) Program originated with a recommendation from the Office of Technology Assessment, an agency of the U.S. Congress. On September 10, 1974, the Transportation Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Appropriations requested an assessment of PRT and other new systems. Mr. Clark Henderson chaired the OTA Panel on Current Developments in the United States. This panel reported: "With $200-million invested in AGT installations, it is unfortunate that there is no such installation in a city to ascertain feasibility. There should be a concerted effort by the Federal Government, municipalities, and the transportation industry to initiate a first urban application promptly." A key finding in the report to Congress stated: "An urban demonstration project for SLT appears justified." Congress agreed. (12)
In April 1976, UMTA solicited proposals nationwide for DPM projects. Though 68 cities responded with letters of interest, only 38 were able to submit proposals. Four cities--Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles and St. Paul--were selected as demonstration sites. Three additional cities--Baltimore, Miami and Detroit--were advised that funding of their proposals was warranted if the cities wished to divert existing Federal transit commitments to their projects. In June 1977 Congress advised that in addition to the selected cities, UMTA should consider funding DPI projects in Jacksonville, St. Louis, Baltimore and Indianapolis. EMIT found that proposals from Baltimore, Indianapolis, Jacksonville, Norfolk and St. Louis could be awarded technical study grants to further refine their proposed projects. (13)
Three DPM projects were built--in Miami , Detroit and Jacksonville. Miami carries about 14,000 passengers per day. Ridership on the small Jacksonville system is about 1,100 per day. Detroit's DPM has handled up to 50,000 passengers during special events but normally ridership averages less than 10,000 a day. Budgets to subsidize operating costs are proving difficult for Detroit city officials. (14)
"Transurban" had been under development by Krauss-Maffe since 1970. A prototype vehicle using magnetic attraction suspension was demonstrated in 1972. A 1,200-meter test track loop was completed in 1973 for testing automatic controls with two rubber-tired vehicles. Another 185-meter test track was available for testing a prototype magnetically levitated vehicle and a passive switch. The German Ministry for Research and Technology allocated $11.3-million for development from 1 October 1971 through 1976 but terminated the project on November 14, 1974.
The Ontario government selected "Transurban" as a demonstration system for the Canadian National Exhibition grounds in Toronto. If successful, revenue systems were to be built in Toronto, Hamilton and Ottawa. Site preparation had actually started when the German government withdrew support for "Transurban". The Ontario government established what was to become the Urban Transportation Development Corporation (UTDC) and continued transit technology development that resulted in new Light Rail Vehicles and an APM system demonstrated in Vancouver, B.C. and Detroit, Michigan.
"M-Bahn" has been operating on a 1600-meter double track with four vehicles and three stations in what was West Berlin near the Wall. Reconstruction of the district and removal of the Wall have resulted in dismantling the "M-Bahn". There are plans for its possible relocation and a new test center is under construction in Braunschweig.
"VAL" was the first APM to provide public transit service in France. The system transports passengers over 12.7 kilometers of dual guideway between the new town of East Lille, the city center of Lille and a Regional Hospital Center. Initially, 38 married pairs of cars serviced 17 on-line stations. Prototype development and testing took place from 1971 to 1975. Construction started in May 1978, and was completed in December 1983 when operations began. A second VAL line has been opened in Lille. A 7-km line operates between Orly airport's two terminals and a regional rail line. A third VAL system has been built at Toulouse. (The Jacksonville DPM used VAL technology initially, it has recently been replaced with a system from Bombardier)
" ARAMIS " tests of off-line merging and demerging with its unique electronic coupling continued until 1975. A second test track was built for a 10-passenger vehicle which incorporated some of the developments from the first system. The French Ministry of Transport did not support the demonstration phase and MATRA disbanded the ARAMIS team.
Other French MAC systems which have been implemented in revenue settings include:
POMA 2000 -- Laon, France
VEC -- Montparnasse, Paris, France
Soule SK -- Vancouver Expo, Villepinte, and Yokohama
Of the nine APM systems operating in Japan two installations warrant special discussion. Systems built on the man-made off-shore islands near Kobe and Osaka were magnificently devised experiments. Contrasting features of these two systems make possible an evaluation of many aspects of APM installations in public transit service.
These systems were procured, installed and operated under contrasting methods.
o Kobe's Port Island Line used "third-sector" development procedures. A Kobe New Transit (KNT) Company was organized with the Mayor of Kobe as Chairman of the Board and the Vice Mayor as President of the Company. Private industries, banks and other companies which participated in the project became shareholders in the KNT Company and were represented on the Board. A KNT Construction Division was established within the Kobe city planning bureau to supervise engineering design and construction of the guideway and station structures.
The KNT Company runs the system. It must meet all operating costs, pay back the principal and interest on loans from private sources, and pay rent on government furnished infrastructure (except elevated structures financed from road funds)--all from passenger revenues.
o Osaka's Nanko Port Town Line was developed strictly as a municipal affair. The Mayor of Osaka established a "new tram" project team comprised of four principal bureau directors. The Transportation Bureau had responsibility for engineering designs and specifications and for managing project construction. A contract negotiated between the Transportation Bureau and the Sumitomo Trading Company provided the vehicles and non-infrastructure installations.
Vehicles and Non-Infrastructure
o Kobe organized a joint-venture group under the KNT Company to supply the vehicles and non-infrastructure portion of the system. Participants were:
--Kawasaki Heavy Industries: Vehicles and Track
--Mitsubishi Heavy Industries: Power Supply, control and communication systems
--Kobe Steel: Station passenger service and processing equipment
Note that each of these suppliers had independently developed or acquired an APM system. (The Kobe Steel "KRT" was based on licenses from Boeing Aerospace Co. using Morgantown "MPM" technology.)
o Osaka used its contract with Sumitomo Trading Company to supply vehicles and non-infrastructure portions of the project. The joint venture organized by Sumitomo included:
--Niigata Tekko: Car bodies
--Sumitomo Denki: Control and communications systems and power supply
--Toyo Denki: Propulsion motors and controls
Note that this is the same group that put together the "NTS" system based on licenses from LTV using AIRTRANS technology.
o Kobe uses a totally centralized control system.
o Osaka's control system is decentralized with functions divided among central, on-board and station equipment.
For conventional rail operations the Ministry of Transportation (MOT) requires a single fail-safe back-up for train control. However, two levels of redundant controls are required on the high-speed Shinkansen rail system. MOT imposed this same ultra-conservative policy on the two APM systems. Critical elements of the automated control systems must have a second back-up.
In Japan there is a long traditional history of punctual train and transit operations dependent upon manned controls. Even with computer controls, MOT required vehicles to be equipped with motorman's cabs and cab controls. MOT also required that public transit systems have on board one attendant per 400 passengers.
Both the Kobe and Osaka systems started operating with a motorman in the cab and two attendants on each train.
o Kobe as a private third-sector development was able to eliminate motormen and attendants and to begin full automatic operations in 1982.
o Osaka, as a municipal operation, with union obligations continued with motormen and attendants into 1991 but now makes half the runs unattended.
Guidance and Switching
o Kobe's lateral guidance and switching techniques had their genesis with the Boeing/Morgantown and Sapporo Transit System concepts.
o Osaka's installation was derived from AIRTRANS designs for guidance and switching licensed from LTV.
National assessments of the performance and cost of these two installations can be expected to set national policy for future Japanese guideway projects and the value, if any, of full automation. (15)
Personal Rapid Transit (PRT). This concept has been the most challenging and most elusive of the New System Study ideas. While test tracks and prototypes have been built, no revenue systems have been built or demonstrated in an urban setting.
o United States
The most ardent advocate of PRT in the United States has been Dr. J. Edward Anderson Dr. Anderson has accomplished extensive research on the PRT concept and has completed engineering designs and economic analyses for his " Taxi 2000 " system. There is current interest in such a system from Chicago's Regional Transit Authority (RTA) and from officials in and around the Seattle-Tacoma Airport . RTA has received final reports on theR&D efforts of Taxi 2000 (in conjunction with Stone&Webster) and from a Swiss firm "Intamin".
Development of Cabinentaxi was started with design studies in 1970 by DEMag-MBB. Federal participation commenced in January, 1972. System definition and laboratory experimentation on components commenced in 1972. The control system was developed and tested on a 13m diameter, rotary, test fixture during 16 months commencing in October 1972. The first stage of a test facility was completed near Hagen in August 1973 and test operations began the next month. Ultimately, the test track comprised a closed loop with two by-passes, two passenger stations, a service building, a check-out position and nine fully automatic vehicles--four above and five below the track. (16)
In October 1975 a 12-seat vehicle was introduced onto the guideway for testing. This vehicle called "Cabinenlift" became the basis for a system which became operational at Ziegenhain in 1976. Tests on Cabinentaxi continued until 1981 when the program was terminated. The facilities have since been dismantled. (17)
Development of a Computer-controlled Vehicle System (CVS) began in 1970. A one-twentieth scale computer-controlled working model of a CVS installation in the Ginza District of Tokyo was displayed at the 18th Tokyo Motor Show from 28 October to 21 November 1971. Though the vehicles and track were one-twentieth scale, the computer control system was full scale permitting extensive tests of both hardware and software.
Upon conclusion of the motor show a full-scale test facility and development program was initiated at Higashi Murayama. These facilities included 4.5 km of guideway, two station stops (one off line), two at-grade crossings and numerous high and low-speed merge/demerge intersections. A fleet of 84 vehicles was manufactured for the test program. There were 56 passenger vehicles and 28 for freight. Nineteen of these were "all up" prototypes (13 passenger and 6 cargo) and 65 were "test-bed" chassis containing only the essential propulsion, control and braking systems. In addition, there were 7 containers used in demonstrating automatic freight transfer. CVs experiments were concluded in June 1976 with successful demonstrations of one-second headways at 60 kph 2G-emergency braking, 60-kph merges and demerges and collision-free at-grade crossings.
A CVS "Expo Future Car" was built and demonstrated for the International Ocean Exposition in Okinawa. The system drew on CVS experience at Higashi Murayama but extended the concept to include a dual-mode operation. A total of 16 vehicles were used--12 were single-mode and four were dual-mode. One mile of guideway included five stations with off-line tracks, and separate on and off ramps for the dual-mode vehicles. The system was built and operated by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
Passenger service started on 11 July 1975 and ended on 18 January 1976. More than 800,000 passengers were carried during the six months without any accidents. (18) No markets developed for either of these CVS systems and facilities at Higashi Murayama and on Okinawa have been dismantled.
Fast Intraurban Transit Links Development and tests of an "Urban Tracked Air Cushion Vehicle" (UTACV) were undertaken by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration at the direction of Mr. John A. Volpe, Secretary of Transportation. This was to be a Department-wide project with support provided by several agencies and the Office of the Secretary. The rationale for having UMTA manage the project was three-fold:
o A TACV system, whether inter or intra-urban, must begin, end and/or pass through an urban area. The routes, stations, service levels and transportation feeder systems must evolve as part of the local comprehensively planned metropolitan area transportation system.
o Close coordination of research and development with technical planning studies would help insure that the tested system could satisfy an operational requirement in an urban setting.
o Successful demonstration would establish a TACV system as a viable urban transportation alternative for Federal financial assistance under UMTA's Technical Studies and Capital Grant programs for qualified local agencies. (19)
The UTACV Program got underway with a design competition. In June 1971 cost plus fixed fee contracts were awarded to Rohr Industries, Inc. and to Vought Aeronautics Company. Designs were completed and proposals submitted in December 1971 for fabricating a prototype vehicle. Designs were reviewed and evaluated; results were transmitted to Secretary Volpe who selected Rohr.
A cost plus incentive fee contract was awarded to Rohr on February 18, 1972. Upon completing fabrication, the vehicle was given acceptance tests on a short guideway at the Rohr plant. It was delivered to the High Speed Ground Test Center (HSGTC) in Pueblo, Colorado in July 1973. Facilities at the HSGTC included a Maintenance Building, nearly five miles of guideway with an aluminum reaction rail, three-phase wayside 4,160-volt power and power lines with substations for primary power.
Operational tests confirmed the vehicle performance, though the short guideway limited to speeds to 142-145 miles per hour. The vehicle weighed 64,000 pounds with a full load of passengers. It was 94 feet long 10.5 feet high and 10.5 feet wide. Features which made the UTACV unique were:
o Air cushions supported and guided the vehicle.
o Propulsion by a two-sided linear induction motor with thyristor power conditioning that provided fixed frequency, variable voltage.
o Wayside power collection with sliding brushes able to pick up three-phase, 4,160-volt power at 150 mph.
o Automatic train controls.
o Cabin space for 60 passengers with luggage. (20)
Tests continued at Pueblo through Fiscal Year 1973. The House of Representatives of the U.S. Congress deleted funds for the UTACV Program from the FY 1974 budget. This action resulted from a recommendation from the Subcommittee on Transportation Appropriations that all TACV research and development should be funded by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). Restoration of the funds was not requested before the Senate Appropriations Committee. The Program was transferred to FRA where it was renamed "Prototype Tracked Air Cushion Vehicle" (PTACV).
UMTA awarded two technical study grants to plan for applications of UTACVs in urban areas.
-- The first segment of a route connecting the Los Angeles International Airport to the Palmdale International Airport was examined by Kaiser Engineers. Preliminary engineering on this segment was completed in June 1970. (21)
-- On June 6, 1972 UMTA approved a technical study grant which enabled the North Central Texas Council of Governments and the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth ,Texas to conduct a detailed analysis of a UTACV installation. This study addressed the following:
- Preliminary engineering of the route including aerial surveys, soil analyses and the need for right-of-way acquisition.
- Economic analysis of the system, including patronage, revenue return, operating costs, capital costs and methods of financing.
- Environmental impact analysis including noise, visual impacts, intrusion, disruption and other social and economic effects of the installation. (22, 23)
The Aeronautical Institute of Palermo of the University of Palermo has built three experimental TACV's. No data are available on performance characteristics or on the present status of these efforts. (24)
Japan Air Lines started development of a High Speed Surface Transportation (HSST) system in 1974. This system was intended to provide ready access to airports. The main features of the HSST vehicles include:
-- Electro-magnetic suspension (attraction) with a 3/8-inch air gap regulated electronically.
-- Propulsion by linear induction motors with coils on-board the vehicle.
-- Power supplied from a third rail with AC current obtained from on-board inverters.
-- Over-riding monorail construction.
-- Automatic or manual controls.
During the period from 1975 through 1989, HSST ran with a series of test-bed vehicles (Nos. 1 and 2) and prototypes (Nos. 3 and 4) which logged 25,000 miles and carried 3-million passengers. In 1989 the Chubu Central HSST Development Co. was formed to make the system eligible for government aid on guideway costs. Three HSST models have been developed for revenue service:
HSST 100 -- Maximum Speed: 81 mph, Maximum Grade: 8%
Minimum Turn Radius: 79 ft.
Empty Weight: 19,000 lbs.
Dimensions: 26.7 ft. L, 8.2 ft.W, 10.3 ft.H
Platform length (Four-Car Train): 114 ft.,
Passenger Capacity (Four-Car Train):
84 Seated, 174 Nominal, 278 Crush Load
HSST 200 -- Maximum Speed: 143 mph, Maximum Grade: 7%
Minimum Turn Radius: 328 ft.
Empty Weight: 44,100 lbs.
Dimensions: 58 ft. L, 9.8 ft., 10.3 ft.
Passenger Capacity Per Car: 102 Design., 133 Max.
HSST 300 -- Maximum Speed: 205 mph, Maximum Grade: 6%
Minimum Turn Radius: 820 ft. (1.5 mi. @ 180 mph)
Gross Weight: 30 tons
Dimensions: End Car-72 ft. L, Mid Car-65 ft. L
10.5 ft.W, 10.5 ft. H
Passengers: 100 seats mid car,
90 seats end car. (25)
Over the past 25 years, urban transportation research, development and demonstration have become increasingly politicized. In the United States elections every four years bring new administrators with their own agendas. Members of Congress have discovered the value of having a highly visible demonstration project in their districts.
Politics have influenced the locations as well as the timing for projects. For a research project which would normally require seven years to complete an RD&D cycle ,pressure to show results before an election can be expensive and disruptive.
The New Systems Study Project has reaffirmed the fact that mankind can build almost anything it sets its will to. Achieving public acceptance and use of technological innovations is frequently another matter. As stated in Tomorrow's Transportation ..."innovation is at the mercy of its institutional setting. Legal and financial impediments often hinder progress unnecessarily. Many of the greatest advances in urban transportation lie in areas such as analysis and planning, operation and management, intergovernmental relations, financing, and in greater understanding of the whole complex social context of urban travel. Technology alone is not enough."
The New Systems Study was not a blueprint for solving the "urban transportation problem". It was the start of a program of research, development and demonstration which identified both technological and non-technological opportunities for improving urban transportation. Concepts were to be supported long enough to determine their viability and acceptability--to provide the public and public officials with substantiated data on such attributes as: performance, costs, benefits, impacts, safety and reliability to aid local planning and decisions.
Twenty-five years ago there were high hopes and great expectations for improving the state of urban transportation. Research and development was to influence short term improvements while creating opportunities for significant longer range advancements. Enthusiasm was somewhat frustrated by institutional impediments such as the HUD-DOT reorganization, changes in administrators, changes in political parties with differing philosophies, and lower funding levels. Looking back over this past quarter of a century, it is amazing to realize what actually has been accomplished, not only in the United States, but in other parts of the world.
1. Interview with Professor Charles M. Haar, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, October 13, 1992.
2. Interview with Congressman Henry S. Reuss, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, May 20, 1970.
3. Summer Study on Science and Urban Development , Report of Transportation Panel, June 5 - 25, 1966.
4. Memorandum Report, R&D Program Plan Working Draft Document, Institute of Public Administration, Washington D.C., September 11, 1969.
5. Automated Guideway Transit-An Assessment of PRT and Other New Systems, United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C., June 1975, p.235.
6. Innovation in Public Transportation , U.S. Department of Transportation, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Washington, D.C., Fiscal Year 1976, p.7.
7. Telephone conversation with Marylin Clark, Michigan Department of Transportation, December 7, 1992.
8. Data from Mr. Namiki Oka, Tokyo, Japan, Feb. 1, 1993.
9. Dual-Mode System Development Program of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Vincent R. De Marco, Proceedings of a Conference conducted by the Transportation Research Board, May 29-31,1974.
10. Data from Mr. Namiki Oka, Tokyo, Japan, Feb. 10, 1993.
11. Data from Mr. A.D. Yoppi, Central Control, MPM, West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va., Dec. 5, 1992.
12. Automated Guideway Transit--An Assessment of PRT and Other New Systems, op. cit., pp.7, 192.
13. Innovation in Public Transportation, U.S. Department of Transportation, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Fiscal Year 1978, p.59.
14. Transit Pulse , Vol. IX, No.1, May/June 1991.
15. Review of Foreign Commitments to Develop AGT Technology, Report by H. Wm. Merritt, Nov. 1982. (Unpublished).
16. Automated Guideway Transit--An Assessment of PRT and Other New Systems , op.cit., pp.243,244.
17. Review of Foreign Commitments to Develop AGT Technology , Draft Report by Wolfgang Bamberg, N.D.Lea Transportation Research Corp., Washington ,D.C., 1982.
18. CVS Technical Report, Mechanical Social Systems Foundation, Tokyo, Japan, March 1977.
19. Urban Applications of a TACV System, Paper Prepared by H. Wm. Merritt for Presentation at the First International Symposium "Man and Transport" , Tokyo, Japan, September 1-7, 1973.
20. PTACV Marketing Survey Report and System Summary, Rohr Industries, Inc. prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., June 1976.
21. High Speed Ground Transportation Airport Access Route Study, Kaiser Engineers for Los Angeles Department of Airports, June 1970.
22. Section V - Revenue and Operating Costs: Urban Tracked Air Cushion Vehicle Transportation System for Dallas-Fort Worth Airport Route, Alan M. Voorhees & Associ-ates, Inc., January 1974.
23. A Preliminary Engineering Report on the Dallas-Fort Worth Regional UTACV System, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., November 1973.
24. Information provided by Robert E. Schmelz, Gannett, Fleming, Inc.,Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, February 10, 1993.
Summary of New System Study Contractors
The following is a summary of study contractors with their project managers and principal investigators.
Day and Zimmermann, Inc.
Robert D. Baldwin, John L. Gross, Jr.
D & Z reported on potential near-term improvements that could be achieved with existing transportation technologies within six months to three years.
Westinghouse Air Brake Co. with Melpar, Inc.,Wilbur Smith
and Associates, and Institute for Public Administration
James Anders, J. D. Garcia, Lyle Fitch, Sumner Meyers
WABCO studied evolutionary improvements that could be made in urban transportation within three to eight years.
Stanford Research Institute
Clark Henderson, Dan G. Haney, Ernest G. Chilton
SRI conducted the study of futuristic solutions which might be developed within five to 15 years. Their reports included descriptions, evaluations, development programs and an assessment of impacts on urban life.
General Research Corporation
William F. Hamilton
GRC performed system analyses using several technologies in a variety of city cases. Policy issues were examined, including "gradualism"--incremental implementation--and technological innovation at a pace exceeding gradualism.
Battelle Memorial Institute
Kaj L. Nielson, E. S. Cheaney, C. W. Vigrass
BMI screened early work of the study contractors and prepared monographs outlining potential RD&D projects.
Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc.
Morton I. Weinberg, Robert A. Wolf
CAL conducted a study of a small vehicle bi-modal system and evaluated its application in Buffalo, N.Y.
North American Rockwell Corporation
M.A. Sulkin, T. R. Parsons, D. I. Sinizer
NAR surveyed advanced technologies from defense and aerospace fields considered transferable to urban transportation needs. NAR also documented implementation require-ments for four advanced urban transportation systems.
General Electric Company
T. J. Warrick
GE conducted a survey of electronic command and control systems, analyzed the requirements for these systems, and formulated 10 proposed command and control RD&D projects.
General Motors Corporation
E.T. Canty, A.J. Sobey, J.P. Wallace, W.M. Spreitzer
GM investigated and made research recommendations about improved methods for transportation systems analysis. By using case studies for implementing different new system concepts, specific technical and methodological problems were identified and assessed. Results were recommendations for a program of research leading to new and im-proved methods of transportation planning and evaluation.
The following studies were primarily concerned with travel demand patterns, interrelationships of transportation with land use and the quality of urban living.
Peat, Marwick, Livingston & Company
Arnold Kupferman, Donald M. Hill, D. Mendelson
PML developed functional relationships for estimating transportation demand for 1965, and for forecasting transportation demand for 1975 and 1985 for all urbanized areas. PML also outlined a research program to develop travel demand relationships for major functional subdivisions comprising the urban area.
Consad Research Corporation
Dr. T.R. Lakshmanan, Alan Colker, Theodore J. Soltman
Consad reviewed, analyzed and evaluated transit usage forecasting techniques. From this study, Consad recommended an eight-task research program to make significant improvements in these techniques.
Transportation Research Institute of Carnegie-Mellon University
Dr. Lester A. Hoel, Dr. Eugene D. Perle
TRI investigated the latent demand for urban transportation for special urban groups and services that are not met by existing systems. Suggestions were made for additional investigations and studies which would improve the understanding of this group's potential travel needs.
Battelle Memorial Institute
K. Philip Rahbany, David Goss, J. William Vigrass
BMI examined urban goods movement planning and practices. The study developed a methodology for conducting goods-movement studies as an integral part of the urban-planning process. Further research was recommended on determination of impacts from technological innovations in goods movement on urban planning, improvements of data sources and improvements in goods-movement forecasting models.
Abt Associates, Inc.
Robert H. Rea, Henry Bruck
Abt Associates examined effects of a wide range of qualitative factors on modal choices for urban transportation. Determinations were made on the significance of these factors on demands for personal transportation.
F. T. Aschman, R. E. Engelen, D. G. Stuart
BAA suggested guidelines that could be useful in selecting, developing and planning new systems of urban transportation. Criteria for evaluating alternative urban transportation systems were developed, techniques for coordinating transportation and land-use planning were presented, and further research needs were identified. BAA commissioned a collection of papers by 13 authors on the role of transportation in modern urban life. BAA also published an annotated bibliography on urban development, transportation and land-use planning.
Regional Economic Development Institute, Inc.
Reuben J. Katz, Benjamin Chinitz
REDI assessed the transportation needs of, and the potential for new solutions to urban transportation problems offered by, comprehensively planned new communities. The study focused on how transportation and urban land use could be coordinated in a completely new setting.
Midwest Research Institute
B.W. Macy, J.M. Bednar, R. E. Byrd, Patricia Quinlan
MRI examined special transportation requirements of small cities and towns. Needs for and potential means of adapting to changing local demand patterns were identified. Fruitful areas for further research, special studies, and demonstration projects were indicated.
A printed version of this paper is included in the Proceedings of the Automated People Movers IV conference held at Las Colinas, Texas in 1993, pp 35-59. This publication is available from the American Society of Civil Engineers and ordering information can be found at their website. It has been posted here with the permission of the ASCE.
Last modified : June 29, 2008