Philosophy 320
History of Ancient Philosophy

University of Washington

Lecture Notes

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Restrictions on the permitted use of these lecture notes

These lecture notes are all copyrighted. They are intended for the private use of students, scholars, and educators, and may not be printed, published, or reproduced for distribution in any manner (whether commercial or not) without the expressed written consent of the author. Instructors of college or university courses are invited to make these lectures available to their students by providing students with links to these web pages. Each user is entitled to make one digital copy and/or one printed copy of any of these lectures for his or her own personal use. Translations into other languages are permitted, so long as those translations include my copyright notice and display the URL of the page on my web site where the original appears.

About translations of these lecture notes

Due to quality control issues, all links to translations of web pages at this site have been removed.

I have discovered that many, if not most, of the translations of these web pages are defective in one way or another. A great number of them seem to have been prepared by robot translators (such as Google Translate). In many cases, English idioms have been literally translated into languages that lack a counterpart idiom, and these translations are therefore unintelligible to readers of the target language.

Translations of the sort of material on this web site should be prepared by translators who are native speakers either of English or of the target language, and who are fluent in both, and who have some familiarity with philosophical prose. Unfortunately, I cannot verify that any of the translations that have been done so far satisfy these conditions. More importantly, I have no way of verifying that the conditions are met. I have therefore reluctantly decided to remove all links to translations of these pages.

I appreciate the efforts of those who have attempted in good faith to make my work available to non-English speakers. But since I am unable to authenticate the reliability of the translations, I can no longer in good conscience continue to provide links to them on this web site.

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