POL S 203, Spring 2010
Introduction to International Relations

Lecture Outlines

Rise of the Modern World System, parts 1 & 2

Rise of the Modrn State Systm (prt 1) 4/31

I. Why care about the rise of the Mod State Sys?

II. Why Europe end-up dominating wld?
  A. What happened to everyone else?
 1. Ming China
 2. Ottoman Empire

  B. Conseq of pol fragmentation in Euro:
 1. diversity of ideas
 2. diversity of economies
 3. fierce mil competition
   a. stimulated economy
   b. increased military power

III. Habsburg Bid for Mastery in Europe
 A. Habs Empire: Spain/Austria
 B. What caused  the 30 yrs war (1618-48)?
 1. struggle over religion (Martin Luther)
 2. becme struggle over balance of power
 3. very destructive: Harvest of blood
  *why so destructive?

 C. Significance 30 yrs war?
 1. end Habs bid for mastery of Europe
 2. Treaty of Westphalia: religious tolerance and state sovereignty

IV. French Bid for Mastery (1667-1815)
  A. Louis XIV and Napoleon Bonaparte
  B. Why did they fail?
  C. Major consequences:
 1. Concert of Europe
 2. mass conscription & total war (Frday)
 3. rise of nationalism (tlk about Frday)

V. Concert of Europe (1815-1854)
  A. Created & maintained Balance of Power

  B. Two principles:
 1. containment (not dismemberment)
 2. reciprocal compensation

  C.  Crimean War (1854-1856) ended the Concert.

Rise of  Mod State Syst, 1859-1890 (prt 2) 4/2

I. Wars of Unification: Italy and Germany
  A. Cavour and war against Austria (1859)
 B. Bismarck's wars: iron and blood
 1. Austro-Prussian War (1866)
 2. Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
  C. Bismarck: frm revisionist to status quo

II. Bismarck's Alliance System
  A. Feared counter-bal coalition; so supp s.q.
  B. Defensive Alliances

III. Comparing the 19th & 18th Centuries
  A. Revolution in Industry: power of steam
  B. Revolution in Consciousness:
 1. What is nationalism?
 2. Where did it come from?
  a. conscription
  b. nationalist indoctrination

  C. Revolution in Military Technology
 1. Railroad: made total war possible
 2. new lethal small arms: machine gun

  D. Revolution in Trade: Imperialism
 1. What is imperialism?
 2. How 3 revols contributed to imprlsm
   a. rev ind: need raw materials
   b. rev consc: natlsm/racism justified conquest
   c. rev mil: conquest became relatively easy

Realism, parts 1 & 2

Realism (part 1) April 5, 2010

I. Puzzles realists claim to answer
  1. why has no one been able to dominate world?
  2. why view dom pol differently than intl pol?
  3. how can s.q. states end up at war w/ each other?
  4. why is coop btwn states oftn so difficult?

II. What is Realism?

III. Origins of Realism (aka Classical Realism):
  A. Why is Thucydides a realist?
 1. balance of power
 2. human nature won't change
 3. unsentimental about power

  B. Hans Morgenthau
 1. competition/war among states is normal
 2. human nature source of conflict
  C. What do (Classical) Realists share?
 1. state as a Rational Unitary Actor
  *and a strategic actor
 2. focus on economic and military power
 3. can't change human nature

IV. Contemporary (or Neo-) Realists
  A. Gilpin developed Thucydides theory of hegemonic war (aka power transition theory)
 1. differential growth rates
 2. conflict built into the interntl system

  B. Debate over Human Nature and War:
   1. Thucyd/Morg: people lust for power
   2. Waltz: intentions can be diff frm outcomes
 (sum of parts can be diff frm whole)

  C. Waltz: not HUMAN nature, but nature of the intrnatl syst causes war

Realism (part II) April 7, 2010

I. Understanding Anarchy

II. Implications of Anarchy:
  A. Self-help
  B. Relative gains
  C. Not human nature, but structure of int'l system

III. Consequences of Anarchy
  A. Security dilemma
  B. Cooperation can be difficult
  C. Alliance politics: balancing vs. bandwagoning

IV. Back to the puzzles
  1. why has no one been able to dominate world?
  2. why view dom pol differently than intl pol?
  3. how can s.q. states end up at war w/ each other?
  4. why is coop btwn states oftn so difficult?

Liberalism, parts 1 & 2

Liberalism (part 1) April 9 2010

I. Puzzles Liberals claim to answer
  1. Why dems never (rarely?) fight each other?
  2. Why don't Cnadins worry abt US invasion?
  3. Why do similarly situated states oftn behave differently?
  4. Why is cooperation btwn states oftn so easy?

II. Essential Principles of Liberalism
  A. Freedom of conscience
  B. Freedom of opportunity
  C. Freedom to elect one's government

III. Comparing Theories on Three Dimensions
   1. The Nature of international politics
    a. nature of the intl system?
      1. Realism: anarchy;
      2. Liberalism: society
  b. who are the actors?
       1.R: rational unitary actor;
       2. L: rational, but not unitary.

c. Why L's look inside the state?
   1. to understand a state's interest
   2. to see how it'll obtain tht intrst

 2. Possibility of progress?
    a. R: no progress; history is cyclical
    b. L: Yes, prgs pssible; people can learn.

 3. Imp of ideas vs. material factors?
   a. R: emphasizes materialist approach
   b. L: emphasizes ideational approach

Liberalism (part II) April 12, 2010

I. Translating Domestic Principles to Interntl Politics
  A. Realists: not how make intl system better, but how can we better live in the intl system we have.

  B. Liberals: we can live better by making the intl system better:
1. Freedom of conscience --->
2. Freedom of opportunity --->
3. Free to elect one's govt --->

II. Consequences of Liberal View of IR
  A. Democratic Peace
 1. Why dems don't fight each other
   a. Caution
   b. Respect
   c. Interest
 2. Why dems fight non-dems

  B. Alliance Policy: Intentions matter as much as capability

  C. Transformative Potential of Interntl Institutions
 1. promote cooperation
 2. can change interests

 D. Trade ---> Interdependence ---> Peace

III. Back to the Puzzles

  A. Why dems never (rarely?) fight each other?

  B. Why don't Cnadins worry abt US invasion?

  C. Why do similarly situated states behave differently?

  D. Why is cooperation so easy?

Marxism, parts 1&2

Marxism, part 1  (April 14, 2010)

I. Isn't Marxism Dead?

II. Puzzles
  A. What explains inequitable distribution of wealth and why is nothing done about it?
  B. War advances whose interest?
  C. Why does the US spend so much money on defense?

III. Background on Marxism
  A. Theory of History
  B. Theory of Knowledge
  C. Theory of Capitalism
  D. Theory of Revolution

IV. Leninism
  A. Imperialism: highest stage of capitalism (1916)
  B. Lenin gave Marx a foreign policy
  C. Corporate interests determine national interests.

Marxism, part II (April 16, 2010)

I. Good For Boeing, Good For America?
  A. Human Rights
  B. High Technology

II. Corporate Interests Caused WWI
  A. Need for Profit causes war
  B. Differential growth rates

III. Marxism & Three Dimensions of RLM
  A. Nature of international politics
 1. international system: R,L,M?
 2. actors: R,L,M?
  B. Progress: R,L,M? 

  C. Material/ideational: R,L,M?

IV. Comparisons
  A. Counterfactuals
  B. R & M
  1. Similarities:
         *Anarchy; materialist (diff growth rate); trade;     
          reject dem peace argument; view of IO/IL
2. Differences (between R&M):
         *Views of progress; actors (national/class 
    interest); impt of econ system
 C. L & M
  1. Similarities:
          *Econ system matters; belief in progress
2. Differences (between L&M):
          *society/anrchy; view of IO/IL; actrs;
     materl/ideational; trade

VI. Back to the puzzles
1. What explains inequitable distribution of wealth
and why is nothing done about it?
2. War advances whose interest?
3  Why spend so much money on defense?

World War I

Origins of WWI (April 19 2010)

I. Realist Explanations
  A. Power Transition: Brtn declining, Grmny rising
  B. Assessment
 1. strengths
 2. weaknesses
   a. does every power transition cause war?
   b. why didn't Brtsh initiate war?

II. Liberal Explanations
  A. Democratic Peace
  B. Gordon's expl: consequence of industrialization
 1. type of state
 2. nature of society

 3. Industrialization's effect on Brtn & Grmny:
   a. effect on state intrvn in econ?
   b. effect on size of bureaucracy?
   c. developed what kind of state?

  4. Grey & Kaiser fp --> WWI
   a. Grey: alliance vs. isolation
   b. Kaiser: mili/monopoly intrsts & div war

  C. Assessment of Gordon's argument
 1. strengths
 2. weaknesses
   a. too complex, too many "causes"
   b. what happened to "trade --> peace"?
   c. debate over G aggressiveness

III. Marxist Explanations
  A. Zilliacus: defense of imper interests
 B. Specifically, what explains B fp?
 C. Assessment
 1. strengths
 2. weaknesses
   a. why didn't Frnc and Brit fight each other?
   b. colonies bcming less important
   c. was the FO in pocket of Plutocracy?

IV.  Moral Implications: who/what resp for war?

Versailles to Munich

End of the Europn Era: Versailles-Munich (4/23/10)

I. Versailles Peace Agreement:
  A.Victors' Peace
  B. Problem? Germany.  Solution? Punishment
 1. no collective resp: all Germany's fault
 2. took 13% of Grmn territ; 10% of pop
 3. gutted German Military
 4. punitive war reparations

  C. Create the League of Nations; problems:
 1. US never joined
 2. Germany and Sov Union not allowed to join
 3. League had no "teeth"
  D. Pol, Econ, Social Conseq of WWI

II. WWII: Appeasement at Munich (1938)
  A. What happened at Munich?
 1. Hitler comes to power, 1933
 2. Hitler remilitarizes Rhineland, 1936
 3. Anschluss, 1938
 4. Htlr provoke Czech over Sudetenland, ‘38
 5. Htlr promises peace in exchng for Sudeteten

  B. What should Chamberlain have done?
 1. reactions inside Britain?
 2. US view?
 3. British military view?
 4. Better fight now or fight later?
C. So what?

Origins of the Cold War: A-bomb

Origns of the CW: A-Bomb (April 26)

I. Dropping the A-bomb: setting the stage
  A. Domestic Context: Racism
  B. Int Context: US soldiers being killed & tortured
  C. Dropping the bomb: Aug 6 & 9, 1945

II. Assessing the bomb's impact on the Cold War
  A. Orthodox: end war & save lives
  B. Revisionist: atomic diplomacy ag USSR
  C. Post-revisionist: Split the diff
  D. What did Soviets think?

Containment, Berlin, Korea

Cold War: Containment, Berlin, Korea, 4/28/2010

I. US Policy: Containment
  A. Kennan's containment strategy
 1. strong point defense
 2. encourage communist split
 3. be patient: USSR will collapse

  B. Truman Doctrine (1947)
 1. What's the issue?
 2. Oversell threat changed US interests
 3. Soviet reaction

II. Berlin Crisis, 1948
  A. Background
  B. Brinkmanship
  C. US airlift; Stalin's reaction

 III. Korean War, 1950-1953
  A. Background
  B. Realist explanations for going to war
 1. distribution of power?
 2. interests?
 3. fear of bandwagoning?

  C. Liberal explanations:
1. frm strong point to universal, undifferentiated
2. NSC 68: "clearer than truth"


The Cold War

Cold War (April 30, 2010)

I. What Caused the Cold War?
  A. Realist explanations
  B. Liberal explanations
  C. Marxist explanations

II. What kept it cold? Realist Explanations:
  A. Balance of power
  B. Nuclear weapons
  C. Peace in Europe? US hegemony
  D. Lib Critique of Realist explanations

III. Why not more coop? Lib explanations:
  A. Soviet Union not a liberal democracy
  B. Domestic politics
 1. in the USSR
 2. in the US
  C.Peace in Europe? democracies
  D. Realist critiques?

IV. Explaining Soviet collapse
  A. Realists: external & internal pressure
  B. Liberal: Gorbachev's beliefs
  C. Marxist: Socialism in one country doesn't work

New World Order? The Gulf War

Gulf War: Decision go on offensive (May 3, 2010)

I. Liberalism and the Gulf War
  A. Int law and human rights
  B. Learning lessons of Munich
  C. US Dom Poltcs: Bush up for re-election

II. Realism and the Gulf War
  A. Ntnl Intrst: oil & mntn rgnl balance
  B. Critiques

III. Marxism and the Gulf War
  A. Imperialism: US took what it needed
  B. Demands of Mil-Industrial Complex
  C. Critiques

War in Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia (May 5, 2010)

I. Break up of Yugoslavia
  A. Emerged from Ott/Haps Empires

  B. WWII: Tito's victory
 1. comm party rule
2. stopped ethnic nationalism
3. six rpblics: Bosnia,Croatia, Macedonia,Montenegro,Srbia, Slovenia.
4. two provinces: Kosovo, Vojvodina

  C. After Tito
 1. Serb nationalism emerges
2. Rise of Milosevic
 3. Slovenian indep, but Croat-Serb war

II. International Reaction?
  A. US Reaction: no dog in that fight
  B. European Reaction
 1. Grmns demanded recog of Croatia
 2. Bosnian reaction: Don't do it.

III. Serb Paramilitary Slaughters Bosnian Muslims
  A. Ethnic Cleansing

  B.International reaction?
1. Moral cndmntn and ecnmc snctns
2. What role for UNPROFOR?

IV. Somalia: US intrst ends w/ USSR
  A. US support ends 1989
  B. Anarchy, War, Famine

V. Famine & US/UN Intervntion (4/91)
  A. 4.5 million threatened w/ famine
  B. Bush's decision to intervene
  C. Aideed kills Pkstn/US troops
 *Oct 3 1993: Black Hawk down
 *Clinton ends US interventn, Oct 7

Somalia and Rwanda

Somalia and Rwanda (May 10, 2010)

I. Sov Collapse Ends US interest in Somalia
II. Famine & UN/US Intervention (April 1991).
  A. Bush's decision
  B. Aideed kills Pakistani/US troops
  C. Results of US intervnetion
  D. Assessing the intervention

III. Somalia today?
  A. ICU emerges, 2005 CIA backs warlords
  B. US backs 2006 Ethiopian invasion
  C. 2009 Ethiopians leave, US backs moderate Islamic Govt ag Al Shabab and AQ
  D. 2010: Shabab, Hizbul Islam, Pirates, AQ

IV. Habyarimana under siege ('87-'93)
  A. economy collapses
  B. RPF attacks (Oct '90): Interahamwe formed
  C. Int'l Comm demands political reforms
  D. Arusha Accords (signed August '93)
1. pwr share ( 50% officers Tutsi)
 2. UNAMIR provide protection?
 3. Int'l Comm dmnds immed compliance

V. Genocide and Civil War
  A. Political decapitation begins 4/6/94
  B. Blgns leave; cripples UNAMIR 4/21
  C. RPF enters 4/8 and crushes RGF (mid july)
  D. Possible causes of civil war
 1. colonialism
 2. external support of Hutus
 3. external support of Tutsis

  E. Possible causes of genocide
 1. Extrmist Hutu ideology; evil leaders exploitd compliant unedcated Hutus, hate radio
 2. Elitocide + fear turns into genocide
 3. inexplicable

V. Rwanda today?

Wednesday: Possible to prevent or stop the genocide?

Rwanda, Darfur, Iraq

Rwanda, Darfur, Iraq (May 12, 2010)

I. Rwnda: What Could Have Been Done?
  A. Window: April 7-April 21
 1. Gen. Dallaire: stp gncd w/ 5000 trps
 2. Difficult operation
   a. logistics
   b. zero political will
   c. When did West know it was genocide?
 B. Could genocide have been prevented?

II. Darfur

III. Iraq War
  A. Realist explnations for war
1. WMD
 2. Anti-Appsment, assertve unilateralism
 3. Terrorism: Al Qaeda

*Realist explanations ag war:
 1. deterrence and containment work 
 2. war & occupation is risky
 3. Iraq & war on terror unrelated
B. Liberal explanations for war
 1. Overthrow brutal dictator/humn rights
 2. War for democracy

 *Liberal reasons against war
 1. No to unilateralism, Yes to UN & IL
 2. Don't spread dem by mil invasion

 C. Marxist explanations?
 1. oil and imperialism
 2. corporate contracts mean big $$

Free Trade, parts 1 & 2

Free Trade, part 1 (May 17, 2010)

*How important is trade to WA state?

I. Liberalism and Free Trade
  A. Liberals on wealth and power:
 1. poltcs & econmcs shld be independent
 2. focus on absolute gain
3. trade promotes peace

  B. Ricardo's Comparative Advantage
II. Realism and Free Trade
  A. Realists on wealth and power:
 1. poltcs determines econmcs
 2. focus on relative gains
 3. trade can lead to war

  B. Realist view of Comparative Advantage
 1. fear dependence on others
 2. strategic trade
  *and Liberal response?

Free Trade, part II (May 19, 2010)

III. Marxism and Free Trade
  A. Marxists on wealth and power
 1. econmcs determines politics
 2. focus on relative gains
 3. trade can lead to war

  B. Marxist view of Comparative Advantage
 1. capital/labor mobility --> corp blackmail
 2. imperialism of free trade
 3. outsourcing and development
  *first wave of outsourcing?
  *second wave?
  *third wave?

Free Trade and Globalization

Free Trade & Globalization (May 21, 2010)

I. From GATT to the WTO
  A. What is GATT?
 1. Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1930)
 2. GATT response to Smoot-Hawley
  B. WTO
 1. What is the WTO?
 2. Has it worked?
   a. US hegemony?
   b. liberal ideology?
   c. Marxist view?

II. Globalization
  A. What is Globalization?
  B. How Globalization influences States?
 1. democracy
  *GM food,
  *"buy American"
 2. accountability

  C. Who should provide for the common good?
 *WA state and pressure of globalization

North-South Relations

North-South Relations (May 24, 2010)

I. Colonialism
  A. Berlin Conference (1884)

  B. What did it mean to be a "colony"?
 1. no indigenous role in govt.
 2. don't give indig people an education
 3. design economy to fit imperial needs
II. De-Colonization and Independence
  A. Struggle for Independence
  B. African situation at independence?
 1. weak national identity
 2. neglect of intellectual capital
 3. commodity based economy, problems:
  a. terms of trade favor finished goods
  b. need a diversified economy

  C. Debt
 1. paying off debt kills an economy
 2. slash domestic spending
  D. Mismanagement, Corruption, War

III. Solution: Foreign Aid?

IV. Solution: Free trade & capitalism?
  A. Microfinance: kiva.org
 (also, heifer.org, beadsforlife.org)
  B. KenCall
  C. Dunavant Corporation
  D. Liberal Econ Policies Always Best?
Ex: Malawi

N-S & Environment, parts 1 & 2

N-S & Environment (May 26, 2010)

Finishing-up N-S
Solution? Capitalism and Free Trade
 1. KenCall
 2. Dunavant Corporation
 3. Librl Econ Policies Always Best? Malawi

I. Development and Enviro Destruction

II. Consequ of industrialization in the South
  A. rapid increase in oil consumption
 *what can US do to reduce oil consumption?
  B. more "throw away" societies

III. Enviro conseq of Chinese industrilization   
  A. why produce so much pollution?
  B. health effects
  C. political effects for CCP
 1. wht threat does slower econ growth pose?
 2. what threat does pollution pose

IV. Let there be light….bogolight.com

Environment, part 2. May 28, 2010

I. Global Warming
  A. Consequences for the North

  B. Consequences for the Global South?
   *climate refugees

  C. Should the North help with adaptation?
 1. obligation?  
 2. where's the money?

II. Who Should Pay?
  A. Tragedy of the Commons
 1. game theory and prospect theory
 2. is the commons in trouble?
 B. U.S. View of climate change?
 1. Clinton to Bush
 2. Obama

  C. Developing World's view (2009 ppp)
 *US GDP per capita: $46,400
 *Brazil GDP per cap: $10,200
 *China GDP per cap: $6,600
 *India GDP per capi: $3,100

  D. What to do?
 1. What to do about the US?
 2. What to do about China and India?


Identity (June 2, 2010)

I. Us vs. Them?
  A. Group Idntfctn Means?
 1. Huntington's view of identity
 2. less abstract view of identity

  B. Two views on understanding identity:
 1. instrumental view
 2. non-instrumental or genuine
 3. problem: inferring interests from behavior

  C. What contributes to group Id?
 1. common territory (regionalism)
 2. common economic activity
 3. common language/ethnicity/religion
 4. common historical experiences
 5. interdependence of fate

  D. Consequences of group Identity
II. Explaining Intergroup Conflict
  A. Real Conflict of Interest (Sheriffs)

  B. Mere Group Perception (Tajfel)

  C. So what? Identity is double-edged.

III. M/R/L and Identity
  A. Marxist view: econ interests --> identity

  B. Realist view: pol/econ interests --> id

  C. Liberal view: identity --> interests

 D. So What?

Human Rights & Justice

Human Rights and Justice (June 4, 2010)

I. Is there moral choice in IR?
  A. No moral choice
  B. Yes, moral choice exists

II. How Much Moral Choice?
  A. Anarchy limits moral choice
  B. Anrchy increses opprtunity for imm choice
  C. Limited by diff views of morality

III. Human Rights
  A. Whose Rights?
  B. What Rights?
1. Liberal view.
2. Marxist view

  C. R/L/M on Human Rights

IV. The Future

Send mail to: mercer@u.washington.edu
Last modified: 6/03/2010 7:25 PM