A New Urban Geography?
Many geographers have used the example of New York and Manhattan to
exemplify American urban phenomena and extremes. Cliche questions such as
"When will Manhattan Island begin to sink?" or "What would have happened
to the New York skyline without the elevator or the telephone?" were
widely popular in urban geography classes. Thus, it is not surprising that
within the first month after the terror attack a discussion ensued on the
future of the city, urban concentrations and dispersion, the skyscraper
and urban life.
References and Links
- Impact on Urban Form and Functions:
Seeking Safety, Manhattan Firms are Scattering
New York Times, January 29, 2002.
... a corporate world in which
dispersing workers became the order of the day after the attack...
Never again do these global companies want to see themselves knocked
out of business ... by a
single cataclysmic event.
Of course for a number of years, these companies have engaged in ... a
"corporate diaspora" in which many companies dispatch
various operations to the hinterlands. Most of these
companies are not abandoning New York altogether.
Sept. 11 terror attacks to cost U.S. metros more than
1.6 million jobs in 2002,
Milken Institute study, January 11, 2002
Examination of 315 metro areas shows tourist destinations like Las
Vegas, Orlando and Honolulu will suffer major losses in 2002 due to
cutbacks in travel; New York, L.A. and other big cities will also lose
many jobs, study finds.
- EDWARD L. GLAESER
and JESSE M. SHAPIRO
Cities and Warfare: The Impact of Terrorism on Urban Form
[Harvard University ; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) ; The
Harvard University ; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Paper No. 1942
Historically, large-scale violence has impacted cities in three ways.
First, concentrations of people have an advantage in defending themselves
from attackers.... Second,
cities often make attractive targets for violence, which creates an
incentive for people to disperse. Finally, since warfare and terrorism
often specifically target means of transportation, violence can increase
the effective cost of transportation, which will usually increase the
demand for density.
- Sam Casella, FAICP
Let Cities Be Cities
Planetizen, Nov 26, 2001
Scattered development does not offer more security.
Decentralizing the population and businesses of our great
cities would be a long and expensive proposition, and one
likely to fail.
In a Moment : On Glocal Mobilities and the Terrorised City
[Stephen Graham, Newcastle, UK]
In Defense of Cities [Clay Shirky, in: O'Reilly, Sept.25, 2001]
- Further Discussion & Links
- Eric Goldstein was quoted in the October 5 New York Times
- Stephen Ambrose's op ed in the October 1 Wall Street Journal is at
- Holman Jenkins Jr.'s article was in the September 19 Wall Street
- Paul Krugman's op ed can be found in the October 3 New York Times at
- An analysis by the Reason Foundation's Sam Staley of the effects of
the attack on New York can be found at
- Sam Staley, "What Can We See in Manhattan's Urban Future,"
- New Urbanists, "Smart Growth Is Still Smart,"
- Thomas Bray, "Let Freedom Sprawl,"
- The Future of New York, Business Week, (Cover Story) Oct 22, 2001
- Business Week, Oct.1, 2001, "The Future of the City,"
- Leonard Gilroy, "Our Relationship with the Built Environment,"
- Washington Post, "N.Y. Weighs Its 'Bittersweet Opportunity,'"
- Spreading Out, Dispersion, The end of Cities?
- James Howard Kunstler and Nikos A. Salingaros,
The End of Tall Buildings,
planetizen.com on September 17, 2001.
We are convinced that the age of skyscrapers is at an end. It must
now be considered an experimental building typology that
has failed. We predict that no new megatowers will be built, and
existing ones are destined to be dismantled.
- All Cities Will
Change [Peter Marcuse, Columbia Univ., NYC]
Today, there's safety in
Mercury News, Technology,
Saturday, Sept. 22, 2001, BY DAN GILLMOR
Federal Reserve Bank of New York: Economic Policy review
Special issue on the economic effects of September 11
Economic Policy Review, November 2002, Volume 8, Number 2
- Jason Bram, Andrew Haughwout, and James Orr,
Has September 11 Affected New York City's Growth Potential?
During the 1990s, the city's expansion was built on several factors,
including improving fiscal conditions, better public services, and
shifting industrial and population structures that favored job and income
growth... suggests that the effects of September 11 will not
eliminate these advantages in the medium term; ...
indications are that the city remains an attractive location for
businesses as well as households....
- Videos Online
Technology vs. Terror 11/14/01
John Benditt and Consuelo Mack discuss new ways to fight terror, including
biosensors, face recognition, and smart cities.
Timelines of Terrorist Attacks:
- Infrastructure: Transportation, Internet etc.
Networking the Infrastructure
Technology Review, December 2001
By Wade Roush
New classes of detectors, plus safer building designs, point to an
"intelligent city" that senses danger. ..., I can't help
the scene if a 767 were to rocket down out of the clouds, decapitating one
of the bridge's towers or snapping the main suspension cables. I can see
wires recoiling in slow motion, the main span sagging and shearing apart,
cars and trucks and pedestrians plunging into the bay ....
- The End of the Modern World
- Michael W. Mehaffy and Nikos A. Salingaros
The End Of The Modern World
Planetizen, Jan 09, 2002
The Twentieth Century ushered in a historic era of
optimism for the rational "modern" future. History may
record that September 11 ended the modernist dream for
cities. But already new visions are emerging for a wiser,
more hopeful future.
- Environmental & Health Impacts:
- Civil Society:
- Government & Other Sites
- General & Other Resources:
Divided We Stand:
Paperback, 260 pages
"... The Trade Center serves as a potent symbol of the disastrous
consequences of undemocratic planning and development.
This book is a history of that skyscraping ambition and the impact it had
on NewYork and international life. ..."
Randal O'Toole, The Thoreau Institute
Urban Technology & Telecommunications
[Anthony Townsend, New York University]
Econ & Bus Geog