__Glossary__

** Catalyst** – A substance present in small amounts
relative to the reactants that increases the rate of a chemical
reaction without being consumed in the process.

__Channel____
__– A tubular passage (groove)
for fluid.

** Concentration** - The amount of a specified substance in a unit
amount of another substance.

** Conversion rate** – The rate in which the reactants react to
produce the products.

__Endothermic____
__– A chemical reaction which
absorbs heat.

** Exothermic** - A chemical reaction which gives off heat.

__FIDAP__** **– A finite element
modeling software package that can be used to solve fluid flow
problems with either 2-D or 3-D geometries for a variety of
situations (e.g., laminar vs. turbulent) and equations (e.g.,
momentum, energy) over time.

__Finite difference method (FDM)__** **– A method of modeling physical
situations by breaking up one large problem into many smaller
(and easier) problems. A grid of points (nodes) is placed on top
of the geometry being modeled. The governing equations of the
system under investigation are solved for each node at each time
point in an iterative fashion until the final time point is
reached. The governing equations can be very complicated when
applied to the entire system as a whole, but can be written as a
system of algebraic equations when applied to each node
individually.

** Finite element model (FEM)** –
Like the finite difference method, FEM is a method of modeling
physical situations by breaking up one large problem into many
smaller (and easier) problems. FEM is used in structural analysis
and computational fluid mechanics. The geometry being examined is
divided into small regions (2-D for 2-D models, 3-D for 3-D
models). The governing equations of the system are solved for
each element, rather than for the entire system all at once,
which allows the user to simply the equations. This method is
computationally intense and time-consuming.

** Frictional force** – The force between the fluid and the pipe
walls, in which the pipe walls resist the motion of the fluid.

** Heat
capacity** – The amount of
heat required to raise the temperature of a body by 1 degree,
either at constant pressure or constant volume and without
inducing a chemical change or change of phase.

** Heat of reaction (formation)** – The amount of heat absorbed or given off
during the formation of a given molecule. Usually given in terms
of energy per mol.

** Isobaric** – System is maintained at a constant pressure.

__Isothermal____
__- system is maintained at a
constant temperature.

** Laminar** – Low Reynolds number flow, in which
viscous forces predominate over inertial forces. Streamlines are
time-invariant and convective transport is negligible.

** Lithograph** – A printing process in which the image
configuration to be printed is rendered on a flat surface and
treated so that only those areas to be printed will retain ink.

** Magnitude** – Greatness in extent or size.

** Membrane** – A thin sheet of natural or synthetic
material permeable to substances in solution.

__Monomers____
__– A molecule that con be
chemically bounded as a unit of a polymer.

** Network** – Many individual components connected
together is parallel

** No-slip
**– The theory that the
fluid at the walls are no moving (slipping) along the length of
the pipe. The fluid at the walls of the pipes is stationary.

** Oxidation
**– Combination of a
substance with an oxygen.

** Parabolic flow profile **– In laminar flow, the condition of
no-flow at the walls results in a parabolic flow profile, in
which the velocity at the center of the channel is 1.5x that of
the average velocity (for flow between parallel plates). The
material at the walls therefore moves more slowly than the
material in the center of the channel and therefore spends more
time in the microreactor. This variation in velocity affects the
extent of reaction and heat transfer in the device.

** Perimeter** – The length of the circumference around the
channel of the reactor.

** Photolithography** – A planographic printing process using plates
made according to a photographic image

** Reynolds number** – The ratio of inertial forces to
viscous forces. Re=(density of fluid x velocity of fluid x
diameter of pipe)/viscosity of fluid. At low Re (<~2000), flow
is laminar. Above Re=~2000, flow is turbulent.

** Simultaneously**– Occurring, existing, or carried out at the
same time.

** Stoichiometric coefficient** – The coefficient by which quantities of
reactants and products in chemical reactions are determined.

** Substrate** – The material or substance in which enzymes
acts.

__Tolerate____
__– To handle up to, but no more
than.

** Tubular reactor **– A reaction that occurs within the walls of a
tube or pipe.

** Turbulent** – High Reynolds number flow, in which
inertial forces predominate over viscous forces.

__Vessel____
__– A hollow utensil used as a
container to hold fluids.