Definitions of Sexual and Injection Partners, Elicitation Questions, and Introductions to Supplementary Interviewing Techniques (Brewer & Garrett, 2001, "Evaluation of interviewing techniques to enhance recall of sexual and drug injection partners")

Definition of sexual partners

"The next several questions are about sex.  By 'sex' I mean any kind of oral, vaginal, or anal sex that involves two or more people.  This includes contact between penis and vagina, between penis and anus (or 'butt'), between penis and mouth, between mouth and vagina, and between mouth and anus.  For this interview, 'sex' does not mean mouth-to-mouth kissing, hand touching of the breasts, penis, vagina, or anus."

Definition of injection partners

"For the next several questions, think of the people you injected drugs with in the last year (since [month/year]).  People you injected drugs with include those who injected drugs with you, and also people you gave injections to or people who gave injections to you.  Include all the people you injected drugs with, even if you did not share needles with them and even if you injected drugs with them only once."

Elicitation question for sexual partners (free recall)

"For the next several questions, think of the people you have had sex with in the last year (since [month/year]).  Include all the people you had sex with, even if you had sex with them only once.  Remember that by 'sex' I mean any type of oral, vaginal, or anal sex, regardless of the situation the sexual contact occurs in or the type of relationship you have with the other person.

When I ask you to, tell me the names of all the people you had sex with in the last year (since [month/year]).  You can use their first names, nicknames, initials, or anything that you will be sure to remember them by, but please don't give me their full names.  This way I won't ever be able to identify these people or know who they are.  I am going to write down the names as you go along.  If you don't know the name of somebody you had sex with, give some word or brief description to refer to this person.  Take as much time as you need and don't worry if names don't come right away--just keep working at it if you think you might be able to remember them.

Who are all the people you had sex with in the last year?"

Elicitation question for sexual partners (chronologically directed recall)

"For the next several questions, think of the people you have had sex with in the last year (since [month/year]).  Include all the people you had sex with, even if you had sex with them only once.  Remember that by 'sex' I mean any type of oral, vaginal, or anal sex, regardless of the situation the sexual contact occurs in or the type of relationship you have with the other person.

When I ask you to, tell me the names of all the people you had sex with in the last year (since [month/year]).  You can use their first names, nicknames, initials, or anything that you will be sure to remember them by, but please don't give me their full names.  This way I won't ever be able to identify these people or know who they are.  I am going to write down the names as you go along.  If you don't know the name of somebody you had sex with, give some word or brief description to refer to this person.

When you start, first say the person you most recently had sex with, then say the person you had sex with before that, and so on through the last year.  Take as much time as you need and don't worry if names don't come right away--just keep working at it if you think you might be able to remember them.  Beginning with the person you most recently had sex with, who are all the people you had sex with in the last year?"

Elicitation question for injection partners

"When I ask you to, tell me the names of all the people you injected drugs with in the last year (since [month/year]).  You can use their first names, nicknames, initials, or anything that you will be sure to remember them by, but please don't give me their full names.  This way I won't ever be able to identify these people or know who they are.  I am going to write down the names as you go along.  If you don't know the name of somebody you injected drugs with, give some word or brief description to refer to this person.  Take as much time as you need and don't worry if names don't come right away--just keep working at it if you think you might be able to remember them.

Who are all the people you injected drugs with in the last year?"

Overall introduction to supplementary techniques

“Now I am going to ask you more questions to help you remember other people you had sex/injected drugs with in the last year who you might have forgotten.  In our previous studies, we found that many people forget some of the persons they have had sex/injected drugs with.  Even people who think they have not forgotten anyone often have forgotten some persons.  The questions I am going to ask you are designed to trigger your memories of people you might have forgotten.

We are just trying to be as complete as possible, so when I go through these questions please try as hard as you can to remember other people you might have had sex/shot drugs with in the last year who you haven’t already mentioned.  Mention other people only if you truly think you had contact with them in this period -- don’t guess.  The interview won’t take longer if you remember more people now because the computer allows only a certain number of questions for the interview.”

Introductions to specific techniques

Alphabetic cues:

"I am going to go through the letters of the alphabet one at a time.  As I say each letter, think of all the people you know whose name begins with that letter.  The names could be first names, nicknames, or last names.  Let me know if any of these are people you had sex/injected drugs with in the last year but might not have mentioned earlier."

Location cues:

"I have here a list of different kinds of locations or places where people have sex/inject drugs with other people or meet people who they later have sex/inject drugs with.  As I say each location, think of all of the times you have had sex/injected drugs there, or met people there in the last year.  Focus on all the people you interacted with at these locations.  Let me know if any of these are people you had sex/injected drugs with but might not have mentioned earlier.

Network cues:

"I am going to read back again the list of people you mentioned earlier.  This time, as I say each person, think of all the other people who know, hang out, or interact with that person.  Let me know if any of these are people you had sex/injected drugs with in the last year but might not have mentioned earlier."

Role cues:

"I have here a list of different kinds of relationships people have with the persons they have sex/inject drugs with.  As I say each type of role relationship, think of all of the people you know that you have that kind of relationship with.  Let me know if any of these are people you had sex/injected drugs with in the last year but might not have mentioned earlier."

Timeline construction:

"We're going to map out where you've been and what you've been doing the last year.  Then we will go through this timeline and see if there are other people you have had sex/injected drugs with during this period.  As we are making this timeline, if any additional people you have had sex/injected drugs with during this period come to mind, please tell me."

Residences - "Where are you living now?  Where did you live before that?", and so on.   "In the last year, have you spent any time in a hospital, jail, or treatment facility?  Have you gone on any vacations or business trips in the past year?".

Family/friend events - "Now I'd like to put down important events involving your family and friends.  Are you currently married or involved in a steady relationship?"  If yes, then "When did that relationship begin?".  If no, then ask "When did your last relationship end?".  As appropriate, ask about preceding relationships.  "Have there been any marriages, divorces, births, or deaths among your family or friends in the last year?  Are there any other events that were especially important to you that involved your family or friends in the last year/2 years?"

Daily activities - "Now I'd like to put down information about your daily activities.  Have you worked at a job or training program, or gone to school or college in the last year?"  Chart all relevant activities over last year.  "Are there any other significant highlights or changes to your daily activities in the last year?"  If interviewee is not a drug injector, "Are there any other dates that are particularly significant to you over the past year?"

Drug activities (for drug injectors) - "Now let's put down any significant events related to your drug use.  In the last year, have you had any periods that you were not using?  Have you had any periods that you were using especially a lot in the last year?  In the last year, have you had any overdoses?  Have you changed where you get or buy your drugs?  How about any changes in the drugs you have used?  Are there any other dates that are particularly significant to you over the past year?"

Timeline cueing:

"Now we're going to go through the timeline to see if there are any other people you had sex/injected drugs with who you might not have mentioned earlier."

Have the subject look at the calendar with you.  Start at the beginning of the timeline.  Give a description of the subject's situation at that point.  Use separate cue periods defined by different jobs or residences (including vacations, business trips, jail stays, hospital stays, and inpatient treatment stays).  Use social gatherings typically associated with sex/drug use as separate cue periods.  Use longer cue periods for time periods with few landmark events, but use shorter cue periods for time periods with many landmark events.