KOHLBERG'S SIX LEVELS OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

(ETHICS OF JUSTICE/RIGHTS)

 

A.  PRE-CONVENTIONAL LEVEL

 

STAGE 1:  Deferring to authority

 

STAGE 2:  Learning to satisfy one’s own needs.

 

B.  CONVENTIONAL LEVEL

 

STAGE 3:  Conforming to stereotypical roles.

 

STAGE 4:  Sense that individual roles contribute to social order.

 


C.  POST-CONVENTIONAL LEVEL

 

STAGE 5:  Morality thought of in terms of rights and standards endorsed by society as a whole.

 

STAGE 6:  Morality thought of as self-chosen, universal principles of justice.

 

 

     On Kohlberg's model, moral development is the development of an autonomous self, capable of being motivated by abstract principles understood as a kind of "mathematical" solution to conflicts of interests.
GILLIGAN'S SIX STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT (ETHICS OF CARE)

 

A.  PRE-CONVENTIONAL LEVEL

 

STAGE 1:  Caring for the self.

 

STAGE 2:  Stage 1 concern judged to be selfish.

 

B.  CONVENTIONAL LEVEL

 

STAGE 3:  Goodness is caring for others, frequently equated with self-sacrifice.

 

STAGE 4:  Illogic of the inequality between self and others becomes evident.  Search for equilibrium.


C.  POST-CONVENTIONAL LEVEL

 

STAGE 5:  Focus on the dynamics of relationships, to eliminate the tension between self and others. 

 

STAGE 6:  Care is extended beyond personal relationships to a general recognition of the interdependence of self and other, accompanied by a universal condemnation of exploitation and hurt.

 

     On Gilligan's model, moral development is the development of a self-in-relation.  Morality is understood in terms of the preservation of valuable human relations.  Progress from stage to stage is motivated by increasing understanding of human relationships.


CHARACTERISIC FEATURES OF THE JUSTICE PERSPECTIVE

 

PARADIGM:  CONTRACTS

 

EMPHASIS ON:

1.  REASON and LOGIC

2.  EXPLICIT PRINCIPLES

3.  IMPARTIALITY

4.  FAIRNESS

5.  AUTONOMY

6.  RIGHTS/OBLIGATIONS

7.  GOVERNS RELATIONS

     AMONG EQUALS

8.  COMPETITION (CONFLICTING

     INTERESTS)

9.  SELF-RELIANCE

 


CHARACTERISIC FEATURES OF THE CARE PERSPECTIVE

 

PARADIGM:  CARING RELATIONSHIP (e.g. Parent-Child Relationship)

 

EMPHASIS ON: 

1.  EMOTIONS

2.  RESPONSIVENESS TO

     SITUATIONS

3.  PARTIALITY

4.  COMPASSION, SYMPATHY OR

     EMPATHY

5.  INTER-CONNECTEDNESS

6.  RESPONSIBILITIES

7.  GOVERNS RELATIONS AMONG

     UNEQUALS

8.  COOPERATION (COMMON INTERESTS)

9.  TRUST

Gilligan's Empirical Results

 

Primary Focus

 

 

Justice

Care

Both

Men

2/3

[1]

1/3

Women

1/3

1/3

1/3

 

From Gilligan (25).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baier on Kant vs. Hume

 

Seven contrasts:

 

(1) Universal Law (Necessary Truths) vs. Historicist Conventions (Contingent)

 

(2) Reason vs. Sentiment (Sympathy/Empathy)

 

(3) Self-Interest vs. Benevolence

 

(4) Individualistic vs. Social

 

(5) Relationship of Equals vs. Relationships of Dependency

 

(6) Autonomy vs. Relation

 

(7) Rights vs. Responsibilities

 

What is moral development?

What is moral progress?

 

What does Baier mean by the "correction" of sentiment and a "progress" of sentiments?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Possibility of Exploitation

 

Why is Baier concerned about the possibility of exploitation?

 

Is this a problem of care or of justice?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Friedman on Care vs. Justice

 

Friedman identifies two empirical theses that she attributes to Gilligan: 

 

different voice hypothesis:  the care perspective is distinct from the justice perspective.

 

gender difference hypothesis:  "The care perspective is typically, or characteristically, a woman's moral voice, while the justice perspective is typically, or characteristically a man's moral voice"(90).

 

Does Gilligan hold both these theses?

 

 

 

 

What does Friedman mean by saying that "the genders are moralized"(89)?

 

What does she mean by a "'division of moral labor' between the genders"(89)?

 

Friedman's proposal:  the symbolically female moral voice and the symbolically male moral voice.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why does Friedman think that "morally adequate care involves considerations of justice"(90)?

 

(1) appropriate sharing of benefits and burdens in a caring relationship (distributive justice)

 

(2) special vulnerability to harm and the need for rectification (corrective justice)

 

(3) justice in mothering:  fairness and welfare rights.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     The Role of Care in the Public Realm

 

Includes "foreign aid, welfare programs, famine or disaster relief, or other social programs designed to relieve suffering and attend to human needs"(103).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Friedman's Version of the

Different Voice Hypothesis

 

The difference between commitments to particular persons and commitments to moral abstractions (e.g., laws and generalizations).

 

 

How would Baier respond?