PHIL 440A

STUDY QUESTIONS ON HUME, MILLGRAM, AND WILLIAMS

 

Questions on Hume:

 

1.  What, according to Hume, are the two things reason can do?

 

2.  What does Hume mean by a "passion"?

 

3.  According to Hume, what are the two senses in which a passion can be called "unreasonable"?

 

4.  What are the examples Hume gives of actions that most people would regard as irrational, but which he claims are not?

 

5.  Why does Hume believe that moral distinctions are not derived from reason?

 

6.  In the last paragraph of the reading, Hume identifies one version of the so-called naturalistic fallacy.  Which one?  Explain.

 

7.  Hume is usually thought to be an instrumentalist about practical reason.  What is an instrumentalist about practical reason?

 

 

Questions on Millgram:

 

8.  Millgram argues that Hume is not an instrumentalist.  According to Millgram, what is Hume's view of practical reason?

 

9.  Can you think of additional evidence from the Hume reading that supports Millgram's interpretation of Hume?

 

Questions on Williams:

 

10.  What is the sub-Humean model of practical reasoning?  Does Williams accept it?

 

11.  What kind of reasoning does Williams count as practical reasoning?

 

12.  What does Williams mean by a subjective motivational set?

 

13.  What does Williams mean by an internal reason?

 

14. What does Williams mean by external reason?

 

15.  How does Williams use the Owen Wingrave example to argue that there are no external reasons?