PHIL 440A. FINAL EXAM REVIEW QUESTIONS
The Final Exam will be held in SAV 132 AT 2:30 pm on Monday Dec. 9. PLEASE BRING ONE OR MORE BLANK EXAM BOOKS AND A PEN TO THE EXAM. I will no longer accept pencil. EXAM BOOKS WITH NOTES WRITTEN ON THEM OR WITH PAGES MISSING WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED. Please answer all questions completely, but concisely. ANSWER IN COMPLETE SENTENCES. The exam will consist of selections from the following questions. You will have approximately 100 minutes to complete the exam. To complete the exam in 100 minutes, it will be important to have thought out your answers in advance. In preparing for the exam, you are encouraged to discuss these questions with other members of the class, and to discuss what the relevant considerations would be in answering them. However, each student is expected to develop his/her own answers to the questions. You should not discuss the wording of an answer or attempt to come up with an agreed upon answer. If you draft answers to the questions, you should not show your draft answers to others, nor should you read or copy someone else's draft answers. Graded exams will be available for pick-up in the Philosophy Department Office (Savery 361) during the first week of winter quarter. If you would like your Final Exam mailed to you, please bring a sufficiently large, stamped, self-addressed envelope to the Final Exam and insert it inside your exam book.
1. Explain and distinguish the following pairs of terms. (You are not required to define them. You can use examples to illustrate them. However, your explanations or examples should be adequate for explaining the distinctions to a reasonably intelligent person with no philosophical background.)
(a) Hypothetical/Categorical Imperative
(b) Autonomous/Heteronomous Will (Kant)
(c) prudent/prudent but "trustworthy" ("moral")/trustworthy and fair (moral) person (Gauthier)
(d) philosophical utilitarianism/normative utilitarianism (Scanlon)
(e) care/justice perspective in ethics
(f) internal/external goods (MacIntyre)
(g) algorithm/practice (MacIntyre)
(h) explicit sensitivity/implicit sensitivity to a moral principle
2. What are the three versions of the Categorical Imperative? For each of them, answer the following question: If true, would it provide purely descriptive necessary and sufficient conditions for moral rightness/wrongness? Explain.
3. What is the difference between rights understood as side constraints and a "utilitarianism of rights"?
5. What is Gauthier's thesis? Why does Gauthier think it is true?
6. What is a collective action problem? What is an N-Person Prisoners’ Dilemma? Explain how making the individualistically rational choice in an N-Person Prisoners’ Dilemma can be understood as acting on a hypothetical imperative. Explain how cooperating in an N-Person Prisoners’ Dilemma can be understood as the result of a universalizability test. Explain why free riding in an N-Person Prisoners’ Dilemma cannot be universalized.
7. What does Kant mean by the "good will"? Why is Mark Twain's story of Huckleberry Finn a challenge to Kant's account of what makes a will good? (Hint: Why would some people think that Huck's failure to turn Jim in to the bounty hunters is morally estimable? Why would Kant's view imply that what Huck did could not be morally estimable?)
8. What is Scanlon's contractualist principle for moral wrongness? Does Scanlon’s principle provide a non-moral (either purely descriptive or instrumentally rational) sufficient condition for moral wrongness? Explain.
9. Contrast philosophical utilitarianism and Scanlon's philosophical contractualism on the following issues: (a) the subject matter of morality; (b) moral motivation; (c) the moral point of view.
10. John Harsanyi and John Rawls both make contractualist (hypothetical consent) arguments for moral principles. (a) What mistake does Scanlon think that both of them make? (b) What principle does Harsanyi believe would be agreed to in his hypothetical choice situation? What is Scanlon’s objection to that principle? (c) What principle does Rawls think would be agreed to in his hypothetical choice situation? What is Scanlon’s objection to that principle?
11. How does Glaspell's story, "A Jury of Her Peers" illustrate the difference between the justice perspective and the care perspective in ethics?
12. (a) According to Baier, what are the main differences between Kant's and Hume's ethics? (b) How do they correspond to the ethics of justice and the ethics of care? (c) Which does Baier favor, Kant's ethics or Hume's ethics? Why? (d) Which do you favor, Kant's ethics or Hume's? Why?
13. According to Baier, what is moral reflection? Explain fully.
14. (a) What is Baier's historicist understanding of principles of justice? (b) Why does it imply that there are no objective, universal principles of justice?
15. (a) What is the different voice hypothesis? (b) What is the gender difference hypothesis? (c) What does Friedman mean when she says that the genders have been moralized?
16. Explain three ways that Friedman believes that morally appropriate caring should involve justice.
17. According to Friedman, what difference in moral orientation corresponds to the difference between what is called the "care" perspective and what is called the "justice" perspective in ethics?
18. (a) Why does Aristotle not identify happiness with the maximization of pleasure? (b) According to Aristotle, what is happiness?
19. (a) According to Aristotle, what is a non-moral virtue? (b) According to Aristotle, what is a moral virtue?
20. What is a practice? Explain the role of a practice, a human life, and a moral tradition in MacIntyre’s account of virtue. Use examples.
21. According to MacIntyre, what three virtues will be regarded as virtues in any practice? Why?
22. What does Schaller refer to as the “Standard View” of the relation between virtues and moral rules? Schaller gives three potential counterexamples to the Standard View. Explain two of them.
23. In this class we have identified a number of potential purely descriptive necessary and sufficient (PDN&S) conditions or purely descriptive sufficient (PDS) conditions for moral rightness or moral wrongness. (a)Explain why the following proposals, if successful, would provide PDN&S conditions for moral rightness or moral wrongness:
(i) Act Utilitarianism
(ii) Hospers' Rule Utilitarianism
(iii) J.S. Mill's social practice utilitarianism
(iv) Kant's First Categorical Imperative
(b) Explain why it is a mistake to interpret the following proposals as attempts to give PDN&S (or PDS) conditions for moral rightness or wrongness:
(v) Kant’s Second Categorical Imperative
(vi) Scanlon's contractualist principle
(vii) Aristotle's Golden Mean Formula for virtue.
24. (a) What is a Moral Sensitivity Claim concerning a judgment of right or wrong? (b) What is a Moral Reponsiveness Claim concerning an action? (c) For any principle P, explain the difference between explicit sensitivity to P and being implicitly sensitive or implicitly responsive to P in terms of a counterfactual test. (d) How does implicit sensitivity or implicit responsiveness help to explain how justice could be involved in the care perspective? (e) How does implicit sensitivity or implicit responsiveness help to explain how a moral virtue (or practical wisdom) could involve a moral principle in Aristotle's account? (f) How would an historicist about morality respond to Aristotle?
25. (a) What is an Independence Claim concerning a judgment of right or wrong? (b) What is a Moral Sensitivity Claim concerning a judgment of right or wrong? (c) What is a Moral Responsiveness Claim concerning an action? (d) What is explicit sensitivity to a moral principle? (e) What is implicit sensitivity or implicit responsiveness to a moral principle?
26. (a) What does Williams mean by the absolute conception of the world? (b) Why does Williams deny that morality is part of the absolute conception of the world? (Hint: Why does Williams not accept a sensitivity claim for our judgments of right and wrong? (c) What is the moral field hypothesis discussed by Dworkin? In your answer explain why, if true, it would support a sensitivity claim for our moral judgments. (f) Why does Dworkin believe that the moral field hypothesis is the wrong way to support a sensitivity claim concerning our moral judgments? (f) How does Dworkin argue for a sensitivity claim concerning our moral judgments?
27. Explain what we have called Dworkin’s Super Duper ‘Companions in Guilt’ Response to Moral Anti-Realism.
28. (a) What does Williams mean by saying that reflection destroys moral knowledge? Use his example of the hypertraditional society to explain your answer. (b) Why does Williams believe that convergence on moral beliefs would not support objective moral truth? (c) What would be necessary?
29 (a) What is the strongest argument in support of the claim that we are implicitly sensitive or responsive to objective moral principles? (b) What is the strongest argument against the claim that we are implicitly sensitive or responsive to objective moral principles? (c) What is your position on the issue? Explain.
30. Are the following statements true or false? Explain your answer. If part of the statement is true and part false, explain the part that is true as well as the part that is false.
(a) Mill believes that the judgment that an injustice has been done is accompanied by a feeling. Therefore, he is a noncognitivist about judgments of justice.
(b) Willams believes that Jim should never kill an innocent person.
(c) Kant believes that we should never treat others as a means. If I allow a person in need to die when I could easily save them, I do not use them for anything (in a case in which I have nothing to gain or lose from their death). Therefore, Kant thinks that it is morally permissible for me to allow a person to die when I could easily save them.
(d) Nozick thinks that violating another person’s rights is wrong. Therefore, he believes that we ought to do whatever we can to minimize the number (and severity) of rights violations.
(e) Gauthier thinks that it is possible to persuade a rationally self-interested person that being moral is always in their interest.
(f) Scanlon believes that we should all act on the system of rules that would maximize overall utility.
(g) Gilligan thinks that there is a single female perspective in ethics, the care perspective, and a single male perspective in ethics, the justice perspective.
(h) Baier thinks that to be genuinely moral we must be able to reflect on and correct our moral sentiments. Thus, she must be a moral realist.
(i) Aristotle has a hedonistic theory of happiness.
(j) Aristotle’s Golden Mean Formula for virtue is an attempt to give purely descriptive necessary and sufficient conditions for a moral virtue.
(k) MacIntyre thinks that chess-playing is a practice.
(l) Williams is a moral realist.
(m) Dworkin thinks that there are elementary moral particles, called morons.
31. Classify each of the following authors into one of the following four categories and explain your classification: (1) Humans have no sensitivity or responsiveness to objective moral truth; (2) Humans have explicit sensitivity to objective moral principles; (3) Humans have no explicit sensitivity to objective moral principles, but they have implicit sensitivity or implicit responsiveness to objective moral truth; or (4) Indeterminate.
(d) Williams ("Knowledge, Science, and Convergence")
(v) Your position.