WHAT REASON DO WE HAVE TO BELIEVE IN

THE EXISTENCE OF OTHER MINDS?

 

 

1.  Argument from Analogy

        The Problem of Generalizing from a Single Case

 

2.  Logical Behaviorism

        What does "pain" refer to?

 

3.  Inference to the Best Explanation

        What is the best explanation?

        The problem of the inverted spectrum.

 

4.  Reliabilist Account

        No need for an inference.

        No need for reasons?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Justification of Memory Beliefs

 

 

Kinds of Memory:  habit memory, episodic memory, factual memory (personal and impersonal).

 

Three alternative justifications:

        (1) Basic beliefs.  Why does BonJour disagree with Pojman's proposal.

        (2) Inductive justification.  What is the logical problem with this kind of justification?

        (3) Coherence justification.  What is the logical problem with this kind of justification?

        (4) Reliabilist justification.

 

        Is there any other kind of justification?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Circularity Problem for Judging

the Reliability of Non-Separable Cognitive Processes

 

 

Explain why memory is a non-separable cognitive process.

 

There would be no problem in justifying our belief in the reliability of non-separable cognitive processes if all of them were foundational.  Can you explain why not?

 

But BonJour denies that memory is foundational for beliefs about the past.  If memory is non-separable but not foundational for beliefs about the past, for BonJour can there be any non-question-begging justification of the reliability of memory?  Can there be any non-question-begging justification for any of the foundational cognitive processes?

 

Paper Assignment:  Can there be any justification for believing our memory beliefs to be reliable?  Use this paper assignment to work out your own account of justification.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TESTIMONY

 

 

Testimony as a Source of Beliefs:  Clifford on Google and Wikipedia. 

 

How can we justify belief in the reliability of testimony?

 

(1) Basic Beliefs.

 

(2) Inductive Justification

 

(3) Coherence Justification

 

(4) Reliabilist Justification

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Circularity Problem for Judging

Non-Separable Sources of Belief

 

Previously, we have discussed non-separable cognitive processes.  Now we want to generalize the account to apply to all sources of belief, even if they are not cognitive processes. 

 

Non-Separable Sources of Belief:  A source of belief is a cause of belief that is not itself a belief.  A source of belief is non-separable just in case a general determination of its reliability cannot be done without employing it. 

 

 

Is testimony a non-separable source of belief?  Can we evaluate the reliability of all the various sources of testimony without relying on some sources of testimony?