Quine on the failure of traditional epistemology:  (a) the conceptual and (b) the doctrinal.  Has traditional epistemology really failed?


Quine says that epistemology is a "chapter of psychology."  What does this mean?


Psychologism in epistemology.  Four kinds of psychologism:

        (1) minimal psychologism;

        (2) conceptual psychologism;

        (3) the meliorative epistemological project;

        (4) the reliability assessment project:  using psychology to answer questions about the reliability of our cognitive processes.  This would include responses to skeptical arguments.

        Example:  Quine uses evolutionary considerations to explain why our inferences about the future are generally true.  Is this question-begging? 

        Recall our discussion of determining the reliability of non-separable sources of belief.  How might someone argue that such determinations are NOT question-begging?







Quine's radical empiricism:  All justification depends on experience; he denies that there is any a priori justification.


Quine's coherentism:  Neurath's raft metaphor.



BonJour claims that if naturalized epistemology includes arguments for its positions, it is self-referentially inconsistent.  What does this mean?  How would the naturalized epistemologist reply?