What is Epistemology?
1. Conceptual (Necessary Truths Hold in All Possible Worlds): (a) Basic Principles (e.g., K à TB)
(b) Explanations of important distinctions: for example, the difference between good and bad reasoning.
2. Doctrinal (Contingent Truths About This World): Judgments about particular cases (particular epistemic judgments): What do we know and what are we justified in believing? Talbott's Addition: Includes an explanation of how we know what we know (or are justified in believing what we are justified in believing).
A SAMPLE DEDUCTION
EP1. Justified, True, Belief that pà Knowledge that p
PEJ1. I am justified in believing that I exist
PEJ2. I exist is true
CONCLUSION: PEJ3. I know that I exist.
Traditional Logical Analysis of Propositional Knowledge
Epistemology focuses on propositional knowledge, not knowledge by acquaintance or competence knowledge.
Theaetetus' Definition: K ó TB
Traditional Definition: K ó JTB
BELIEF may be occurent or dispositional.
TRUTH to be discussed later.
JUSTIFICATION is the most important component.
Justification comes in degrees. Must the degree of justification make the belief infallible in order to be adequate for knowledge? We do not assume so.
Does Kp à KKp?
We do not assume so.