PHIL 350A:  Study Questions for Week #2

 

1.  Explain the following distinctions (you may use examples): 

(a) metaphysics/epistemology

(b) direct realism/representationalism/idealism or phenomenalism

(c) primary/secondary qualities

(d) materialism/idealism

(e) immediate experience of/mediate experience of

(f) inferential/non-inferential support

(g) deductive/inductive/abductive reasoning

 

2.  What does BonJour mean by "perceptual subjectivism"?

 

3.  What do Pojman and BonJour mean by "sense data"?  What is the difference, if any, between sense data and what BonJour refers to as "subjective sensations"? 

 

4.  When is an experience veridical?

 

5.  According to BonJour, what is the conclusion of the Argument from Illusion?  What is the crucial indiscernibility claim in BonJour's version of the argument?  Is it true?  What do you think:  Are we immediately or mediately aware of physical objects?  Explain.

 

6.  According to BonJour, what is the Causal or Scientific Argument?  What is its conclusion?  Do you accept the conclusion?  Explain. 

 

7.  What is the main difference between the sense datum theory and the adverbial theory?

 

8.  What is the main difference between Locke and Berkeley on perception?  Why does Hume disagree with both of them?

 

9.  What is the difference between primary and secondary qualities?  The classic example of a secondary quality is color.  However, we often talk about an object's true color?  Is this a primary or secondary quality (or neither)?

 

10.  What is direct realism?  What is the scientific objection to direct realism?  What is BonJour's epistemological objection to direct realism?

 

11.  What is the causal theory of perception?

 

12.  What is representationalism?  What is the "permanent picture gallery" objection to representationalism?  What is the Humean version of this objection?  What is BonJour's reply to the objection?  According to BonJour, how can we know about a causal relations without having past experience of the relevant sort of cause being followed by the relevant sort of effect?  

 

13.  What is phenomenalism?  What is the explanatory problem for phenomenalism?  What is the solipsism problem?

 

14.  Why does BonJour disagree with Pojman's classification of Berkeley as a phenomenalist?  In what sense is Berkeley a representationalist?