PHIL 240

End of Class Questions


Monday, June 23, 2003: Consider the following claim: Being a father implies being a son.

(1) What does it mean? (a) Answer this question first using "implies" or ""; (b) then eliminate "implies" or "" by using the definition on the handout.

(2) Is it true? Explain. [Hint: Is there a counterexample?]


Tuesday, June 24, 2003: Let IPKHB&-ESD = intentional, premeditated killing of a human being not in extended self-defense (i.e., defense of oneself or others from intentional, premeditated killing). Consider the following claim: [IPKHB&-ESD] W.

(a) What does it mean? [The words "it is not possible" must appear in your answer.]

(b) Is it true? Explain. [The word "counterexample" must appear in your answer.]


Wednesday, June 25, 2003: Homework Assignment #1.


Thursday, June 26, 2003: Use Bishop Butler's distinction to explain how the Paradox of Hedonism could be true.


Friday, June 27, 2003: Does DCRAPJ imply DCRABS? Explain. (In your answer you must show that you understand DCRAPJ and DCRABS.)


Monday, June 30, 2003: Homework Assignment #2.


Tuesday, July 1, 2003: Why is normative cultural relativism incompatible with the claim that the Western European colonizers or North and South America should have respected the religious practices of the American natives?


Wednesday, July 2, 2003: Exam #1.


Thursday, July 3, 2003: Match the philosopher with the quote or idea:

(1) Mill; (2) Smart; (3) Brandt.

(a) The act-utilitarian will regard moral rules as "mere rules of thumb, and will use them only as rough guides."

(b) "By utility is meant that property in any object, whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good, or happiness . . . . "

(c) "Obligation of humanity" and "obligation of fairness"

(d) Greatest Happiness Principle


Monday, July 7, 2003: Homework Assignment #3.


Tuesday, July 8, 2003: Explain Nozick's distinction between an end-state moral theory and a side-constraint moral theory.


Wednesday, July 9, 2003: Match the philosopher with the quotation:

(1) Nozick; (2) Rawls; (3) Kant; (4) Ross; (5) Nagel.

(a) "The recognition of the duty of non-maleficence is the first step on the way to the recognition of the duty of beneficence."

(b) "[T]o aim at evil, even as a means, is to have one's action guided by evil."

(c) "His situation is very like that of the sole observer of an automobile accident; he is a mere bystander, but the fact is that if he does nothing, the injured persons will die."

(d) "Individuals are inviolable."

(e) "Can I will that my maxim become a universal law?"

(f) This explains the propriety of the name 'justice as fairness': it conveys the idea that the principles of justice are agreed to in an initial situation that is fair."


Thursday, July 10, 2003: Homework Assignment #4.


Friday, July 11, 2003: You and everyone else in the class have the following choice to push one of two buttons: Red button = $50 to me; Green button = $50 to everyone else in the class except me. No one else will ever know which button you pushed (unless you tell them). Which button would you push and why?


Monday, July 14, 2003: Exam #2.


Tuesday, July 15, 2003: How would you evaluate the responses of Jake and Amy to the Heinz dilemma? From a moral point of view, would you rank Jake's response over Amy's, Amy's over Jake's, or would you rank them as roughly equal? Explain.


Wednesday, July 16, 2003: Homework Assignment #5.


Thursday, July 17, 2003:

Each of the quotes below came from one of the following authors: Aristotle, Alasdair MacIntyre, Joel Feinberg, Robert B. Louden. Identify the author of each quote:

(i) "Suppose a stranger approaches me on a street corner and politely asks me for a match. Ought I to give him one?"

(ii) "Tic-tac-toe is not an example of a practice in this sense, nor is throwing a football with skill; but the game of football is, and so is chess."

(iii) "For if, e.g., someone avoids and is afraid of everything, standing firm against nothing, he becomes cowardly, but if he is afraid of nothing at all and goes to face everything, he becomes rash. . . . Virtue, then, is a mean, in so far as it aims at what is intermediate."

(iv) "Even the best person can make the wrong choices."

(v) "It is characteristic of what I have called external goods that when achieved they are always some individual's property and possession."


Friday, July 18, 2003: Who is your favorite of the philosophers we have read in this class?


Monday, July 18, 2003: Homework #6.

Tuesday, July 22, 2003: In class we used a diagram to summarize the views of the authors we have read in this course. Where would you place yourself on the diagram? Explain.


Wednesday, July 23, 2003: Final Exam.