Transparencies for 11/18/96:

DISCRIMINATION

I. DISCRIMINATORY ATTITUDE

To Discriminate in One's Attitudes on the Basis of Factor X = To regard differently on the basis of X. [e.g., X could be race, sex, religion, nationality, or sexual orientation.]

II. DISCRIMINATORY ACTS/TREATMENT

To Discriminate in One's Actions on the Basis of Factor X = To treat differently on the basis of X. [e.g., X could be race, sex, religion, nationality, or sexual orientation.]

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE DISCRIMINATION

Discrimination can be Positive and Negative. Positive Discrimination in One's Actions (on the basis of factor X) is to give more favorable treatment to those with factor X than to those without X. Negative Discrimination in One's Actions (on the basis of factor X) is to give less favorable treatment to those with factor X than to those without X.

For attitudes, positive discrimination involves having a higher regard for those with factor X than for those without X; and negative discrimination involves having a lower regard for those with factor X than for those without X.

Positive Discrimination on the Basis of X

Negative Discrimination on the Basis of Not-X

DISCRIMINATORY ACTS/TREATMENT

Types of acts for which some sorts of discrmination have been prohibited:

(1) Government regulations.

(2) Acts of businesses, private organizations, and individuals: employment, promotion, housing, restaurants, public accommodations, and other public services.

MORALLY JUSTIFIED AND MORALLY UNJUSTIFIED DISCRIMINATION

I. QUESTION: Is All Discrimination Morally Unjustified (i.e., Morally Wrong)?

ANSWER: No. But all morally justified discrimination is based on some good reason. Discrimination is wrong if there is no good reason to justify it.

II. Another Way of Asking the Same QUESTION: Which Factors X are Factors that Ought Not to be the Basis of Discrimination in Attitude or Action?

ANSWER: Those factors which cannot be supported by a good reason.

GAY AND LESBIAN RIGHTS

Is Homosexuality a Factor X on the Basis of Which Discrimination is Morally Wrong?

I. Mohr's Analogy: Civil Rights for Minorities

The Problem with Mohr's Analogy: Discrimination Based on Moral Judgments

Example: The Society for Man-Boy Love (or Man-Girl Love)

II. Discrimination and Social Taboos: Two Analogies: (1) Marriage Between Close Relatives (e.g., Incest); (2) Uncleanness Taboos (e.g., Menstruation)

III. Thought Experiment: The Anti-Heterosexual Society