HOW DO THE EHRLICHS DIFFER FROM BAXTER?

THEY SEEM TO AGREE (AT LEAST IN THIS ARTICLE) THAT POLICIES SHOULD BE EVALUATED ON THE BASIS OF LOSSES AND BENEFITS TO HUMAN BEINGS (THUS THEIR EVALUATIONS OF LOSSES AND BENEFITS ARE ANTHROPOCENTRIC), BUT THEY ADD:

(1) LOSSES AND BENEFITS TO FUTURE GENERATIONS OF HUMAN BEINGS;

(2) RATIONAL CHOICE MUST BE EXTREMELY CONSERVATIVE; I.E., EXTREMELY RISK AVERSE.

DEEP ECOLOGISTS WILL OBJECT TO THE ANTHRPOCENTRISM OF BOTH BAXTER AND THE EHRLICHS.

TERMINOLOGY

ANTHROPOCENTRIC REASON = A reason based on the good of human beings

BIOCENTRIC REASON = A reason based on the good of all living things.

INDIVIDUALISM with respect to value = The good of a whole is simply the sum of the good of the individuals who make up the whole.

HOLISM with respect to value = The good of a whole is not simply the sum of the good of the individuals who make up the whole. (The good of the whole can be greater than the sum of its parts.)

INSTRUMENTAL VALUE = the value of something as a means to something else of value

INTRINSIC or INHERENT VALUE = the value that something has in itself, not as a means to something else of value.

DEEP ECOLOGY

I. A Normative, not a Purely Descriptive View

II. Distinguish individualistic self-realization (with a small "s") From All-Inclusive (Holistic) Self-Realization (with a capital "S") Which Requires Identification With All Living Things

III. Biocentric Equality = All living things have equal intrinsic worth. All have an equal right to individual self-realization [p. 196]. All contribute to the richness and diversity of life, and thus to all-inclusive (holistic) Self-realization.

HOW LOSS-BENEFIT ANALYSIS LOOKS FROM THE BIOCENTRIC PERSPECTIVE OF DEEP ECOLOGY

The Calculation of Losses and Benefits Should Include:

I. Individualistic self-realization: In evaluating losses and benefits, include a term for the potential losses and benefits in self-realization of each INDIVIDUAL living thing (in the broad sense that includes rivers, landscapes, ecosystems) [p. 198]

II. Holistic Self-realization (including species, populations,and entire ecosystems): In evaluating losses and benefits, include a term for the potential losses and benefits in all-inclusive (HOLISTIC) Self-realization (including richness and diversity of life forms).

SUMMARY OF SOME OF THE MAIN NORMATIVE CONCLUSIONS OF DEEP ECOLOGY

A. Humans have no right to reduce the all-inclusive (holistic) Self-realization (including richness and diversity of life forms) except to satisfy vital needs.

B. Humans are currently reducing the richness and diversity of life forms by causing the extinction of large numbers of species. These extinctions are not necessary to satisfy vital needs.

C. Humans have an obligation to drastically alter their way of life, including to stabilize and reduce the human population.