Date of revision: April 24, 2009


Business address:                                                         

Department of Radiology, Box 357115                        

University of Washington                  

Seattle, WA 98195                              





Post-Doc; NMR spectroscopy, University of California, San Francisco, 1985

Ph.D.; Biophysics-Neuro, University of California, Berkeley, Sept. 1984

B.S.; Physics, Brigham Young University, Aug. 1979


Thesis title: NMR imaging and spectroscopy of the mammalian central nervous system after heavy ion radiation.

Thesis committee members: Thomas F. Budinger, Cornelius Tobias, Paola Timiras


Positions Held:


Professor,  Radiology, University of Washington, 1998-present

Associate Professor, Radiology, University of Washington, 1991-1998

Adjunct faculty, Bioengineering, Univ. of Wash., 1990-present

MRI consultant, Marion Merrell Dow Inc, 1991-1993

Assistant Professor, Radiology, University of Washington, 1985-1991

Affiliate, Regional Primate Center, University of Washington, 1986-1994

Affiliate, Bloedel Hearing Research Center, 1992-present

Affiliate, CDMRC, 1993- present

Consultant for chemical shift imaging, Diasonics Inc., 1984-85

Post. Doc.; Hounsfield Research Fellow (NMR Res. Physicist); UCSF, 1984-85


Organization MeMberships:


International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

Human Brain Mapping

Cognitive Neuroscience Society


Editorial and Review Responsibilities:

National Correspondent, International Journal of Neuroradiology

Reviewer, American Journal of Neuroradiology

Reviewer, American Journal of Roentgenology

Reviewer, NMR in Biomedicine

Reviewer, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

Grant Reviewer, British Columbia Health Care Research Foundation

Grant Reviewer, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


Local Responsibilities:

UW Faculty Senator - 1989 - 1991

UW Faculty Senator - 2002-2003


Inventions filed with the Office of Technology Transfer

Automatic detection of brain lesions on MR images, 1992

NMR detection of Cancer cell response to artemisinin, 2007


Patent applications

Magnetic Resonance Neurography, 1993


Press Releases

UW Press release April 10, 1997 - Alternative medicine treatment using pulsing magnetic device may offer benefits for some MS patients

UW Press release, October, 1999 - Dyslexic children use nearly five times the brain area

Newsweek article on our research - November 21, 1999



In chronological order




1.  Chen GTY, Pitluck S, Richards T, Castro JR, Quivey JM, Saunders WM, Lyman JT, Utility of Three Dimensional Display of CT Derived Contours in Charged Particle Treatment Planning,  Int. J. Rad. Oncol. Bio. Phys. 7, 1250, 1981.


2.  Chen GTY., Richards T, Pitluck S, Olsen AJ, O'Donnell TJ, Application of 3 Dimensional Graphics to Charged Particle Radiotherapy, Proc. IEEE Computer Society Conference on Pattern Recognition and Image Processing 82CH1761-6, 303-305, 1982.


3.  Moseley ME, Chew WM, Nishimura MC, Richards TL, Murphy-Boesch J, Young GB, Marschner TM, Pitts LH, James TL, In vivo sodium-23 magnetic resonance surface coil imaging: observing experimental cerebral ischemia in the rat, Magn Reson Imaging 3, 383-387,1985.


4.  Richards TL, Keniry MA, Weinstein PR, Pereira BM, Andrews BT, Murphy EJ, James TL, Measurement of lactate accumulation by In Vivo proton NMR spectroscopy during global cerebral ischemia in rats, Magn. Res. Med., 5, 353-357, 1987.


5.  Richards TL, Tscholakoff D, Higgins CB, Proton NMR spectroscopy in canine myocardial infarction, Magn. Res. Med., 4, 555-566, 1987.


6.  Richards TL, Davis CA, Barker BR, Beinert WD, Genant HK, Lipid/water ratio of bone marrow measured by phased-encoded proton NMR spectroscopy, Invest Radiol, 22, 741-746, 1987.


7.  Richards, TL, Terrier F, Siever RE, Lipton MJ, Moseley ME, Higgins CB, Lactate accumulation in ischemic and anoxic isolated rat hearts assessed by H-1 spectroscopy, Invest Radiol, 22, 638-641, 1987.

8.  Richards, TL, RN Golden, LM Rose, Localized proton spectroscopy the primate brain with highlighting of selected region on brain image, CSI Newsletter, General Electric Company NMR Instruments, Volume 1 No. 5, October, 1987.


9.  Alvord EC, Jr., LM Rose, S Hruby, TL Richards, R Petersen, C-M Shaw, EA Clark, LH Ericsson, WA Stewart, DW Paty, MW Kies, Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in non-human primates: an excellent mode of multiple sclerosis, Symposium on Biomedical Research in Primates, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 10-11 March 1988, pp. 31-50, 1988.


10. Richards T, Budinger TF, NMR imaging and spectroscopy of the mammalian central nervous system after heavy ion radiation, Radiation Research, 113, 79-101, 1988.


11. Richards TL, KM Bradshaw, DM Freeman, CH Sotak, PR Gavin, Boron-11 imaging of intact tissues using magnetic resonance gradient echos, Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, 165, 179-181, 1989.


12. Livesey JC, RN Golden, EG Shankland, Z Grunbaum, TL Richards, RA Wade, KA Krohn, Measurement of tissue oxidation-reduction state with carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Cancer Res, 49, 1937-1940, 1989.


13. Rose LM, TL Richards, EC Alvord, Jr., Magnetic resonance imaging and peripheral blood abnormalilities in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, Biomed Pharm, 43, 347, 1989.


14. Baron RL, Shuman WP, Lee SP, Rohrmann CA Jr, Golden RN, Richards TL,  Richardson ML, Nelson JA, MR appearance of gallstones in vitro at 1.5 T: correlation with chemical composition, Am J Roentgenol, 153, 497-504, 1989.


15. Richards TL, Separation of lipids from lactate in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by zero quantum NMR techniques, Invest. Radiol., 24, 955-957, 1989.


16. Chen Y, Richards TL, Izenberg S, Golden RN, Williams DL, Nelson JA, Steen RG, In vivo phosphorus NMR spectroscopy of skin using a crossover surface coil, Magn Res Med, 23, 46-54, 1992.


17. Rose LM, Richards TL, Petersen R, Peterson J, Hruby S, Alvord EC, Short analytical review, remitting-relapsing EAE in non-human primates: a valid model of multiple sclerosis, Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, 59, 1, 1991.


18. KM Bradshaw, TL Richards, SL Kraft, In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of boron compounds using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, In Progress in Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer. Allen ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 325-329, 1992.


19. Dorn RV et al., The Idaho power burst facility/ boron neutron capture therapy (PBF/BNCT) program overview, In Progress in Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer. Allen ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 13-20, 1992.


20. Alvord EC Jr., Rose LM, Richards TR, Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis as a model of multiple sclerosis, In Myelin: Biology and Biochemistry. Martenson ed., CRC press, 849, 1992.


21. Dager SR, Marro KI, Richards TL, Metzger GD,  MRS detection of whole brain lactate rise during 1 M sodium lactate infusion in rats, Biol-Psychiatry, 32, 913-921, 1992.


22. Dager SR, Marro KI, Richards TL, Metzger GD.  Localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurement of brain lacte during intravenous lactate infusion in healthy volunteers, Life Sciences, 51, 973-985, 1992.


23. Richards TL, 1H NMR spectroscopic imaging of the monkey brain using binomial water suppression, NMR in Biomedicine, 4, 187, 1991.


24. Richards TL, Review. Proton MR spectroscopy in multiple sclerosis: value in establishing diagnosis, monitoring progression, and evaluating therapy, Amer J Roent, 157, 1073, 1991.


25. Heide, AC, Richards TL, Alvord EC, Peterson J, Rose LM, Diffusion Imaging of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis, Magn Res Med, 29, 478-484, 1993.


26. Rose LM, Richards TL, Alvord EC, Remitting-relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in non-human primates,  Laboratory Animal Science, 44, 508-512, 1994.


27. Chang MW, Wong E, Richards T, New cowboy boots make it hard to swallow: a case report of severe dysphagia from a fall, Archives of Phys. Med. & Rehab., 75, 1266-8, 1994


28. Jimenez JV, Richards TL, Heide AC, Grierson JR, Shankland EG, Incorporation of a phosphonium analogue of choline into the rat brain as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Magn Res Med, 33, 285-292, 1995.


29. Dager SR, Marro KI, Richards TL, Metzger GD, Preliminary application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate lactate-induced panic, American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 57-63, 1994.


30. Astley SJ, Weinberger E, Shaw DWW, Richards TL, Clarren SK, Cranial MRI and proton spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in non-human primates (Macaca nemestrina) exposed to ethanol during gestation, Neurotoxicology & Teratology,  17, 523-530, 1995.


31. Richards TL, EC Alvord, J Peterson, S Cosgrove, K Marro, R Petersen, K Petersen, AC Heide, J Cluff, LM Rose, Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in non-human primates: MRI and MRS may predict the type of brain damage, NMR in Biomedicine, 8, 49-58, 1995


32. Strauss WL, Tsuruda JS, Richards TL, Partial volume effects in volume localized phased-array proton spectroscopy of the temporal lobe, JMRI, 4, 433-436, 1995.


33. Dager SR, Strauss W, Marro KI, Richards TL, Metzger GD, Artru AA, Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation of hyperventilation with panic disorder and comparison subjects,  American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 666-672, 1995.


34. Richards TL, Alvord EC Jr, He Y, K Marro, K Petersen, Peterson J,  Cosgrove S, Heide AC, Rose LM, Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in non human primates, diffusion imaging of acute and chronic brain lesions, Multiple Sclerosis, 1,109-117, 1995.


35. Richards TL, Bowen JD, Alvord EC Jr., Maravilla KR, Dager SR, Rose LM, Posse S, MR brain spectroscopy: basic concepts with emphasis on multiple sclerosis, Int J Neurorad, 2, 123-133, 1996.


36. Dager SR, M Layton, TL Richards, Neuroimaging findings in anxiety disorders, Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry 1, 48-60, 1996.


37. Rose LM, TL Richards, J Peterson, R Petersen, EC Alvord, Resolution of CNS lesions following treatment of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in macaques with monoclonal antibody to the CD18 leukocyte integrin, Multiple Sclerosis, 2, 259-266, 1997.


38. Richards TL, GA Gates, JC Gardner, T Merrill, CE Hayes, H Panagiotides, S Serafini, EW Rubel, Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the auditory cortex in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss, American Journal of Neuroradiology, 18, 611-620, 1997.


39. Posse S, SR Dager, TL Richards, C Yuan, R Ogg, AA Artru, HW Müller-Gärtner, C Hayes, In Vivo Measurement of Regional Brain Metabolic Response to Hyperventilation using Magnetic Resonance Proton Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging (PEPSI), Mag Res Med, 37, 858-865, 1997.


40. Richards TL, MS Lappin, J Acosta-Urquidi, GH Kraft,  AC Heide, FW Lawrie, TE Merrill, GB Melton, CA Cunningham, Double-Blind Study of Pulsing Magnetic Field Effects on Multiple Sclerosis, J  Alt Comp Med, 3, 21-29, 1997


41. Conley K E, ML Blei, TL Richards, MJ Kushmerick, SA Jubrias.  Activation of glycolysis in human muscle in vivo,  Am J Physiol: Cell Physiol., 273, C306-C315, 1997


42. Berninger, V., Raskind, W., McCutchen, D., Richards, T., Cunningham, A., Nolen, S., Wijsman, E., Dager, S., Corina, D., & Abbott, R. Educational and biological links to learning disabilities.  Perspectives, vol. 23, no. 4., 1997.


43. Heide AC (student of TL Richards), Kraft GH, Slimp JC, Gardner JC, Posse S, Serafini S, Bowen JD, Richards TL, Cerebral N-acetyl asparate is Low in MS patients with Abnormal Visual Evoked Potentials, American Journal of Neuroradiology, 19, 1047-1054, 1998. 


44. Richards TL,  SR Dager, HS Panagiotides, CE Hayes,  S Posse, S Serafini, J A Nelson, KR Maravilla, Functional MR Spectroscopy  During Language Activation, a preliminary study using proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI), Int J Neurorad, 3, 490-495, 1997.


45. Dager SR, A Heide, T Richards, A Artru, W Strauss, C Hayes, S Posse, Single-voxel H NMR and two-dimensional proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) of brain metabolic changes during lactate-induced panic, Psych Res Neuroimag, 76,89-99, 1998.


46. Bell KR, MW Chang, TL Richards, The use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to predict outcome in severe traumatic brain injury: a pilot study,  accepted pending revision, Brain Injury, 1998

47. Bowen J, TL Richards, K Marravilla, Clinical, MRI and MR spectroscopy findings in a patient with an A to G substitution at the nucleotide position 3234 of leucine transfer RNA., AJNR, 19, 231-234, 1998


48. Richards TL, M Lappin, F Wilson-Lawrie, KC Stegbauer, Bioelectromagnetic Applications for Multiple Sclerosis, In:  Taylor RS, Kraft GH, eds., Multiple Sclerosis Rehabilitation.  Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America.  Philadelphia:  Saunders, vol 9, August 1998, pg. 659-674.


49. Kraft GH, Richards TL, Heide AC,   Correlations of evoked potentials with MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in multiple sclerosis:  In:  Taylor RS, Kraft GH, eds., Multiple Sclerosis Rehabilitation.  Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America.  Philadelphia:  Saunders, vol 9, August 1998, pg. 561-568.


50. Richards TL, SR Dager, S Posse, Functional MR spectroscopy of the brain, In: Castillo M, ed, Proton MR spectroscopy of the brain, Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, Philadelphia:  Saunders, vol 8, Nov 1998, 823-833.


51. Bowen JD, SH Petersdorf, TL Richards, KR Maravilla, DC Dale, TH Price, TP St John, AS Yu, Phase I study of a humanized anit-CD11/CD18 mAb in multiple sclerosis, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 64, 339-346, 1998.


52. Vallbona C, TL Richards,   Evolution of magnetic therapy from alternative to traditional  

        medicine,   Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 10(3):729-54, 1999


53. Newmark J, TL Richards, Case report:  Delayed unilateral post-traumatic dystonic tremor: localization studies using single photon computed tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques, Military Medicine, 164, 59-64, 1999.


54.  Richards TL, Dager SR, Corina D, Serafini S,  Heide AC, Steury K, Strauss W, Hayes CE,   

        Abbott RD, Craft  S, Shaw D,  Posse S,  Berninger VW, Dyslexic children have abnormal

        brain lactate on reading-related language tasks, AJNR, 20,1393-1398, 1999.


55.  Dager SR, Layton ME, Strauss W, Richards TL, Heide AC, Artru AA, Posse S, Human

        brain metabolic response to caffeine and the effects of tolerance. American Journal of

        Psychiatry,  156, 229-237, 1999.


56   Dager SR,  SD Friedman, A Heide, ME Layton, T Richards, A Artru, W Strauss, C Hayes, S

        Posse, Two-dimensional proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging of brain metabolic

         changes during lactate-induced panic, Arch Gen Psychiatry,  56, 70-77, 1999.


57.   Posse, S., Wiese, S., Gembris, D., Mathiak, K., Kessler, C., Grosse-Ruyken, M.L.,  

       Elghahwagi, B., Richards, T., Dager, S.R. and Kiselev, V.G.  Enhancement of BOLD-contrast

        sensitivity by single-shot multi-echo functional MR imaging.  Magn Reson Med, 1999, 42:  



58.   Richards, TL, Multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, In: Encyclopedia of        

        Analytical Chemistry: Instrumentation and Applications, Ed. Meyers RA,  John Wiley&

        Sons, New York, 2000.


59.  Richards TL, Corina D, Serafini S, Steury K, Echelard DR, Dager SR, Marro K, Abbott RD,

      Maravilla KR,  Berninger VW, The Effects of a Phonologically-Driven Treatment for   

      Dyslexia on Lactate Levels as Measured by Proton MR Spectroscopic Imaging,

      AJNR, 21,916-922, 2000


60.  Friedman, S.D, Dager, S.R., Richards, T., Petropoulos, H., Posse, S,. Modeling brain

compartmental lactate response to metabolic challenge: A feasibility study.  Psychiatry Res 98(1):55-66, 2000.


61.   Serafini S, Steury K, Richards T, Corina D, Abbott R, Dager SR, Berninger V, Comparison of

        fMRI and PEPSI during language processing in children, Magn Reson Med 45, 217-225,



63.    Richards TL, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopic Imaging of the

         Brain:  Application of fMRI and fMRS to Reading Disabilities and Education, Learning                   

         Disabilities Quarterly, Special Issue, 24, 189 - 203,  2001.


64.    Corina, D.P., Richards, T.L., Serafini, S., Richards, A.L., Steury, K., Abbott, R.D.,  

         Echelard, D.R., Maravilla, K.R. and Berninger, V.W., fMRI auditory language

         differences between dyslexic and able reading children, Neuroreport, 12  1195-201. 2001


65.    Ramon C, Haueisen J, Richards T, Maravilla K, Panagiotides H: "Multimodal Imaging of

         Somatosensory Evoked Cortical Activity" Biomed Tech, vol 46, Suppl 2, pp 237 - 238, 2001.


66.    Gillson G, Richards TL, Smith RB, Wright JV, A double-blind pilot study of the effect of

         Prokarin on fatigue in multiple sclerosis, 8,30-35, Multiple Sclerosis, 2002.


67.     Berninger VW, Abbott RD, Abbott SP, Graham S, Richards T, Writing and reading: 

          Connections between language by hand and language by eye, Journal of Learning

          Disabilities, 35, 39-56, 2002.


68.    Berninger VW, Richards TL, Brain Literacy for Educators and Psychologists, New York: 

         Academic Press, 2002.


69.    Dawson G, Webb S, Schellenberg GD, Dager S, Friedman S, Aylward E, Richards T.

         Defining the broader phenotype of autism: genetic, brain, and behavioral perspectives. Dev

          Psychopathol 2002;14:581-611.


70.     Richards TL, Berninger VW, Aylward EH, et al. Reproducibility of proton MR

          spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI): comparison of dyslexic and normal-reading children and

          effects of treatment on brain lactate levels during language tasks.  AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 

          23:1678-85, 2002


71.     Standish LJ, Johnson LC,  Kozak L, Richards TL. .  Evidence of correlated functional

          magnetic resonance imaging signals between distant human brains. Altern Ther Health Med,

          9(1): 122-5, 2003


72.      Lappin MS, Lawrie FW, Richards TL, Kramer ED (2003), Effects of a pulse

           electromagnetic therapy on multiple sclerosis fatigue and quality of life: a double-blind,  

           placebo controlled trial, Altern Ther Health Med, 9, 38-48.


73.       Hoffman HG, Richards T, Coda B, Richards A, Sharar SR. (2003), The illusion of

            presence in immersive virtual reality during an fMRI brain scan, Cyberpsychol Behav, 6,



74.       Eckert M, Leonard C, Richards T, Aylward E, Thomson J, Berninger V. Anatomical Correlates of Dyslexia: Frontal and Cerebellar Findings. Brain 126, 482-494, 2003


75.       Hoffman, H.G., Richards, T.L., Magula, J., Seibel, E.J., Hayes, C., Mathis, M., Sharar, S.R. and Maravilla, K. (2003) A magnet-friendly virtual reality fiberoptic image delivery system. Cyberpsychol Behav 6(6), 645-8.


76.       Hoffman, H.G., Richards, T., Coda, B., Richards, A. and Sharar, S.R., The illusion of presence in immersive virtual reality during an fMRI brain scan, Cyberpsychol Behav, 6, 127-31, 2003


77.       Friedman, S.D., Shaw, D.W., Artru, A.A., Richards, T.L., Gardner, J., Dawson, G., Posse, S. and Dager, S.R., Regional brain chemical alterations in young children with autism spectrum disorder, Neurology, 60, 100-7, 2003


78.              Lee, P.L., Yiannoutsos, C.T., Ernst, T., Chang, L., Marra, C.M., Jarvik, J.G., Richards, T.L., Kwok, E.W., Kolson, D.L., Simpson, D., Tang, C.Y., Schifitto, G., Ketonen, L.M., Meyerhoff, D.J., Lenkinski, R.E., Gonzalez, R.G. and Navia, B.A., A multi-center 1H MRS study of the AIDS dementia complex: validation and preliminary analysis. J Magn Reson Imaging 17(6), 625-33, 2003


79.              Aylward EH, Richards TL, Berninger VW, Nagy WE, Field KM, Grimme AC, Richards AL, Thomson JB, Cramer SC. Instructional treatment associated with changes in brain activation in children with dyslexia. Neurology.  Jul 22;61(2):212-9. 2003



80.       Standish, L.J., Kozak, L., Johnson, L.C. and Richards, T.  Electroencephalographic evidence of correlated event-related signals between the brains of spatially and sensory isolated human subjects. J Altern Complement Med 10(2), 307-14. 2004


81.       Hunter G. Hoffman,  Todd L. Richards, Sam R. Sharar, Aric R. Bills, David Blough,

Anne L. Richards, Barbara Coda, Modulation of thermal pain-related brain activity with virtual reality: evidence from fMRI., Neuroreport, 15, 1245-1248. 2004


82.       Hunter G. Hoffman, Sam R. Sharar, Barbara Coda, John J. Everett, Marcia Ciol, Todd             Richards, David R. Patterson,  Manipulating presence influences the magnitude

            of virtual reality analgesia, Pain 111, 162–168. 2004


83.       Ramon C, Haueisen J, Richards T, Maravilla K. Multimodal imaging of somatosensory evoked cortical activity. Neurol Clin Neurophysiol.  Nov 30;96. 2004



84.       Chang L, Lee PI, Yiannoutsos CT, Ernst T, Marra CM, Richards T, Kolson D, Schifitto G,

Jarvik JG, Miller EN, Lenkinski R, Gonzalez G, Navia BA, A multicenter in vivo proton-MRS study of HIV-associated dementia and its relationship to age, Neuroimage 23, 1336-1347, 2004


85.       Richards, T., Berninger, W. V., Nagy, W., Parsons, A., Field, K., Richards, A., Brain activation during language task contrasts in children with and without dyslexia: Inferring mapping processes and assessing response to spelling instruction , Educational & Child Psychology, 22, 62-80, 2005


86.       Thomson, J., Chennault, B., Abbott, R., Raskind, W., Richards, T., Aylward, E., & Berninger, V.   Converging evidence for attentional influences on the orthographic word form in child dyslexics.  Journal of Neurolinguistics. 18, 93-126, 2005


87.       Eckert, M., Leonard, C., Wilke, M., Eckert, M., Richards, T., Richards, A., & Berninger, V.  . Voxel-based morphometry and manual-based neuroanatomical findings in dyslexic children. Cortex, 41, 304-315.  2005

88.       Yiannoutsos CT, Ernst T, Chang L, Lee PL, Richards T, Marra CM, Meyerhoff DJ, Jarvik JG, Kolson D, Schifitto G, Ellis RJ, Swindells S, Simpson DM, Miller EN, Gonzalez RG, Navia BA., Regional patterns of brain metabolites in AIDS dementia complex. Neuroimage. Nov;23(3):928-35. 2004


89.       Aylward EH, Park JE, Field KM, Parsons AC, Richards TL, Cramer SC, Meltzoff AN. Brain activation during face perception: evidence of a developmental change.
J Cogn Neurosci. Feb;17(2):308-319. 2005


90..      Achterberg, J., Cooke, K., Richards, T., Standish, L.J., Kozak, L. and Lake, J., Evidence for correlations between distant intentionality and brain function in recipients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis, J Altern Complement Med, 11 965-971. 2005


91.       Richards, T.L., Kozak, L., Johnson, L.C. and Standish, L.J., Replicable functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of correlated brain signals between physically and sensory isolated subjects, J Altern Complement Med, 11 955-963. 2005


92.       Richards, T., Aylward, E., Raskind, W., Abbott, R., Field,. K., Parsons, A., Richards, A., Nagy, W., Eckert, M., Leonard, C., & Berninger, V. ,  Converging Evidence for Triple Word Form Theory in Child Dyslexics.  Special issue on brain imaging in Developmental Neuropsychology. 30, 547-590, 2006


93        Hoffman, H.G., Richards, T.L., Bills, A.R., Van Oostrom, T., Magula, J., Seibel, E.J. and Sharar, S.R., Using FMRI to study the neural correlates of virtual reality analgesia, CNS Spectr, 11 45-51, 2006


94.       Richards, T., Aylward, E., Berninger, V., Field, K., Parsons, A., Richards, A. and Nagy, W., Individual fMRI activation in orthographic mapping and morpheme mapping after orthographic or morphological spelling treatment in child dyslexics, Journal of Neurolinguistics, 19,  56-86, 2006


95.       Stanberry, L. I., Richards, T., Berninger V. W., Nandy, R. R., Aylward, E., Maravilla, K., Cordes, D., Low-frequency signal changes reflect differences in functional connectivity between good readers and dyslexics during continuous phoneme mapping, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24, 217-229, 2006


96.       Johnson, L.C., Richards, T.L., Archbold K.H., Landis C.A., Functional magnetic resonance imaging in nursing research, Biological Research For Nursing, 8, 43-54, 2006


97.       Natalia M. Kleinhans, Leonard C. Johnson, Roderick Mahurin, Todd Richards, Keith C. Stegbauer, Jessica Greenson, Geraldine Dawson and Elizabeth Aylward,  Increased amygdala activation to neutral faces is associated with better face memory performance, Neuroreport, 18, 987-91, 2007


98        Todd Richards, Virginia Berninger, William Winn, Pat Stock, Richard Wagner, Andrea Muse, and Kenneth Maravilla, FMRI Activation in Children with and without Dyslexia during Pseudoword Aural Repeat and Visual Decode: Before and After Treatment, Neuropsychology, 21, 732-741, 2007


99.       Sandra E. Juul, Elizabeth Aylward, Todd Richards, Ronald J. McPherson, John Kuratani, Thomas M. Burbacher, Prenatal Cord Clamping in Newborn Macaca nemestrina: a model of perinatal asphyxia, Developmental Neuroscience, 29, 311 - 320 , 2007



100.     Hunter G. Hoffman, Todd L. Richards, Trevor Van Oostrom, Barbara A. Coda, Mark P. Jensen, David K. Blough, Sam R. Sharar, Analgesic effects of opioids and immersive virtual reality distraction: Evidence from subjective and functional brain imaging assessments, Anesthesiology and Analgesia, 105, 1776 –1783, 2007


101.     Balasrinivasa Rao Sajja, Ponnada A. Narayana, Jerry S.Wolinsky, Chul W. Ahn, and the PROMiSe Trial MRSI Group (Richards TL was member of the PROMISE MRSI Group) Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated with Glatiramer Acetate: Multi-Center Study, Multiple Sclerosis, 14, 73-80, 2008


102.     Richards T., Berninger V.,  Abnormal fMRI connectivity in children with dyslexia during a phoneme task: Before but not after treatment, Journal of Neurolinguistics , 21, 294-304, 2008


103.     Kleinhans NM, Johnson LC, Mahurin R, Richards TL, Stegbauer KC, Greenson J, Dawson G  Aylward EH Abnormal functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorders during face processing, Brain, 131, 1000-12, 2008


104.     Berninger VW, Raskind W, Richards T, Abbott R, and Stock P. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding developmental dyslexia within working-memory architecture: Genotypes, phenotypes, brain, and instruction. Dev Neuropsychol, 33: 707-44, 2008.


105.     Todd Richards, Jeff Stevenson, James Crouch, L. Clark Johnson, Kenneth Maravilla, Patricia Stock, Robert Abbott, Virginia Berninger, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics of Diffusion Tensor  Imaging in Adults with Dyslexia, American Journal of Neuroradiology, 29, 1134-1139, 2008


106.     Raizada RD, Richards TL, Meltzoff A, Kuhl PK.,   Socioeconomic status predicts hemispheric specialisation of the left inferior frontal gyrus in young children, Neuroimage. 40:1392-401, 2008

107.     Stephen R. Dager, Neva M. Corrigan, Todd L. Richards, and Stefan Posse, Research Applications of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Investigate Psychiatric Disorders, Top Magn Reson Imaging, 19:81-96, 2008


108.          Todd L. Richards, Virginia W. Berninger, Michel Fayol, fMRI activation differences between 11-year-old good and poor spellers' access in working memory to temporary and long-term orthographic representations, Journal of Neurolinguistics, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 24 December 2008


109.            Kleinhans NM, Richards T, Weaver KE, Liang O, Dawson G, and Aylward E. Brief report: Biochemical correlates of clinical impairment in high functioning autism and asperger's disorder. J Autism Dev Disord, 2009.


110.            Kleinhans NM, Johnson LC, Richards T, Mahurin R, Greenson J, Dawson G, and Aylward E. Reduced neural habituation in the amygdala and social impairments in autism spectrum disorders. Am J Psychiatry, 2009.


111.     Astley, S.J., Olson, H.C., Kerns, K., Brooks, A., Aylward, E.H., Coggins, T.E., Davies, J., Dorn, S., Gendler, B., Jirikowic, T., Kraegel, P., Maravilla, K. and Richards, T., Neuropyschological and behavioral outcomes from a comprehensive magnetic resonance study of children. Can J Clin Pharmacol 16(1), e178-201, 2009


112 .    Astley, S.J., Richards, T., Aylward, E.H., Olson, H.C., Kerns, K., Brooks, A., Coggins, T.E., Davies, J., Dorn, S., Gendler, B., Jirikowic, T., Kraegel, P. and Maravilla, K. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy outcomes from a comprehensive magnetic resonance study of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Magn Reson Imaging, 2009


113.     Borson, S., Scanlan, J., Friedman, S., Zuhr, E., Fields, J., Aylward, E., Mahurin, R., Richards, T., Anzai, Y., Yukawa, M. and Yeh, S.,  Modeling the impact of COPD on the brain. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 3(3), 429-34, 2008


114.     Corrigan, N.M., Richards, T., Webb, S.J., Murias, M., Merkle, K., Kleinhans, N.M., Johnson, L.C., Poliakov, A., Aylward, E. and Dawson, G. , An Investigation of the Relationship Between fMRI and ERP Source Localized Measurements of Brain Activity during Face Processing. Brain Topogr., 2009


115.     Richards, T.L., Berninger, V.W., Stock, P., Altemeier, L., Trivedi, P. and Maravilla, K., Functional magnetic resonance imaging sequential-finger movement activation differentiating good and poor writers. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol, 1-17, 2009


116.     Weaver, K.E., Richards, T.L., Liang, O., Laurino, M.Y., Samii, A. and Aylward, E, Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging in Huntington's Disease. Exp Neurol 216(2), 525-9, 2009




Published Abstracts/Presentations:



T. Richards, N. Oskin, H. Panagiotides, S. Webb, A. Poliakov, N. Kleinhans,  E. Aylward, G. Dawson, Face Processing in Autism: fMRI/EEG source localization correlations, International Meeting for Autism Research, 2006

N. Oskin, S. Webb, T. Richards, H. Panagiotides, E. Aylward, DIPOLE SOURCE LOCALIZATION OF FACE PROCESSING IN AUTISM, International Meeting for Autism Research, 2006

Natalia Kleinhans, Todd Richards, Clark Johnson, KC Stegbauer, Geraldine Dawson, Elizabeth Aylward, Abnormal amygdala-fusiform connectivity in autism spectrum disorders during face processing, International Meeting for Autism Research, 2006

Richards, TL et al, Differences in fMRI Activation between Children with and without Dyslexia during Pseudoword Aural Repeat and Visual Decode, Annual Meeting for Cognitive Neuroscience Society, San Francisco, 2006

Todd Richards, Neva Oskin, Heracles Panagiotides, Sara Webb, Andrew Poliakov, Elizabeth Aylward, Geraldine Dawson, Face Processing in Autism: Spatial-temporal localization of fusiform activation, Annual Meeting for Human Brain Mapping, Toronto, Canada, 2005




Serafini S, Corina D, Richards T, Heide A, Dager S, Posse S, Hayes C, Berninger V.  Functional MR Spectroscopy as a Tool to Investigate Language Processing.  Cognitive Neuroscience Society 1998 Annual Meeting Abstract Program, p.124.  Presented as a poster at the Cognitive Neuroscience Society Fifth Annual Meeting April 5-7, 1998, San Fransisco, CA.


S. Serafini, K. Steury, B. Floyd, D. Corina, T. Richards, S. Dager, S. Posse, C. Hayes, V. Berninger,  Comparison of MR spectroscopy and functional MRI during language processing in children, Cognitive Neuroscience Society 1999 Annual Meeting Abstract Program, abstract 57b,   Presented as a poster at the Cognitive Neuroscience Society Sixth Annual Meeting April 10-13, Washington, DC.


Berninger V, Richards T, Corina D, Serafini S, Abbott R, Treatment-related changes in chemical activation of dyslexic brains during phonological and lexical access tasks, Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Montreal, April, 1999.


Richards TL,  Corina D, Serafini S, Steury K, Echelard DR,  Dager SR,, Marro K, Maravilla, KR,  Abbott RD,  Berninger VW, Functional MRI and functional MR spectroscopic imaging of dyslexia, accepted to Human Brain Mapping 2000, San Antonio Conference, June 2000.


Steury K, Corina D, Richards T, Serafini S, Maravilla K, A comparison of fMRI and fMRS during an auditory monitoring task, submitted to Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meeting 2000.




Corina DP, Craft S, Serafini S, Richards TL, Dager SR, Posse S,

Hayes CE, Berninger V.  A Functional MR Spectroscopy Study of Language

Processing.  Cognitive Neuroscience 4th Annual meeting, Boston, MA, 1997.


American Academcy of Clinical Neurophysiology, oral presentation, 1- 1st author, 1- coauthor,


Berninger, V., Raskind, W., Dager, S., Richards, T., Corina, D., Abbott, R., & McCutchen, D.  (1997, April 21).  Treatment of reading and writing disabilities.  Annual meeting of the Learning Disabilities Association, Chicago.


International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Annual Meeting, 1997, 2 coauthor presentations



American Academy of Neurology, oral presentation, 1996.

American Society of Neuroradiology, 34th Annual Meeting, 1st author, 2 co-author, 1996

International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 2- coauthor, 1996

Clinical Neurophysiology, 1-coauthor, 1996



1. TL Richards, MR spectroscopy for evaluating metabolic changes in the brain of MS patients, International Business Communications, Conference on Multiple Sclerosis, 1995.


1994 - 5

Abstracts,  2nd Annual Meeting, Society of Magnetic Resonance, 1994

TL Richards, LM Rose, K Maravilla, EC Alvord Jr, CA Cunningham, JD Bowen, Multiple sclerosis: abnormally low N-acetyl/creatine ratio in central gray matter,  Abstracts,  2nd Annual Meeting, Society of Magnetic Resonance, p. 591, 1994


11:18   190.     1H MRS Investigation of Hyperventilation in Panic and Control Subjects. S.R.Dager, K.I. Marro, W. Strauss, T.L. Richards and A.A. Artru. University of Washington, Seattle.


5:12     402.     Partial Volume Effects in Human Temporal Lobe Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. W.L. Strauss, J.S. Tsuruda and T.L. Richards. University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle.


S-02-1624TH  1158.   Diffusion-Weighted Fluorine Spectroscopy. E.G. Shankland, T.L. Richards and K.A. Krohn. University of Washington, Seattle.


S-05-1615T     1425.   Incorporation of a Phosphonium Ana­logue of Choline into the Rat Brain as Measured by NMR Spectroscopy. J.V. Jimenez, T.L. Richards, A.C. Heide, J.R. Grierson and E.G. Shankland. University of Washington, Seattle.



1. TL Richards, J Peterson, S Cosgrove, K Petersen, LM Rose, EC Alvord Jr, Temporal relationships in N-acetyl aspartate, choline, and MRI lesions in EAE, Conference proceedings, Advances in understanding and treatment of multiple sclerosis, International Business Communications, 1993.


2. E Weinberger, SJ Astley, TL Richards, DW Shaw, SK Clarren, Hydrogen proton spectroscopy in nonhuman primates exposed to ethanol during gestation, The Society for Pediatric Radiology, 36th Annual Meeting, 1993.


3. EC Alvord, C Shaw, T Richards, The relative rates of cellular proliferation and infiltration and the histologic definition of gliomas, in press, Canad J Neur Sci, 1993.


4. Chang MW, TL Richards, New cowboy boots make it hard to swallow: a case report of severe dysphagia from a fall, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabililation, Annual Meeting, 1993.


5. TL Richards, C Yuan, CR Loomis, VP Terry, JS Tsuruda, JD Bowen, Progress towards N-acetyl aspartate imaging of the entire brain, Radiologic Society of North America, 1993 Annual Meeting.


6. AG Filler, RN Golden, FA Howe, JS Tsuruda, TL Richards, High resolution diffusion gradient imaging for neurography in human subjects, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 1993 Annual Meeting.


7. EG Shankland, TL Richards, KA Krohn, C-13 flow suppression spectroscopy to measure cellular redox, SMRM, 1993 Annual Meeting.


8. SR Dager, KI Marro, TL Richards, GD Metzger, H-1 MRS investigation of lactate-induced panic, SMRM, 1993 Annual Meeting.




1. TL Richards, AC Heide, K Marro, EC Alvord, J Peterson, LM Rose, Volume-localized proton NMR spectroscopy and histologic evaluation of demyelination in the monkey brain, Advances in Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Brain, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Oxford England, 1992.


2. TL Richards, J Tsuruda, AC Heidi, Vector analysis of diffusion images in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 11th Annual meeting, Berlin, 1992.


3. SR Dager, KI Marro,TL Richards, GD Metzger, 1H MRS detection of increased brain lactate during intravenous lactate infusion in humans, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 11th Annual meeting, Berlin, 1992.


4. KI Marro, SR Dager, TL Richards, Attenuation of lactate signal due to coherent flow in volume localized MR spectroscopy, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 11th Annual meeting, Berlin, 1992.


5. KI Marro, CE Hayes, TL Richards, An inductively driven 200 MHz bird-cage resonator with built-in variable tuning capacitors, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 11th Annual meeting, 1992.


6. E Weinberger, D Shaw, S Ashley, TL Richards, 1H MR spectroscopy of an animal model of fetal alcohol syndrome, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 11th Annual meeting, Berlin, 1992.




1. TL Richards, AC Heide, K Marro, LM Rose, JR Peterson, R Petersen, EC Alvord, Jr., Changes in brain proton spectra precede the onset of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in macaques, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Tenth Annual meeting, San Francisco,  1991, pp 427.


2. AC Heide, TL Richards, LM Rose, JP Peterson, EC Ellsworth Jr., Diffusion Imaging of Monkeys with Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis,  Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Tenth Annual meeting, San Francisco, 1991, pp. 989


3. TL Richards, JR Peterson, LM Rose, EC Alvord Jr., Proton chemical shift imaging of primates during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Ninth Annual meeting, New York, Aug 18-24, 1990, pp. 1043.


4. TL Richards, U Schmiedl, Dynamic changes of proton resonances in the monkey brain following administration of gadolinium, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Ninth Annual meeting, New York, Aug 18-24, 1990, pp. 1041.


5. Richards TL, KM Bradshaw, Boron-10 versus Boron-11 Signal to Noise Comparison  of Compound used in Neutron Capture Therapy, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Eighth Annual meeting, Amsterdam, Aug 21-26, 1989, pp. 300.


6. Richards TL, RN Golden, EG Shankland, LM Rose, J Peterson, High signal intensity near magnetite microspheres measured with magnetic resonance imaging, Invest. Radiol. 24, S90, 1989.


7. Richards TL, KM Bradshaw, D Flamig, Boron chemical shift imaging of BNCT compound in aqueous albumin solutions, Invest. Radiol. 24, S97, 1989.


8. Richards TL, JS Kenney, LM Rose, J Hill, S Hruby, R Petersen, EC Alvord Jr, Detection of Brain Lipids in primates with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by in vivo proton spectroscopy and in vitro histochemistry, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Seventh Annual meeting, San Francisco, Aug 21-26, 1988, pp. 467.


9. Kenney JS, TL Richards, Where in the Macaca Fascicularis brain is the localized proton spectrum uncontaminated by resonances in the 1.25+.2 ppm region?, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Seventh Annual meeting, San Francisco, Aug 21-26, pp. 468., 1988


10. Golden RN, JC Livesey, EG Shankland, Z Grunbaum, TL Richards, RA Wade, KA Krohn, C-13 NMR tracer technique for in vivo measurement of tissue redox state, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Seventh Annual meeting, "Works in Progress", pp. 70, 1988.


11. Richards TL, KM Bradshaw, DM Freeman, CH Sotak, PR Gavin, Boron-11 imaging of intact tissues using magnetic resonance gradient echos, Third International Symposium on Neutron Capture Therapy, Bremen, Germany, June, 1988.


12. Richards TL, PR Gavin, S Kraft, ML Griebenow, RN Golden, Boron-11 NMR spectroscopy of excised mouse tissues after infusion of boron compound used in neutron capture therapy, Radiology, 165(P), 346, 1987.


13. Richards TL, LM Rose, Rn Golden, EC Alvord, In vivo proton spectroscopy of the primate brain after induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, "Works in Progress", Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Sixth Annual meeting, New York, Aug 17-21, pp. 64, 1987.


14. Golden RN, EG Shankland, Z Grumbaum, JC Livesey, TL Richards, RA Wade, KA Krohn, Measurement of Tissue Redox State with C-13 NMR, Conference on "Prediction of Tumor Treatment Response", April 21-24, 1987, Banff, Canada.


15. Williams D, D Olson, B Porter, T Richards, G Wesbey, Implanted dual coaxial transmission line balanced-matching approach to NMR probe design for canine myocardial NMR spectroscopy,  Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Fifth Annual Meeting, August 19-22, 1986, Montreal, Canada, pp. 185-186.


16. Haynor DR, TL Richards, W See, G Wesbey, Perfluorocarbons for detection of tissue perfusion use of pulsed field gradients, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Fifth Annual Meeting, August 19-22, 1986, Montreal, Canada, pp. 325-326.


17. See WA, T Richards, LA Mack, WH Chapman, GE Wesbey, P-31 NMR spectroscopy as a predictor of testicular viability following ischemic injury, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Fifth Annual Meeting, August 19-22, 1986, Montreal, Canada, pp. 1013-1014.


18. Koretsky, Ap, T. Richards, ME Moseley, Spatial localization of metabolites using spin-echo difference spectroscopy, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Fourth Annual Meeting, August 19-23, 1985, London, United Kingdom, pp. 999-1000, 1985.


19. Richards, T., T. F. Budinger, and R. Nunlist, Phase encoded proton spectroscopy and imaging of the rat brain in vivo with the surface coil, In: Scientific program, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Third Annual Meeting, August 13-17, 1984, New York, New York, pp. 621-622, 1984.


20. Richards, T., T. F. Budinger, and R. Nunlist, RF pulse energy optimization for proton spectroscopy using lipid and n-acetyl aspartate peak characteristics of normal brain, In: Scientific program, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Third Annual Meeting, August 13-17, 1984, New York, New York, pp. 623-624, 1984.


21. Jones, R. M., T. Richards, and T. F. Budinger, Proton and Carbon Spectroscopy of Lipids and Aqueous Metabolites Extracted from Brain, In: Scientific program, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Third Annual Meeting, August 13-17, 1984, New York, New York, pp. 395-396, 1984.


22. Richards, T., T. F. Budinger, G. Wesbey, B. Engelstad, Evaluation of Heavy Ion Radiation Damage to the Rat Brain using Proton NMR Imaging, In: Scientific program, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Second Annual Meeting, pp. 198-99, 1983.


23. Richards, T., A. Hasenfeld, and T. F. Budinger, A Computer Simulation of Surface Coil Selective Region Spectroscopy, In: Works in Progress, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Second Annual Meeting, pp. 20, 1983.


24. Richards, T. L., T. F. Budinger, and R. Nunlist, Proton NMR Relaxation Times of Gray and White Matter before and after Tissue Preservation, In: Scientific program, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. First Annual Meeting, pp. 131-32, 1982.


25.  Richards, T., G. T. Y. Chen, J. Llacer, C. A. Tobias, Determination of the Effects of Respiration on Charged Particle Radiotherapy of Abdominal Tumors, Med. Phys. 9:623, 1982.


Invited Presentations:


Techniques for automatic brain lesion detection in patients with multiple sclerosis, University of British Columbia, April, 1995


Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of multiple sclerosis, University of Utah, December, 1994.


Update on MS research, Bellevue MS support group, 1994, 1995, 1996

Update on MS research, Edmonds MS support group, 1994, 1995, 1996

Update on MS research, Everett MS support group, 1994, 1995

Update on MS research, Seattle MS support group, 1994, 1995,1996, 1997

Update on MS research, National Multiple Sclerosis Society, Local Chapter, Annual Meeting, 1994.


Brain imaging and spectroscopy: multiple sclerosis, Making connections - High School teacher training, 1994 - 2000


Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the monkey brain during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, Florida State University, Tallahasee, Florida, October 16, 1992.


"Brain lipids become NMR visible after experimental allergic encephalomyelitis" at the "MR Spectroscopy in Humans" Symposium of the American Physiological Society , Rochester, MN, October 16-19, 1989.


"Diffuse Brain Abnormalities", AUR Research Symposium, MRS: new insights into organ physiology, May 20-21, Seattle, Washington, 1989.


Spectroscopy Evening Workshop, SMRI 7th Annual meeting, New Visions, Feb 25- March 1,  Los Angeles, 1989.


"Proton in vivo spectroscopy of CNS changes associated with radiation", given at: Workshop on Pathophysiological Studies by NMR In Vivo Spectroscopy, University of California, Berkeley, sponsored by the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, August 15, 1983


"NMR in-vitro spectroscopy with protons, phosphorus, and carbon on brain tissue", given at: Electrical Engineering Department Seminar, University of Utah, April 11, 1983



Current Research Support:





1.  NICHD 1P50HD55782-01                                      08/01/07 - 07/31/12    

NIH – ACE Center (Dawson)                                      $1,435,196                                         

Structural and Chemical Brain Imaging of Autism

Project IV of the UW ACE will pursue the three broad objectives: (1) Identification of early biomarkers for autism, including the trajectory of head circumference growth, brain structure and tissue-based patterns of neurochemical alterations that can increase our ability to identify infants who will eventually develop autism or autism-related symptoms; (2) Longitudinal characterization of brain development in adolescents with autism previously studied since age 3; and (3) identification of risk and protective brain biomarkers related to longer term outcome in adolescents with autism, including development of seizure disorder and behavioral decline.

Role: Co-investigator of Program Project IV.


2.  NIH 1R01 HD55741-01 (Piven)                              07/01/07 - 06/30/12    

Consortium Network                                                   $1,786,915                                         

A Longitudinal MRI Study of Infants at Risk for Autism

In this application we propose to employ these new methods to conduct a longitudinal MRI/DTI study of 6 m old infant sibs of autistic individuals, with follow-up at 12 and 24 m of age. This study will provide important, new information about the trajectory of early post-natal brain overgrowth (regions, tissues, structures and fiber tracts), as measured on MRI and DTI, and its potential relationship to clinical features.  It has the potential to provide insights into developmental brain and behavioral phenotypes, and neurobiological mechanisms, that will inform other levels of analysis during what appears to be a critical period of development in the pathogenesis of autism. A multicenter grant with the University of North Carolina, Yale, and Washington University.

Role: Co-investigator – UW Site



3. 5R21HD049832-02 (Valilala)                                  7/1/05-6/30/09

NIH/NICHD                                                                  $275,000

Cerebral Edema in Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis

The overall goals of this study are to characterize cerebrovascular changes in children critically ill with DKA, and to determine the relationship between laboratory markers, cerebrovascular changes and the presence or absence of cerebral edema.

Role: Co-investigator


4.  RO1 EY-014645 (Fine)                                          08/2004-08/2009        

NIH/NEI                                                                        $340,256

The neural and functional effects of long term visual deprivation.

The goal of this project is to examine the neural and behavioral effects of long-term bilateral visual deprivation in adults using a combination of psychophysics and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Role: Co-investigator




5. R01HD052820-01A2 (Juul)                         9/17/07-6/30/12                      

NIH/NICHD                                                                  $2,790,725

Optimizing Neuroprotection Following Perinatal Asphyxia

Specific aims: Aim 1) To determine which therapeutic strategy is most effective in decreasing the neurodevelopmental sequelae of perinatal asphyxia in near-term M. nemestrina: rEpo alone, hypothermia alone, or rEpo plus hypothermia (vs. vehicle controls); Aim 2) To determine which therapeutic strategy is most effective in decreasing the structural consequences of perinatal asphyxia in brains of near-term M. nemestrina: rEpo alone, hypothermia alone, or rEpo plus hypothermia (vs. vehicle controls); Aim 3) To establish the safety of high dose rEpo treatment, hypothermia, and rEpo plus head cooling in near-term M. nemestrina exposed to perinatal asphyxia. Evaluation will include EEG, cerebral function monitoring, MRI/MRS, neurobehavioral evaluations, biochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

Role: Co-investigator


6. P01 CA042045-21 (Krohn)                                     05/10/04-02/28/09                   

NCI/NIH                                                                       $1,337,893

Molecular Imaging of Cancer and Its Response to Therapy.

The major goals of this program project grant are to investigate ways of imaging cancer with PET and MRI.  

Role:  Co-Investigator


7. R01CA065537-14 (Eary)                                        12/01/05-11/30/2010  

NCI/NIH                                                                       $2,175,446

PET in Sarcoma: A Clinical Trail

Patient outcome correlation with FDG PET studies and advanced image analysis.  All sarcoma tumor types are studied.

Role:  Co-Investigator






Previous Grants:


Eleven years of Continuous Support from NIH/NINDS



            NIH-RO1 NS-30722 (PI -Richards)                5/1/95 - 4/30/99

            Multiple Sclerosis-- MR spectroscopy and evoked potentials    

            The major goal of this project is to correlate MR spectroscopy with visual and

            somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with multiple sclerosis.


High Q Foundation (Aylward)                           6/1/06-08/1/08                        

Direct Cost for all years $422,938

Metabolic Spectroscopy as a Biomarker in Huntington’s Disease

Subjects with Huntington’s Disease and controls are scanned twice with MR spectroscopy, DTI, and structural scans to understand disease progression.

Role: Co-investigator


           NIH/NICHD P50 33812 (PI, Berninger)                          03/01/96 - 11/30/06

            Learning Disabilities: Links to Schools and Biology

            The major goal of this project is to use MR spectroscopy and functional MRI to study brain-

            language activation in children with learning disabilities.

            Role: PI of Project 4



Santa Fe Institute SFIC-W-01 (PIs, Kuhl, Meltzoff)                   3/1/02 - 12/31/03

            Santa Fe Institute Consortium (SFIC): Increasing Human Potential

The major goals of this project are to acquire a solid understanding of both the neurobiological and neuropsychological development of the normal human brain, with a particular emphasis on cognition, memory, and language as well as emotion and social interactions, and to use these insights to develop tools to enhance the home and educational environments of infants and adolescents, thereby optimizing plastic changes at these critical times in maturation and ultimately enhancing and improving intellectual capacity.

Role: Co-investigator


            NIH/NINDS 1RO1 NS 36524  (PI Marra)    4/1/97-3/31/00

            In vivo proton MRS studies of cerebral injury in HIV


            This project will use proton MR spectroscopy to measure brain chemicals

            such as NAA, choline, and myoinositol and correlate these with

            clinical disability in patients with HIV dementia


 NIH/NIMH 1 R21 MH63647-01 (PI- Marra)                                    5/1/01-3/31/04

Title:  Novel Methods to Assess Brain Function in HIV-1

This is a pilot study to estimate the magnitude of changes in brain activation as measured by

functional MRI and functional MRS and by neuropsychological test performance in response to

potent antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals.  A memory task is used during the

functional brain imaging.

            Role: Co-Investigator


            NIH 1 R21 HD040954-01 (PI Shara)                                                  8/1/2001 - 7/31/2004

Title:     Virtual Reality Analgesia for Rehabiliation in Children

The goal of these investigations is to develop non-pharmacologic analgesic techniques for subjects with subacute and chronic rehabilitation-induced pain (e.g., postburn physical therapy, rehabilitation activities following spinal cord injury, limb loss, and cerebral palsy), emphasizing virtual reality analgesia, the combination of virtual reality and hypnotic analgesia, and the analgesic mechanisms of these techniques.

            Role: Co-Investigator


NIH - 5R01AA012915-02 (PI – Astley)                                  10/1/2002 – 9/30/2005

Title: MRI/S in Children with Prenatal Alcoholic Exposure

This project is to use MR spectroscopy and fMRI to study brain chemistry and brain activation in

children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).

Role: Co-Investigator


            NIH/NICCAM R21 AT00287-01 (PI Standish)    (8/1/2000 - 7/31/2002)            

            Richards is PI at the UW site

            Title: Transfer of neural energy between human subjects

            This project will use functional MRI and electroencephalography to study brain activation

            in humans during an energy transfer technique.


            Subcontract with the University of Texas, Houston (PI Richards)    8/1/99-10/30/2002

            Serial MRSI: Sub-study of Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

            This project will use proton MR spectroscopic imaging as an outcome measure

            during a clinical trial to test the effectiveness of copaxone in primary progressive

            multiple sclerosis


            Subcontract with EDMS, LLC (PI Richards) 7/16/2000 - 6/15/2001

            MR Imaging and Spectroscopy Evaluation for the Procarin Trial

            This project uses proton MR spectroscopy and conventional MRI to evaluate changes in brain

            chemistry and structure during the Procarin clinical trial for multiple sclerosis.


Multiple Sclerosis Association of America    5/1/97 - 7/15/98 

Title - Evaluation of a pulsed electromagnetic therapy (Enermed) on Multiple Sclerosis

Patient Symptoms and Quality of Life

PI - T. Richards           

The primary purpose of this research is to test the effects of a novel

electromagnetic treatment on physical function, cognitive function,

and quality of life experienced by MS sufferers.



Higher Ground for Humanity (PI- Richards)    9/16/98 - 9/15/99       

Neurofeedback and bioelectric measurements in multiple sclerosis 

This project will measure the effect of neurofeedback training in multiple

sclerosis patients                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          


NIH R01 MH50579 (Dager)                            1          0/1/94 - 9/30/97           20%


MRS investigation of lactate-induced panic                                                                                 

The major goal of this project is to use proton MR spectroscopy to                                                                              

study lactate infusion in panic patients.



NMR assay of thiol redox predicts tumor therapy response

PI - K Krohn

Coinvestigator - T Richards, 5%

period of support - May 1, 1992 - April 31, 1996



Source: Confidential Drug Company

Title: Phase 1 safety and pharmacokinetic study of Huf2G in subjects with multiple sclerosis

PI - James Bowen, M.D.

Period of Support: 10/94 - present

Role on the project: Co-investigator, 5%


National Multiple Sclerosis Society

Total brain n-acetyl imaging in multiple sclerosis

PI - T Richards, 10% time and salary

period of support - October 1, 1993 - September 31, 1995.


Royalty Research Fund

Functional and biochemical changes in sudden sensorineural hearging loss as measured by MRI and MRS

PI - T Richards

Period of support - Feb 1, 1994 - Jan 31, 1995


National INST of neurological disorders and stroke

MR evaluation of a model of multiple sclerosis

R01 NS30722-01

PI - T Richards,

period of support - April 1, 1992 - March 31, 1995

Priority percentile - 3.9



Axonal study for improved selective nerve anesthesia

PI - R. Fink

Consultant - T Richards

period of support 1991-1994



Bloedel Hearing Research Center

Magnetic resonance imaging of auditory nuclei in the chick brain

PI - T Richards

period of support - May 1, 1992 - April 31, 1993


First investigator grant  from NINDS

Title of grant: "NMR spectroscopy of Demyelination in the Primate Brain"

R29 NS24622-01

PI - TL Richards

Period of support - April 1, 1987 - March 31, 1992

Priority percentile - 5


DOE INEL subcontract no. C85-110744,

Title of grant: "Boron NMR of tumors"

PI- TL Richards,  10% time and salary

Title of program project - "Neutron Capture Therapy: Brain Cancer Treatment Program Plan", PI - Merle L. Griebenow,

Period of support - October 1, 1987 - September 30, 1990


National Cancer Institue of NIH

Title of program project: Metabolic Imaging of Cancer and its Response to Therapy

Program director: Kenneth Krohn

Period of support - May 1, 1989 - April 30, 1994

Title of Project - Core G - NMR support

PI - Martin Kushmeric

Co-investigator - TL Richards, 5% time



Title of program project: SCOR in vascular research; PI - DE Strandness

Title of project: "Evaluation of the structure and composition of atherosclerotic plaques by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)"; PI- Alan Nelson

T Richards - consultant

Period of support - January 1, 1990 - December 31, 1994


UW School of Medicine in house grant - Biomedical Research Support Grant

"NMR spectroscopy of Demyelination in the Primate Brain",

Period of support - January 1, 1986 - December 31, 1987



Instructional Activities


Students Supervised:

Jo-Fu Lotus Lin, Graduate Student, Department of Speech and Hearing, PhD committee, 2005-present

Leah Altemier, Graduate Student, Education, Dyslexia, 2003-2007

Allison Brooks, Graduate Student, Education, Neuroimaging, 1999-2004

KC Stegbauer, Graduate Student,  Bioengineering, MR spectroscopy, 1997-present

Sandra Serafini, graduate student,  Department of Speech and Hearing, Thesis advisor, 1995-   present

Brenden Boys, undergraduate, 1997.

Jilma Jimenez - visiting student, Bioengineering, Wright State University, 1993 - 1998

Katrin Petersen - undergraduate student - 1993 - 1996

Lori Arakaki- Bioengineering, An optical method for myoglobin oxygenation measurements in the          blood-perfused rat hind limb, Ph.D. Thesis committee, 1991 - 1995

Wayne Strauss - medical student/ bioengineering -1993 - 1999

Aaron Heide - Medical student, Diffusion imaging of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, 1991- 1999

Ken Marro - Bioengineering, Lactate signal attenuation due to coherent flow in volume-localized            proton spectroscopy, 1991-1996

Dan Leotta - Qualifying exam committee, 1993

Alan DeSoto - Electrical Engineering, Stereotaxic MR image registration.,1993

Ian Sweet - Bioengineering, P-31 spectroscopy of muscle in Diabetes, Ph.D., 1990.

Alex Hertzberg - Bioengineering, Measurement of Bone Trabeculae and bone marrow with MRI,          Ph.D. , 1990

Don Allen, Electrical Engineering, Computer software for NMR spectral analysis, 1989.


Courses Taught:

Lecture given to PET physics group, UW on April 23, 2009 on Advances in MR imaging


Lecture given to Neuroradiology group, UW on March 24, 2009 on Advances in MR Neuroimaging techniques


Bioeng 565/Radgy 550, NMR in Biomedicine, Winter quarter 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005


Summer Basic MR physics course for radiology residents and staff, 1992 - 1999


Bioeng 599 I, NMR in Biomedicine, Winter Quarter 1993

Bioeng 599 H, NMR in Biomedicine, Spring Quarter 1992


RADGY 550/Bioengineering 599H spring 1991. MR physics

RADGY 550, Spring 1989, Spring 1990. In vivo NMR in Biomedicine.  Team taught with Dr. Grant Steen.


MR physics taught to Radiology residents, 1986-present

"Biophysical Interpretation of MRI Image Intensity" as part of course on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Its function and promise, Radiology Northwest, January 25, 1986.