Asplen, L. 2002. Ecological Restoration
in Theory and Practice: The Discourse of Salmon Habitat Policy in
the Cedar River of Washington State. Master's Thesis, School of Marine
Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle.
A wide range of policies and projects espousing vastly different goals
and employing divergent tools and techniques have been grouped under the
heading of “ecological restoration.” The plasticity of the term,
a characteristic that can make it attractive politically, complicates the
analysis of the values and intended outcomes and makes it difficult to
determine what exactly is intended when the concept is invoked. The
purpose of this project is to review restoration as it is used and understood
in both theory and practice. Discourse, defined here as the language,
values, and perceived meanings associated with a concept, offers a powerful
framework by which to conceptualize and evaluate the broader practical
implications of accepting and employing ecological restoration strategies.
First, I explore the definitions that have been offered by multiple disciplines
for the appropriate model of ecological restoration, tracking areas of
both philosophical consensus and tension. Next, through a case study
analysis of salmon habitat projects in the Cedar River of Washington State,
I identify and explore the underlying themes and inconsistencies that arise
between the use of restoration as an academic concept and as a public policy
tool for achieving social ends. After coding and comparing 192 project
proposals, I find that “ecological restoration” in practice reflects the
broad array of diverse goals and activities conceived in the academic literature
and that different restoration projects are selected or adapted based on
the needs and purposes of different institutions and policies.
Daily, M. 2002. Cumulative Effects Regulation
and Management in the Lower Cedar River: Evaluation and Potential
Changes. Master's Thesis, School of Urban Planning, University of Washington,
The lower Cedar River watershed
in King County, Washington has experienced intensified human development
pressure in recent decades, which has led to increased cumulative environmental
impacts. King County has expressed their goal to protect and restore
the aquatic resources in the watershed. Yet, cumulative effects (CE’s)
may compromise their ability to do so.
This thesis examines the
nature of CE regulation and management in the lower Cedar River.
There are four primary purposes of this research. The first is to
formulate a set of criteria that can be used to evaluate the adequacy of
cumulative effects analysis. Second, is to identify the cumulative
effects consideration mandates in development regulations for the lower
Cedar River watershed. Third, is to evaluate the adequacy of CE analyses
in the environmental documentation prepared for Cedar River projects.
Finally this thesis suggests regulatory and management changes that could
lead to better CE management.
Based upon the literature, this study identifies nine primary components
that are used as criteria for evaluating the adequacy of CE analyses.
These criteria are used to evaluate the adequacy of CE analyses contained
in the environmental literature prepared for projects in the Cedar River
This study finds that there
is a rather strong legal mandate for the consideration of CEs. Laws
such as the National Environmental Policy Act, the Washington Stated Environmental
Policy Act (SEPA), and King County planning policies, which explicitly
state that cumulative effects must be considered in the environmental documentation
prepared for project approvals.
However, using the criteria
established by the literature this research finds that CE analyses for
lower Cedar River projects are not being adequately conducted. Only
19 of the 41 projects reviewed included any discussion of potential cumulative
impacts and none of the analyses reviewed met minimum scores for adequacy,
as defined by the literature.
Thus, this thesis suggests
a King County led CE management program that would utilize both planning
and analytical methods to address cumulative environmental impacts.
The program would include focus groups, a land suitability model, a modified
SEPA checklist, and enactment of a long-term monitoring program within
the lower Cedar River.
Hall, J. 2002. Restoration of
Salmon Habitats in Floodplains of the Cedar River, Washington. Master's
Thesis, School of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences, University of Washington,
McCracken, H.S. 2000. Institutional
Relationships Guiding Salmon Habitat Protection and Restoration in the
Cedar River of Washington State. Master's Thesis, School of Marine Affairs,
University of Washington, Seattle.
The listing of Puget Sound Chinook (Oncorhynchus
tschawytsha) and bull trout (Salveluinus confluentus) in 1999 have been
the largest drivers of large-scale multi-jurisdictional salmon recovery
strategies in Washington State to date. A large component of these strategies,
the management of riparian salmon habitat, necessitates cooperation and
collaboration between groups with varying mission, priorities and mandates
from the distinct arenas of fishery management, surface water management,
groundwater management, land use management, and flood control. This thesis
analyzes these institutional relationships in the context of the Cedar
River of Washington State with an analytical tool crafted by Elinor Ostrom
called the “Institutional Analysis and Development Framework,” and “elite
interviews” of politician, coordinators, project implementers and citizen
activists. New institutions and redefined institutional relationships are
having a great effect on the quality and quantity of riparian salmon habitat
projects in the Cedar River, which is valued for its salmon populations
and habitat. Decision-makers are limited by mandates, jurisdictions, constituencies,
and biophysical variables, which has led to a lack of a central vision
to recover salmon through habitat protection and/or restoration, and poor
coordination at the implementation level.
The analysis reveals: 1)
Ad hoc salmon habitat restoration projects that do not trigger the Endangered
Species Act are more likely to be implemented than those subjected to a
prioritization scheme; 2) Habitat acquisition projects are favored over
restoration projects, especially in areas with high community support and
low federal involvement; 3) Salmon habitat protection and restoration projects
are being implemented based more on their feasibility than on the priority
within the region or the recover of salmon; 4) Efforts to protect/restore
salmon habitat are moving towards species-specific management strategies,
and away from ecosystem management. Despite the poor coordination and lack
of adherence to overall prioritization schemes, Washington State has done
remarkably well within the “salmon habitat arena.” The people of Washington
State are learning about the causes of salmonid declines, the habitat needs
of the salmonids, and the plausible recovery actions. The next step is
for Washington State to learn how to better integrate its social goals
and salmon recovery goals.
Montgomery, M. 2003. Perceptions and
Opinions Related to Restoration and Protection of the Lower Cedar River,
King County, Washington. Master's Thesis, School of Marine Affairs, University
of Washington, Seattle.
Like many rivers
with both urban and rural interfaces, the Cedar River (King County, Washington)
has a wide variety of stakeholders with different visions for the river.
River restoration is under active discussion by the Cedar River Council
because past and present land use, fishing, and water withdrawals have
dramatically altered the landscape from its historical state while fish
populations have declined, much wildlife habitat and hydraulic connectivity
has been lost and flooding continues to occur. Yet with the upper
two thirds of the river protected from development and logging under a
Habitat Conservation Plan, the water quality high and the river serving
as an accessible source of quality recreation for many, this river and
its watershed could be considered to be in very good shape.
Given that there
are multiple visions for the river and different potential perceptions
of river health, a survey was designed to gain an understanding of how
riparian property owners and other interested parties perceive the health
of the river, what they think are the major problems facing the river and
how they rank the effectiveness and acceptability of different types of
restoration actions. This survey was sent to property owners along
the Cedar River and its tributaries as well as to the mailing list for
the Cedar River Council meetings (which included both Council members and
observers) and to the WRIA (Watershed Resource Inventory Area) 8 Steering
Committee members and alternates. The overall response rate was 50.6%.
Based on the first order statistical analysis presented in this thesis
the following initial conclusions are drawn. Respondents indicated
a perceived decline in river health. They cited mixed causes for
They endorsed support for land purchase and protection and active restoration
strategies. Differences in responses from riparian property owners
as compared to other interested parties included the strength of their
views on the decline of river health and the factors they considered to
be the most important contributors to a decline, however further (ongoing)
analysis is necessary to verify the validity of these conclusions.