ENVIR 495F

GROWING STUFF
Ecology, Economy, and Politics of Resource-Extraction Ecosystems

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READINGS
Introduction
Forest General
Forest Local
Forest Post-Mortem
Aquaculture General
Aquaculture Local
Aquaculture Post-Mortem
Dairy General
Dairy Local
Dairy Post-Mortem

FIELD TRIPS
Forest Products
Aquaculture
Dairy

ESSAY ASSIGNMENTS Forest Products
Shellfish
Dairy

Readings for Week 8: Dairy Farming

Tuesday, May 21

This week, we look at two kinds of general issues about dairy farming: first environmental and then dietary issues. Today, we will look at the place of dairying and dairy products in the world food supply and its effect on ecosystems, in a kind of parallel to the way we looked at the place of biofuels in the world energy supply earlier. We begin with a general account of food production and land use change by Ruth DeFries et al.

Nitrogen is part of the equation at both ends (of the cow as well as the diet-ecology chain), so now we move to the problems of that most common and most elusive element. Begin with Oene Oenema and Stefan Pietrzak's comparison of nutrient management in food production in the Netherlands and Poland, to understand the relationship of energy efficiency, economic incentives, and policy in two very different management systems. Then, for a specific application to dairy farming systems, read H.F.M. Aarts et. al's article about De Marke prototype farm

Dairies, of course, have other effects on the environment besides their contribution of reactive nitrogen. For example, they emit considerable greenhouse gases, and also cattle may degrade grasslands by overgrazing. The degree of these impacts is influenced by what systems of feeding are used. Read two articles about and about comparison of feeding systems in Wisconsin dairies and about rotational grazing and carbon credits.

By 7:00 a.m. on Tuesday, May 21, you should post 200-400 words on what should be the key questions of regulation of the dairy industry, so that farmers have a chance to make a living while not degrading local environments.

Thursday, May 23

Today we hone in on the dietary aspect, with Barry Popkin's work on dietary transitions generally and on a specific study showing the process in China. Then we move to the specific question of nitrogen from the demand side, thinking both of all those ads about protein [and calcium] to build healthy bodies, as well as complaints about what excess nitrogen does to the environment, reading Vaclav Smil on Nitrogen in Human Diets.

Four volunteers will debate the issue of vegetarianism and veganism looking at the relationship between nutrition and ecology. The other dietary issue we will take up today will be the question of the relationship between production methods and dietary choices, in the form of both organic milk and raw milk. For a general introduction to the culture and economics of organic foods, read the chapter on Big Organic from Michael Pollan's The Omnivore's Dilemma, and for the particular case of milk, read Melanie DuPuis on rBGH and the Rise of Organic Milk.

For the issue of raw milk, you might want to start with a recent NYT article on legal attempts to restrict raw milk in Connecticut and a short note about what happened later. Then look at the two very polemical sides of the issue: apro-raw milk piece and one that opposes it in the name of the dairy industry. Two volunteers each will be asked to report on the following issues:
  • Should dairy products be promoted as a source of protein for adults?
  • Should consumers pay a premium for organic milk, and why?
  • Should on-farm or off-farm sales of raw milk be permitted, and if so how should they be regulated?