Classics 430:
Greek and Roman Mythology
25 January 2002

I.   The Trojan War

1. Possible Historical Basis
a. Names: Paris, Helen, Menelaus, Agamemnon
b. Places: Sparta, Argos, Crete
c. Plot:
 i. Paris gives žappleÓ to Venus / Aphrodite
 ii. Paris takes Helen as his wife while Menelaus is on Crete
 iii. Paris thus breaks bonds of XENIA
 iv. Paris wisely high-tails it back to TROY / ILION
 v. Menelaus and his brother Agamemnon go after him
3. The Journey to Troy
a. Departure from AULIS
b. Names:  Agamemnon, Calchas (blind seer), Iphigenia, Achilles
c. Plot:
 i. Artemis (goddess of hunt) angry; stops the winds
 ii. Agamemnon required to sacrifice daughter to Artemis
 iii. He does!
 iv. Greeks gain winds, set sail for TROY / ILION
4. War between Greeks and Trojans rages for TWENTY YEARS
a. Story told in HomerŪs Iliad
b. Achilles is the main hero of the Iliad (spoiled boy who finally comes to senses and saves the day)
c. This serves as paradigmatic WAR for Greeks, forever, and gives a reason (AETIOLOGY) for Greek  / Persian hatred.

II. Rape and the Natural World: the Theft of a girl, the Origin of the Seasons

1. Terms: The myth of PERSEPHONE AND DEMETER
a. Names, divine: Demeter / Deo / ždaughter of RheaÓ (žMother-EarthÓ), Persephone / Kore (žgirlÓ), Zeus, his brother Hades, Hekate (žtri-form goddessÓ linked to Moon), Helios  / žson of HyperiodÓ (god of the Sun)
b. Names, mortal: Celeus, Callithoe, Callidike, Demo, Clisidike, Metaneira (wife of Celeus), Iambe / Baubo, Demophon (son of Celeus and Metaneira)
c. Places: Eleusis, House of Hades
d. Things: kykeon (barley-spice drink), pomegranate
2. Results
a. Eleusinian Mysteries (fertility rites)
b. Seasons:  One third of the year Žin Hades,Ū two thirds Žon EarthŪ