Pañcadaśī Chapter 7: Tṛptidīpa Prakaraṇam

Content created by: Prem Pahlajrai
Last Updated: Thu 11/11/2004 09:17 PM

Outline

1-18The meaning of "Puruṣo 'ham asmi" in BĀU 4.4.12
1-6The meaning of "Puruṣa"
7-18The meaning of "aham asmi"
19-22The meaning of "ayam"
23-28Explanation by means of the "tenth man" allegory
29-82The seven stages of Cidābhāsa
83-96The direct knowledge produced by the mahāvākyas
97-135The repeated study (abhyāsa) to be performed by means of śravaṇa, manana, etc for the sake of strengthening the knowledge produced by the mahāvākyas
136-191The meaning of "kim icchan" and the non-existence of the affliction produced by desire
136-142 The destruction of the desire for pleasure upon the realization of the deficiency in objects of pleasure.
146-150 The Brahman-knower's desireless enjoyment of pleasures effected by prārabdha
151-173 Three kinds of prārabdha
174-191 The absence of opposition to the knowledge of the unreality of manifestation (prapañca) and to the pleasures effected by prārabdha
192-222 For the meaning of "kasya kāmāya", regarding enjoyership – the non-existence of the affliction produced due to desire for pleasure
223-251 Because of the absence of the three kinds of bodily afflictions for a knower of Brahman, an examination of the nature of afflictions in the three bodies
252-298 The state of unlimited satisfaction for a knower of Brahman

English Translations Key

HPS:Hari Prasad Shastri (1956), Panchadasi ‐ A Treatise on Advaita Metaphysics by Swami Vidyaranya. London: Shanti Sadan.
SS:Swāmī Swāhānanda (1967), Pañcadaśī of Śrī Vidyāraṇya Swāmī. Mylapore: Sri Ramkrishna Math.
JBS:Jñānānanda Bhārathi Svāminaḥ (1983), Panchadasi. Madras: Sri Abhinav Vidyatheertha Mahaswamigal Educational Trust.

Text

ātmānaṃ ced vijānīyād ayam asmīti pūruṣaḥ
kim icchan kasya kāmāya śarīram anusaṃjvaret ||1||

ātmānam cet vijānīyāt ayam asmi iti pūruṣaḥ |
kim icchan kasya kāmāya śarīram anusaṃjvaret ||

HPS: "When a man (Puruṣa) has realised the identity of his own Self with That (Paramātman), desiring what and to please whom should he allow his lower self (body and mind) to be afflicted?"

SS: "When a man (Puruṣa) has realized the identity of his own Self with the Paramātman, desiring what and for whose sake should he allow himself to be afflicted following the body's affliction?"

JBS: "If a person realizes the Self as 'I am this' wishing what and for whose desire is he to worry about the body?"

asyāḥ śruter abhiprāyaḥ samyagatra vicāryate
jīvanmuktasya yā tṛptiḥ sā tena viśadāyate ||2||

asyāḥ śruteḥ abhiprāyaḥ samyak atra vicāryate |
jīvanmuktasya tṛptiḥ tena viśadāyate ||

HPS: In this chapter we discuss the meaning of this Śruti. The perfect satisfaction of one who has achieved illumination in this life will be made readily comprehensible by our reflections.

SS: In this chapter we exhaustively analyze the meaning of this Śruti. Thereby the perfect satisfaction of a man liberated in this life will be clearly known.

JBS: the purport of this Vedic passage is well enquired into here. The satisfaction that he Jīvanmukta (one liberated even when living) has is made clear by it (the enquiry).

māyābhāsena jīveśau karotīti śrutatvataḥ
kalpitāv eva jīveśau tābhyāṃ sarvaṃ prakalpitam ||3||

māyā ābhāsena jīva īśau karoti iti śrutatvataḥ |
kalpitau eva jīva īśau tābhyām sarvam prakalpitam ||

HPS: On the authority of the Śruti we come to know that Māyā, reflecting Brahman, creates both Jīva and Īśvara. Jīva and Īśvara in their turn create the whole of the rest of the universe.

SS: The Śruti says that Māyā reflecting Brahman, creates both Jīva and Īśvara. Jīva and Īśvara, in their turn, create the whole of the rest of the universe.

JBS: As it is heard (from the Veda) that Māyā by the reflection creates the Jīva (Individual Soul) and God the Ruler (of the universe), both the Soul and God are only creations. All (the universe) is created by them both.

īkṣaṇādi praveśāntā sṛṣṭir īśena kalpitā
jāgradādi vimokṣāntaḥ saṃsāro jīvakalpitaḥ ||4||

īkṣaṇa ādi praveśa antā sṛṣṭiḥ īśena kalpitā |
jāgrat ādi vimokṣa antaḥ saṃsāraḥ jīvakalpitaḥ ||

HPS: The creation of Īśvara extends from his willing to create the world to the moment when he himself enters his creation. The world from the waking state to the state of release which follows illumination is the creation of Jīva.

SS: From the determination of Īśvara to create, down to his entrance into the created objects, is the creation of Īśvara. from the waking state to ultimate release, the cause of all pleasures and pains, is the creation of Jīva.

JBS: The creation from 'considering' to 'entering' is the creation of the Ruler. The Saṃsāra from the waking state to the state of liberation is the creation of the Jīva.

bhramādhiṣṭhāna bhūtātmā kūṭasthāsaṅga cidvapuḥ
anyonyādhyāsato 'saṅga dhīstha jīvo 'tra pūruṣaḥ ||5||

bhrama adhiṣṭhāna bhūtātmā kūṭastha asaṅga cidvapuḥ |
anyonya adhyāsataḥ asaṅga dhīstha jīvaḥ atra pūruṣaḥ ||

HPS: The substratum of illusion is the immutable, associationless, pure consciousness, Brahman, the Self of all beings. When through mutual superimposition Brahman becomes associated with the intellect, an association which is phenomenal and not real, He is known as Jīva or Puruṣa.

SS: The substratum of illusions is Brahman, the immutable, associationless, pure consciousness, the Self of all beings. When through mutual superimposition Brahman becomes associated with the intellect, an association which is phenomenal and not real, He is known as Jīva or Puruṣa.

JBS: The Self, who is the substratum of mistake and whose nature is unchangeable and un‐attached Consciousness, becoming the Jīva reflected in unattached intellect by reason of mutual superimposition, is the Person here (mentioned in the opening stanza).

sādhiṣṭhāno vimokṣādau jīvo 'dhikriyate na tu
kevalo niradhiṣṭhāna vibhrānteḥ kvāpy asiddhitaḥ ||6||

sādhiṣṭhānaḥ vimokṣa ādau jīvaḥ adhikriyate na tu |
kevalaḥ niradhiṣṭhāna vibhrānteḥ kva api asiddhitaḥ ||

HPS: Jīva, with Kūṭastha as his real basis, appears to become an agent and tries to obtain the pleasures of heaven and earth. Cidābhāsa, the reflection of pure consciousness, is fundamentally Kūṭastha. Jīvahood is due to superimposition, and superimposition inevitably implies as substratum. In fact, Cidābhāsa is nothing but Kūṭastha.

SS: Jīva, with Kūṭastha as his substratum, becomes an agent and seeks liberation or the pleasures of heaven and earth. Cidābhāsa, the reflection of pure consciousness, alone cannot be so, for superimposition is not possible without a substratum.

JBS: The Jīva along with the substratum (the Self) is competent for liberation etc. and not the mere Jīva for a mistaken conception without a substratum is not anywhere possible.

adhiṣṭhānāṃśa saṃyuktaṃ bhramāṃśam avalambate
yadā tadā 'haṃ saṃsārīty evaṃ jīvo 'bhimanyate ||7||

adhiṣṭhāna aṃśa saṃyuktam bhrama aṃśam avalambate |
yadā tadā aham saṃsārī iti evam jīvaḥ abhimanyate ||

HPS: Jīva has the immutable Kūṭastha as his basis, but he believes himself to be the gross and subtle bodies, the products of illusion. He then thinks himself to be a saṃsārin, subject to the doubtful pleasures and the real pains and sufferings of the world.

SS: When Jīva having the immutable Kūṭastha as his basis wrongly identifies himself with the gross and subtle bodies, he comes to think of himself as bound by the pleasures and pains of this world.

JBS: When the Jīva relies upon the aspect of mistake mixed with the aspect of the substratum, he then thinks thus – "I am a saṃsārī (the wanderer)".

bhramāṃśasya tiraskārād adhiṣṭhāna pradhānatā
yadā tadā cidātmāham asaṅgo 'smīti buddhyate ||8||

bhrama aṃśasya tiraskārāt adhiṣṭhāna pradhānatā |
yadā tadā cidātmā aham asaṅgaḥ asmi iti buddhyate ||

HPS: When Jīva gives up his attachment to the products of illusion, the three bodies, he achieves the nature of his substratum, pure consciousness and associationlessness.

SS: When Jīva gives up his attachment to his illusory portion, the nature of the substratum becomes predominant and he realizes that he is associationless and of the nature of pure consciousness.

JBS: When discarding the mistaken aspect prominence is given to the substratum, he recognises 'I am conscious Self. I am quite un‐attached.'

nāsaṅge 'haṃkṛtir yuktā katham asmīti cecchṛṇu
eko mukhyo dvāv amukhyāv ity arthas trividho 'hamaḥ ||9||

na asaṅge ahaṃkṛtiḥ yuktā katham asmi iti cet śṛṇu |
ekaḥ mukhyaḥ dvau amukhyau iti arthas trividhaḥ ahamaḥ ||

HPS: It may be objected: "How can the idea of egoity arise in the detached Kūṭastha? You (the Vedāntin) have to attribute egoity to it." Our reply is that the word 'I' is used in three senses, of which one is primary and the other two secondary.

SS: (Doubt:) How can the idea of egoity arise in the detached Kūṭastha? you have to attribute egoity to it. (Reply:) 'I' is used in three senses, of which one is primary and the other two secondary.

JBS: The sense of I is not possible in the (Self which is) un‐attached. How can there be an 'I am'? – if so asked, listen. The 'I has three kinds of significances, one primary and the other two not primary.

anyonyādhyāsa rūpeṇa kūṭasthābhāsayor vapuḥ
ekībhūya bhavenmukhyas tatra mūḍhaiḥ prayujyate ||10||

anyonya adhyāsa rūpeṇa kūṭastha ābhāsayoḥ vapuḥ |
ekībhūya bhavet mukhyas tatra mūḍhaiḥ prayujyate ||

HPS: The primary meaning of 'I' is the sense in which the dull‐witted use it. They identify the immutable Kūṭastha with the reflected intelligence, Cidābhāsa. The source of this error is mutual superimposition.

SS: The immutable Kūṭastha becomes identified with the reflected intelligence, Cidābhāsa, due to mutual superimposition. This is the primary meaning of 'I' in which the spiritually dull people use it.

JBS: The form of the changeless Self and of the reflection becoming one by reason of mutual superimposition is the primary (meaning). (The word 'I') is used in that sense by the ignorant.

pṛthagābhāsa kūṭasthāv amukhyau tatra tattvavit
paryāyeṇa prayuṅkte 'haṃ śabdaṃ loke ca vaidike ||11||

pṛthak ābhāsa kūṭasthau amukhyau tatra tattvavit |
paryāyeṇa prayuṅkte aham śabdam loke ca vaidike ||

HPS: The wise use the word 'I' in the two secondary senses, referring it to either Kūṭastha or Cidābhāsa but differentiating one from the other. They use the same word 'I' either in the worldly or in the scriptural sense, meaning Cidābhāsa or Kūṭastha respectively.

SS: 'I' in the two secondary senses refer to either Kūṭastha or Cidābhāsa but one is differentiated from the other. The wise use the same word 'I' either in the worldly or in the philosophical sense, meaning Cidābhāsa or Kūṭastha respectively.

JBS: The reflection and the changeless Self are severally the non‐primary significances. The knower of truth uses the word 'I' alternately in worldly matters and in matters of Vedic import.

laukika vyavahare 'haṃ gacchāmīty ādike budhaḥ
vivicyaiva cidābhāsaṃ kūṭasthāt taṃ vivakṣati ||12||

laukika vyavahare aham gacchāmi iti ādike budhaḥ |
vivicya eva cidābhāsam kūṭasthāt tam vivakṣati ||

HPS: In common parlance the wise use the expression 'I am going', meaning Cidābhāsa. They differentiate Cidābhāsa from Kūṭastha by the power of reflection.

SS: From the conventional standpoint, the wise use the expression, 'I am going', meaning Cidābhāsa, differentiating it from Kūṭastha.

JBS: In worldly transactions, like 'I go' etc., the knower separates the reflected consciousness from the changeless Self and intends to signify only the former.

asaṅgo 'haṃ cidātmāham iti śastrīya dṛṣṭitaḥ
ahaṃ śabdaṃ prayuṅkte 'yaṃ kūṭasthe kevale budhaḥ ||13||

asaṅgaḥ aham cidātmā aham iti śastrīya dṛṣṭitaḥ |
aham śabdam prayuṅkte ayam kūṭasthe kevale budhaḥ ||

HPS: From the philosophical standpoint the wise mean by their 'I' the pure Kūṭastha. They say: 'I am unattached. I am the One‐without‐a‐second."

SS: From the philosophical standpoint the wise mean by their 'I' the pure Kūṭastha. In this sense they say: 'I am unattached. I am the Spirit Itself.'

JBS: The knower uses the word 'I' in the sense of the pure changeless Self in saying 'I am un‐attached I am the conscious Self' from the view point of the Śāstra.

jñānitājñānite tv ātmābhasasyaiva na cātmanaḥ
tathā ca katham ābhāsaḥ kūṭastho 'smīti buddhyatām ||14||

jñānitā ajñānite tu ātmā ābhasasya eva na ca ātmanaḥ |
tathā ca katham ābhāsaḥ kūṭasthaḥ asmi iti buddhyatām ||

HPS: The opponent may here object that it is Cidābhāsa that can be called wise or ignorant; such terms cannnot be applied to Kūṭastha. Then how can Cidābhāsa, who is different from Kūṭastha, say: "I am Kūṭastha"? How can the expression 'I am Brahman' be rightly attributed to him?

SS: (Doubt:) Wise or ignorant are terms that can be applied to Cidābhāsa and never to Kūṭastha. Then how can Cidābhāsa, who is different from Kūṭastha, say: 'I am Brahman or Kūṭastha'?

JBS: Being a knower and being ignorant are both only for the reflection and not for the (pure) Self. While so, how can the reflection have the idea "I am the changeless Self"?

nāyaṃ doṣaścidābhāsaḥ kūṭasthaikasvabhāvavān
ābhāsatvasya mithyātvāt kūṭasthatvāvaśeṣaṇāt ||15||

na ayam doṣaḥ cidābhāsaḥ kūṭastha ekasvabhāvavān |
ābhāsatvasya mithyātvāt kūṭasthatva avaśeṣaṇāt ||

HPS: The reply of the Vedāntin is that this objection is groundless because Cidābhāsa has no real existence independent of Kūṭastha. An image in a mirror is not distinct from the object of which it is a reflection. When the accidental factors are negated, only Kūṭastha remains.

SS: (Reply:) There is no harm, for Cidābhāsa has no real existence independent of Kūṭastha. An image in a mirror is not distinct from the object of which it is a reflection. When the adventitious factors are negated, only Kūṭastha remains.

JBS: This is not a fault. The reflected consciousness is really of the nature of the changeless Self only, as the reflectedness is unreal and the state of being the changeless Self is the residue.

kūṭastho 'smīti bodho 'pi mithyā cenneti ko vadet
na hi satyatayābhiṣṭaṃ rajju sarpa visarpaṇam ||16||

kūṭasthaḥ asmi iti bodhaḥ api mithyā cet na iti kaḥ vadet |
na hi satyatayā abhiṣṭam rajju sarpa visarpaṇam ||

HPS: If the opponent firther says that the statement 'I am Kūṭastha' is also illusory, our reply is: "Who denies it?" Any motion attributed to the snake superimposed on a rope is unreal and cannot be admitted.

SS: (Doubt:) The idea, 'I am Kūṭastha' is also illusory. (Reply:) Who denies it? Any motion attributed to the snake superimposed on a rope is unreal and cannot be admitted.

JBS: If it is urged that even the knowledge "I am the changeless Self" is unreal, who says it is not? The going away of the snake that seemed in the rope is certainly not accepted as truth.

tādṛśenāpi bodhena saṃsāro hi nivartate
yakṣānurūpo hi balir ity āhur laukikā janāḥ ||17||

tādṛśena api bodhena saṃsāraḥ hi nivartate |
yakṣa anurūpaḥ hi baliḥ iti āhuḥ laukikā janāḥ ||

HPS: The knowledge of the nature of Kūṭastha ('I am Brahman') leads to the cessation of pleasure and pain. There is a common saying that a scarifice offered to a deity must be appropriate to that deity.

SS: The idea 'I am Brahman' leads to the cessation of pleasure and pain of the world. There is a common saying that sacrifice offered to a deity must be appropriate to that deity.

JBS: Even by such a knowledge, Saṃsāra does vanish. For the people of the world themselves say "The oblation must be appropriate to the Yakṣa (the deity sought to be propitiated)".

tasmād ābhāsa puruṣaḥ sakūṭastho vivicya tam
kūṭastho 'smīti vijñātum arhatīty abhyadhācchrutiḥ ||18||

tasmāt ābhāsa puruṣaḥ sakūṭasthaḥ vivicya tam |
kūṭasthaḥ asmi iti vijñātum arhati iti abhyadhāt śrutiḥ ||

HPS: The Śruti declares that Cidābhāsa, based on Kūṭastha and known as Puruṣa, should differentiate Kūṭastha from illusion, and that he is then justified in calling himself Kūṭastha (Brahman).

SS: The Śruti says that Cidābhāsa, based on Kūṭastha and known as Puruṣa, should differentiate Kūṭastha from illusion, and that he is then justified in saying 'I am Kūṭastha (Brahman).'

JBS: Therefore the reflected 'person' who is accompanied by the changeless Self is competent to know "I am the changeless Self" by distinguishing it from himself – so says the Veda.

asandigdhāviparyasta bodho dehātmanīkṣyate
tadvad atreti nirṇetum ayam ity abhidhīyate ||19||

asandigdha aviparyasta bodhaḥ dehātmani īkṣyate |
tadvat atra iti nirṇetum ayam iti abhidhīyate ||

HPS: In speaking of himself the common man seems to be convinced of his identity with the body. When a similar conviction is achieved of the identity of the Jīva with Brahman, the term 'That' is known to refer to Brahman.

SS: In speaking of himself the common man seems to be convinced of his identity with the body. A similar conviction about this Self as Brahman is necessary for liberation. This is the meaning of 'this' in 'I am this'.

JBS: A cognition which is neither doubtful nor mistaken is seen in (the common idea of) the body being the Self. To emphasise that it must be like it here also, the word 'This' is used.

dehātmajñānavajjñānaṃ dehātmajñānabādhakam
ātmany eva bhaved yasya sa necchannapi mucyate ||20||

dehātmajñānavat jñānam dehātmajñāna bādhakam |
ātmani eva bhavet yasya sa na icchan api mucyate ||

HPS: When one is as firmly convinced of oneś identity with Brahman as an ordinary man is convinced of his identity with the body, release follows, whether one seeks it or not.

SS: When a man is as firmly convinced of his identity with Brahman as an ordinary man is convinced of his identity with the body, he is liberated even if he does not wish for it.

JBS: He whose knowledge in the Self alone is (as strong) as the (ordinary) knowledge of the body being the Self and disperses that knowledge of the body being the Self is freed (from bondage) even if he does not wish it.

ayam ity aparokṣatvam ucyate cet tad ucyatām
svayaṃ prakāśa caitanyam aparokṣaṃ sadā yataḥ ||21||

ayam iti aparokṣatvam ucyate cet tad ucyatām |
svayam prakāśa caitanyam aparokṣam sadā yataḥ ||

HPS: It may be objected that the term 'That' refers to something knowable and that it cannot apply to Brahman, who is unknown. Our reply is that Brahman as the Self is self‐luminous and can ever be directly experienced.

SS: (Doubt:) The term 'this' in 'I am this' refers to something knowable and that it cannot apply to Brahman, who is unknown. (Reply:) All right. Brahman as the Self is self‐luminous and can always be directly experienced.

JBS: If it is urged that patent‐ness is denoted by 'This' let it be so denoted, for the self‐luminous consciousness is always patent.

parokṣam aparokṣaṃ ca jñānam ajñānam ity adaḥ
nityāparokṣa rūpe 'pi dvayaṃ syād daśame yathā ||22||

parokṣam aparokṣam ca jñānam ajñānam iti adaḥ |
nitya aparokṣa rūpe api dvayam syāt daśame yathā ||

HPS: The Self is ever cognised. We speak of his being known directly or indirectly, being known or unknown, as in the illustration of the tenth man.

SS: The Self is ever cognized. We speak of Its being known directly or indirectly, being known or unknown, as in the illustration of the tenth man.

JBS: Being patent and being not patent, knowledge and ignorance – these two can be even in relation to what is always patent just as in the case of the 'tenth' man.

nava saṃkhyāhṛtajñāno daśamo vibhramāt tadā
na vetti daśamo 'smīti vīkṣyamāṇo 'pi tān nava ||23||

nava saṃkhyā hṛtajñānaḥ daśamaḥ vibhramāt tadā |
na vetti daśamaḥ asmi iti vīkṣyamāṇaḥ api tān nava ||

HPS: The tenth man counts the other nine, each of whom is visible to him, but forgets himself, though his Self is ever known to him.

SS: The tenth man counts the other nine, each of whom is visible to him, but forgets himself the tenth, though all the time seeing himself.

JBS: Owing to delusion the tenth man with his knowledge obsessed by the number nine does not know then that the tenth exists even though he is there looking at those nine.

na bhāti nāsti daśama iti svaṃ daśamaṃ tadā
matvā vakti tad ajñānakṛtam āvaraṇaṃ viduḥ ||24||

na bhāti na asti daśama iti svam daśamam tadā |
matvā vakti tad ajñānakṛtam āvaraṇam viduḥ ||

HPS: Being himself the tenth, he does not find him. The tenth is not visible to him, though ever present. The reason is that his presence is veiled by ignorance or Māyā.

SS: Being himself the tenth, he does not find him. 'The tenth is not visible, he is absent' so he says. Intelligent people say that this is due to his presence being obscured by ignorance or Māyā.

JBS: At that time, though he is the tenth, he thinks and says, "The tenth is not seen, is not (here)". This which is the effect of ignorance is known as 'Screening'.

nadyāṃ mamāra daśama iti socan praroditi
ajñānakṛta vikṣepaṃ rodanādiṃ vidur budhāḥ ||25||

nadyām mamāra daśama iti socan praroditi |
ajñānakṛta vikṣepam rodana ādim viduḥ budhāḥ ||

HPS: He is grieved and cries, because he believes the tenth to have drowned in the stream. The act of weeping, a result of false superimposition, is due to illusion.

SS: He is grieved and cries, because he believes the tenth to have drowned in the river. The act of weeping, a result of false superimposition, is due to illusion.

JBS: Stricken with grief, he weeps aloud saying that the tenth has died in the river. The learned know this weeping etc. as 'Distraction' caused by ignorance.

na mṛto daśamo 'stīti śrutvāptavacanaṃ tadā
paroksatvena daśamaṃ vetti svargādi lokavat ||26||

na mṛtaḥ daśamaḥ asti iti śrutvā āptavacanam tadā |
paroksatvena daśamam vetti svarga ādi lokavat ||

HPS: When told by a competent person that the tenth is not dead, he believes by indirect knowledge that he is alive, just as one believe sin the existence of heaven on the authority of Śruti.

SS: When told by a competent person that the tenth is not dead, he believes by indirect knowledge that he is alive, just as one believes in the existence of heaven on the authority of the Śruti.

JBS: When he hears the word of a friend that the tenth is not dead but does exist, he then knows the tenth indirectly just as one knows about heaven and other worlds.

tvam eva daśamo 'sīti gaṇayitva pradarśitaḥ
aparokṣatayā jñātvā hṛṣyaty eva na roditi ||27||

tvam eva daśamaḥ asi iti gaṇayitva pradarśitaḥ |
aparokṣatayā jñātvā hṛṣyati eva na roditi ||

HPS: When he is told: "Thou art the tenth", and counts himself along with the others, he stops weeping and grieving owing to the direct knowledge of the tenth, that is, himself.

SS: When each man is told: ‘you are the tenth' and he counts himself along with the others, he stops weeping and grieving owing to the direct knowledge of the tenth, that is, himself.

JBS: When he is shown after counting that "you yourself are the tenth", he knows (the tenth) directly and becomes certainly glad and ceases to weep.

ajñānāvṛtivikṣepa dvividha jñāna tṛptayaḥ
śokāpagama ity ete yojanīyaścidātmani ||28||

ajñāna āvṛti vikṣepa dvividha jñāna tṛptayaḥ |
śoka apagama iti ete yojanīyaḥ cidātmani ||

HPS: Seven stages can be distinguished in respect of the Self: ignorance, obscuration, superimposition, indirect knowledge, direct knowledge, cessation of grief and the rise of unending satisfaction.

SS: Seven stages can be distinguished in respect of the Self: ignorance, obscuration, superimposition, indirect knowledge, direct knowledge, cessation of grief and the rise of perfect satisfaction.

JBS: 1. Ignorance, 2. Screening, 3. Distraction, 4. and 5. the Two‐fold Knowledge (indirect and direct), 6. Satisfaction and 7. Cessation of sorrow – These (seven stages) have to be applied in the case of the conscious Self (also).

saṃsārāsakta cittaḥ saṃścidābhāsaḥ kadācana
svayaṃ prakāśa kūṭasthaṃ svatattvaṃ naiva vetty ayam ||29||

saṃsārāsakta cittaḥ san cidābhāsaḥ kadācana |
svayam prakāśa kūṭastham svatattvam na eva vetti ayam ||

HPS: Cidābhāsa with his mind devoted to the empirical existence does not know that he is the self‐evident Kūṭastha.

SS: Cidābhāsa with his mind devoted to the worldly existence does not know that he is the self‐evident Kūṭastha.

JBS: 1. (Ignorance). This reflected consciousness (the Jīva) with his mind engrossed by Saṃsāra does not at all ever recognise the self‐luminous changeless Self as his own true nature.

na bhāti nāsti kūṭastha iti vakti prasaṅgataḥ
kartā bhoktāham asmīti vikṣepaṃ pratipadyate ||30||

na bhāti na asti kūṭastha iti vakti prasaṅgataḥ |
kartā bhoktā aham asmi iti vikṣepam pratipadyate ||

HPS: 'Kūṭastha is not manifest, there is no Kūṭastha' are the ideas that characterise the obscuring stage caused by ignorance. The Jīva further says that he is the doer, and enjoys the results of his actions. This stage is the result of superimposition.

SS: 'Kūṭastha is not manifest, there is no Kūṭastha' are the ideas that characterize the obscuring stage caused by ignorance. The Jīva further says, 'I am the doer and enjoyer', and experiences pains and pleasures, the result of superimposition.

JBS: 2. (Screening). He says "The changeless Self does not shine nor does he exist". 3. (Distraction). As a consequence, he gets the distraction "I am a doer, I am an enjoyer".

asti kūṭastha ity ādau parokṣaṃ vetti vārtayā
paścāt kūṭastha evāsmīty evaṃ vetti vicārataḥ ||31||

asti kūṭastha iti ādau parokṣam vetti vārtayā |
paścāt kūṭastha eva asmi iti evam vetti vicārataḥ ||

SS: From the teacher he comes to know of the existence of Kūṭastha indirectly. Then, by means of discrimination, he directly realizes 'I am Kūṭastha'.

JBS: 4. (Indirect knowledge). He at first knows indirectly by hearsay "The changeless Self exists". 5. (Direct knowledge). Later on by enquiry he knows thus:‐ "I am the changeless Self only".

kartā bhoktety evam ādi śokajātaṃ pramuñcati
kṛtaṃ kṛtyaṃ prāpaṇīyaṃ prāptam ity eva tuṣyati ||32||

kartā bhoktā iti evam ādi śokajātam pramuñcati |
kṛtam kṛtyam prāpaṇīyam prāptam iti eva tuṣyati ||

SS: Now he is free from the erroneous idea that he is a doer and an enjoyer of the fruit of his actions. With this conviction his grief comes to an end. He feels that he has accomplished all that was to be accomplished and experiences perfect satisfaction.

JBS: 6. (Cessation of sorrow). He gives up the host of griefs "I am a doer, an enjoyer" and the like. 7. (Satisfaction). He is certainly glad that what has to be done has been done and that what has to be achieved has been achieved.

ajñānam āvṛtis tadvad vikṣepaśca parokṣadhīḥ
aparokṣamatiḥ śokamokṣas tṛptir niraṅkuśā ||33||

ajñānam āvṛtis tadvat vikṣepaḥ ca parokṣadhīḥ |
aparokṣa matiḥ śoka mokṣas tṛptiḥ niraṅkuśā ||

SS: These are the seven stages of Jīva: ignorance, obscuration, superimposition, indirect knowledge, direct knowledge, freedom from grief and unrestricted bliss.

JBS: Ignorance, Screening, similarly Distraction, Indirect knowledge, Direct knowledge, release from sorrow, and unrestrained Satisfaction.

saptāvasthā imāḥ santi cidābhāsasya tāsv imau
bandhamokṣau sthitau tatra tisro bandhakṛtaḥ smṛtāḥ ||34||

sapta avasthā imāḥ santi cidābhāsasya tāsu imau |
bandha mokṣau sthitau tatra tisraḥ bandha kṛtaḥ smṛtāḥ ||

SS: The reflected consciousness, Cidābhāsa, is affected by these seven stages. They are the cause of bondage and also of release. The first three of them are described as causing bondage.

JBS: These seven stages are the Cidābhāsa (the Reflected Self or Jīva). Bondage and Release – these two are included in these (seven). Three out of them are declared to be the causes of bondage.

na jānāmīty udāsīna vyavahārasya kāraṇam
vicāraprāgabhāvena yuktam ajñānam īritam ||35||

na jānāmi iti udāsīna vyavahārasya kāraṇam |
vicāra prāk abhāvena yuktam ajñānam īritam ||

SS: Ignorance is the state characterized by 'I do not know' and is the cause of the indifference about truth, lasting as long as discrimination does not mature.

JBS: The state of 'I do not know' which is the cause of an indifferent attitude coupled with the anterior absence of enquiry is called Ignorance.

amārgeṇa vicāryātha nāsti no bhāti cety asau
viparīta vyavahṛtir āvṛteḥ kāryam iṣyate ||36||

amārgeṇa vicārya atha na asti naḥ bhāti ca iti asau |
viparīta vyavahṛtiḥ āvṛteḥ kāryam iṣyate ||

SS: The result of the obscuring of the spiritual truth caused by ignorance is such thoughts as 'Kūṭastha does not exist' 'Kūṭastha is not known', which is contrary to truth. This happens when discrimination is not conducted along scriptural lines.

JBS: By enquiring in an improper way, the saying of the opposite. 'The changeless Self does /not/ exist, does /not/ shine' is the result of Screening.

dehadvayacidābhāsarūpo vikṣepa īritaḥ
kartṛtvādy akhilaḥ śokaḥ saṃsārākhyo 'sya bandhakaḥ ||37||

deha dvaya cidābhāsa rūpaḥ vikṣepa īritaḥ |
kartṛtva ādi akhilaḥ śokaḥ saṃsāra ākhyaḥ asya bandhakaḥ ||

SS: The stage in which Cidābhāsa identifies himself with the subtle and gross bodies is called superimposition. In it he is subject to bondage and suffers as a result of the idea of his being the doer and enjoyer.

JBS: Taking the form of Cidābhāsa (Jīva) with its two bodies (subtle and gross) is called Distraction. All grief caused by doership, etc., the bondage known as Saṃsāra, is because of this.

ajñānam āvṛtiścaite vikṣepāt prāk prasiddhyataḥ
yadyapy athāpy avasthe te vikṣepasyaiva nātmanaḥ ||38||

ajñānam āvṛtiḥ ca ete vikṣepāt prāk prasiddhyataḥ |
yadyapi athāpi avasthe te vikṣepasya eva na ātmanaḥ ||

SS: Though ignorance and the obscuring of the Self precede superimposition and Cidābhāsa himself is the result of this superimposition, still the first two stages belong not to Kūṭastha but to Cidābhāsa.

JBS: Though Ignorance and Screening are anterior to Distraction, yet they are states of Distraction alone and not the Self.

vikṣepotpattitaḥ pūrvam api vikśepasaṃskṛtiḥ
asty eva tad avasthātvam aviruddhaṃ tatas tayoḥ ||39||

vikṣepa utpattitaḥ pūrvam api vikśepa saṃskṛtiḥ |
asti eva tad avasthātvam aviruddham tatas tayoḥ ||

SS: Before the rise of superimposition the impressions or seeds of superimposition exist. Therefore, it is not inconsistent to say that the first two stages belong to Cidābhāsa alone.

JBS: Even before the coming into existence of Distraction, there is certainly the impression of (tendency for) the Distraction. Therefore it is nor wrong to say that they are states of Distraction.

brahmaṇy āropitatvena brahmāvasthe ime iti
na śaṅkanīyaṃ sarvāsāṃ brahmaṇy evādhiropaṇāt ||40||

brahmaṇi āropitatvena brahmāvasthe ime iti |
na śaṅkanīyam sarvāsām brahmaṇi eva adhiropaṇāt ||

SS: These two stages do not exist in Brahman, although they are superimposed on Him, as Brahman is the basis on which the superimposed stands.

JBS: It must not be thought that these two are the states of Brahman by reason of their being superimposed on Brahman, for /all/ the states are superimposed on Brahman only.

saṃsāryahaṃ vibuddho 'haṃ niḥśokas tuṣṭa ity api
jīvagā uttarāvasthā bhānti na brahmagā yadi ||41||

saṃsārī aham vibuddhaḥ aham niḥśokas tuṣṭa iti api |
jīvagā uttarā avasthā bhānti na brahmagā yadi ||

SS: (Doubt:) 'I am worldly', 'I am endowed with knowledge', 'I am griefless', 'I am happy' and so forth are expressions which refer to states of the Jīva, and they have no relation to Brahman.

JBS: If it is urged that the later stages 'I am a Saṃsārī', 'I am a knower', 'I am free from grief', 'I am content' are seen as belonging to the Jīva and not as belonging to Brahman, ...

tarhy ajño 'haṃ brahmasattvabhāne mad dṛṣṭito na hi
iti pūrve avasthe ca bhāsete jīvage khalu ||42||

tarhi ajñaḥ aham brahmasattvabhāne mad dṛṣṭitaḥ na hi |
iti pūrve avasthe ca bhāsete jīvage khalu ||

SS: (Reply:) Then the two stages prior to superimposition also should be attributed to the Jīva, for he says: 'I do not know', 'I do not see Brahman' referring to ignorance and obscuring.

JBS: ... the previous two states, 'I am ignorant', and 'Brahman does not exist or shine in my view' also certainly belong to the Jīva.

ajñānasyāśrayo brahmety adhiṣṭhānatayā jaguḥ
jīvāvasthātvam ajñānābhimanitvād avādiṣam ||43||

ajñānasya āśrayaḥ brahma iti adhiṣṭhānatayā jaguḥ |
jīva avasthātvam ajñāna abhimanitvāt avādiṣam ||

SS: The ancient teachers said of Brahman as the support of ignorance as a substratum, but ignorance is attributable to Jīva because he identifies himself with it, and feels 'I am ignorant'.

JBS: They (some previous teachers) say that Brahman is the support of Ignorance by reason of its being the substratum. I ascribe (to ignorance) the status of being a state of the Jīva because of its attachment to Ignorance.

jñānadvayena naṣṭe 'sminnajñāne tatkṛtāvṛtiḥ
na bhāti nāsti cety eṣā dvividhāpi vinaśyati ||44||

jñāna dvayena naṣṭe asmin ajñāne tatkṛta āvṛtiḥ |
na bhāti na asti ca iti eṣā dvividhā api vinaśyati ||

SS: By the two kinds of knowledge ignorance is negated, and with it, its effects, and the ideas 'Brahman does not exist' and 'Brahman is not manifest' also perish.

JBS: When this Ignorance disappears on account of the two kinds of knowledge, this two‐fold Screening viz. 'It does not shine', 'It does not exist', born of that (Ignorance), also disappears.

parokṣajñānato naśyed asattvāvṛtihetutā
aparokṣajñānanāśyā hy abhānāvṛtihetutā ||45||

parokṣa jñānataḥ naśyet asattva āvṛti hetutā |
aparokṣa jñānanāśyā hi abhāna āvṛti hetutā ||

SS: By indirect knowledge the misconception that Kūṭastha does not exist is negated. Direct knowledge destroys the result of the obscuring of reality expressed in the idea that Brahman is not manifest or experienced.

JBS: By indirect knowledge, the being the cause of the Screening 'It does not exist' is destroyed. The being the cause of the Screening 'It does not shine' is destroyed by direct knowledge.

abhānāvaraṇe naṣṭe jīvatvāropasaṃkṣayāt
kartṛtvādy akhilaḥ śokaḥ saṃsārākhyo nivartate ||46||

abhāna āvaraṇe naṣṭe jīvatva āropa saṃkṣayāt |
kartṛtva ādi akhilaḥ śokaḥ saṃsāra ākhyaḥ nivartate ||

SS: When the obscuring principle is destroyed, both the idea of Jīva, a mere superimposition, and the grief caused by the worldly idea of agentship are destroyed.

JBS: If, by the elimination of the superimposition of Jīva‐hood, the Screening 'It does not shine' is gone, all the grief, the doer‐ship etc, known as Saṃsāra disappears.

nivṛtte sarvasaṃsāre nityamuktatvabhāsanāt
niraṅkuśā bhavet tṛptiḥ punaḥ śokāsamudbhavāt ||47||

nivṛtte sarva saṃsāre nitya muktatva bhāsanāt |
niraṅkuśā bhavet tṛptiḥ punaḥ śoka asamudbhavāt ||

SS: When the world of duality is destroyed by the experience of one’s being ever released there arise with the annihilation of all grief an unrestricted and everlasting satisfaction.

JBS: When the entire Saṃsāra is gone by the shining of the ever free state, there will be unhampered satisfaction as grief will not come up again.

aparokṣajñānaśokanivṛtty ākhye ubhe ime
avasthe jīvage brūtaṃ ātmānaṃ ced iti śrutiḥ ||48||

aparokṣa jñāna śoka nivṛtti ākhye ubhe ime |
avasthe jīvage brūtam ātmānam cet iti śrutiḥ ||

SS: The Śruti quoted at the beginning of this chapter refers to two of the stages, direct knowledge and the destruction of the grief from which Jīva suffers.

JBS: The Vedic passage 'If he knows the Self' (given in the opening stanza) refers to these two states of the Jīva called direct knowledge and the cessation of sorrow.

ayam ity aparokṣatvam uktaṃ tad dvividhaṃ bhavet
viṣayasvaprakāśatvād dhiyāpy evaṃ tad īkṣaṇāt ||49||

ayam iti aparokṣatvam uktam tad dvividham bhavet |
viṣaya svaprakāśatvāt dhiyā api evam tad īkṣaṇāt ||

SS: The direct knowledge of the reality referred to in the Śruti as 'this' (in 'This is the Self') is of two kinds: Ātman is self‐luminous, and the intellect perceives it as self‐evident.

JBS: By the word "This", direct knowledge is denoted. It is of two sorts, one due to the self‐luminous nature of the object and the other due to the cognition of that (self‐luminous nature) by the intellect also that it is so.

parokṣajñānakāle 'pi viṣayasvaprakāśatā
samā brahma svaprakāśam astīty evaṃ vibodhanāt ||50||

parokṣa jñāna kāle api viṣaya svaprakāśatā |
samā brahma svaprakāśam asti iti evam vibodhanāt ||

SS: In indirect knowledge the intellect is aware of the fact that Brahman is self‐evident, and the self‐evidence of Brahman is not the least affected in such intellectual comprehension.

JBS: Even during the period of indirect knowledge, the self‐luminous nature of the object is common, as there is then the knowledge thus 'Self‐luminous Brahman does exist'.

ahaṃ brahmety anullikhya brahmāstīty evam ullikhet
parokṣajñānam etanna bhrāntaṃ bādhānirūpaṇāt ||51||

aham brahma iti anullikhya brahma asti iti evam ullikhet |
parokṣajñānam etan na bhrāntam bādha anirūpaṇāt ||

SS: Indirect knowledge, which is the cognition 'Brahman exists' and not the cognition 'I am Brahman', is not erroneous; because in the state of direct knowledge this indirect knowledge is not contradicted but confirmed.

JBS: There may arise a knowledge that Brahman exists without knowing 'I am Brahman'. This is indirect knowledge but not mistaken knowledge as it is not negatived (later on by any other knowledge).

brahma nāstīti mānaṃ cet syād badhyeta tadā dhruvam
na caivaṃ prabalaṃ mānaṃ paśyāmo 'to na bādhyate ||52||

brahma na asti iti mānam cet syāt badhyeta tadā dhruvam |
na ca evam prabalam mānam paśyāmaḥ ataḥ na bādhyate ||

SS: If it could be proved that Brahman' does not exist, this indirect knowledge would be subject to refutation, but it is well known that there is no valid evidence to refute the fact that Brahman exists.

JBS: If there were any (strong) authority showing that Brahman does not exist, certainly this knowledge will be negatived. But we see however no such strong authority and therefore it is not negatived.

vyakty anullekhamātreṇa bhramatve svargadhīr api
bhrāntiḥ syād vyakty anullekhāt sāmānyollekhadarśanāt ||53||

vyakti anullekha mātreṇa bhramatve svargadhīḥ api |
bhrāntiḥ syāt vyakti anullekhāt sāmānya ullekha darśanāt ||

SS: The indirect knowledge of Brahman cannot be called false simply because it does not give a definitive idea of Brahman. On that basis the existence of heaven should also be false.

JBS: If non-perception of a particular object amounts in itself to a mistaken knowledge, even the knowledge of heaven will be a mistaken one as the particular object (namely, heaven) is not known (perceived now) and there is only a knowledge of it generally (vaguely).

aparokṣatvayogyasya na parokṣamatir bhramaḥ
parokṣam ity anullekhād arthāt pārokṣyasaṃbhavāt ||54||

aparokṣatva yogyasya na parokṣa matiḥ bhramaḥ |
parokṣam iti anullekhāt arthāt pārokṣya saṃbhavāt ||

SS: Indirect knowledge of Brahman, that is an object of direct knowledge, is not necessarily false. For it does not aver that Brahman is an object of indirect knowledge only. (Why do we then call it indirect knowledge? For it does not say 'This is Brahman' which is direct knowledge.)

JBS: The indirect knowledge of what is capable of being known directly is not mistaken knowledge for there is no knowledge that it is indirect. Indirectness arises only by implication.

aṃśāgṛhīter bhrāntiśced ghaṭajñānaṃ bhramo bhavet
niraṃśasyāpi sāṃśatvaṃ vyāvartyāṃśavibhedataḥ ||55||

aṃśa agṛhīteḥ bhrāntiḥ cet ghaṭa jñānam bhramaḥ bhavet |
niraṃśasya api sāṃśatvam vyāvartya aṃśa vibhedataḥ ||

SS: The argument that indirect knowledge is false because it does not give a full knowledge of Brahman does not hold good. We may know only a part of a pot, but this partial knowledge is not false on that account. Though Brahman has no real parts, It appears to have parts due to false superimposed adjuncts, which indirect knowledge removes.

JBS: If because of the non-perception of a portion it is considered to be a mistaken knowledge, even the knowledge of a pot will be a mistaken one. There can only be partfulness even in a partless thing by reason of differentiation caused by a portion which has to be discarded.

asattvāṃśo nivarteta parokṣajñānatas tathā
abhānāṃśanivṛttiḥ syād aparokṣadhiyā kṛtā ||56||

asattva aṃśaḥ nivarteta parokṣa jñānatas tathā |
abhāna aṃśa nivṛttiḥ syāt aparokṣa dhiyā kṛtā ||

SS: Indirect knowledge removes our doubt that Brahman may not exist. Direct knowledge rebuts our poser that It is not manifest or experienced.

JBS: By indirect knowledge the aspect of non-existence will vanish. Similarly the vanishing of the non-shining aspect is caused by direct knowledge.

daśamo 'stīti vibhrāntaṃ parokṣajñānam īkṣyate
brahmāstīty api tadvat syād ajñānāvaraṇaṃ samam ||57||

daśamaḥ asti iti vibhrāntam parokṣajñānam īkṣyate |
brahma asti iti api tadvat syāt ajñāna āvaraṇam samam ||

SS: The statement 'The tenth exists, is not lost' is indirect knowledge, and it is not false. Similarly, the indirect knowledge 'Brahman exists' is not false. In both cases the obscuring of the truth due to ignorance is the same.

JBS: The indirect knowledge "The tenth man exists" is seen to be no mistaken knowledge. Similarly, (the indirect knowledge) "Brahman exists" (is not a mistaken knowledge). (In both cases) the screening by ignorance is the same.

ātmā brahmeti vākyārthe niḥśeṣeṇa vicārite
vyaktir ullikkhyate yadvad daśamas tvam asītyataḥ ||58||

ātmā brahma iti vākya arthe niḥśeṣeṇa vicārite |
vyaktiḥ ullikkhyate yadvat daśamas tvam asi ityataḥ ||

SS: by a thorough analysis of 'Self is Brahman' the direct knowledge 'I am Brahman' is achieved, just as the man after having been told that he is the tenth comes to realize it through reflection.

JBS: When the purport of the sentence "Ātmā is Brahman" is completely enquired into, the particularity is understood, just as from "You are the tenth."

daśamaḥ ka iti praśne tvam eveti nirākṛte
gaṇayitvā svena saha svam eva daśamaṃ smaret ||59||

daśamaḥ ka iti praśne tvam eva iti nirākṛte |
gaṇayitvā svena saha svam eva daśamam smaret ||

SS: If one of the ten asks who is the tenth, the answer is that it is he himself. As he counts he comes to himself, and then realizes that he himself is the tenth (which is direct knowledge).

JBS: When the question "Who is the tenth?" is answered by "You yourself", he then counts including himself and recognises that he himself is the tenth.

daśamo 'smīti vākyotthā na dhīr asya vihanyate
ādimadhyāvasāneṣu na navatvasya saṃśayaḥ ||60||

daśamaḥ asmi iti vākya utthā na dhīḥ asya vihanyate |
ādi madhya avasāneṣu na navatvasya saṃśayaḥ ||

SS: His knowledge that he is the tenth is never negated. Whether he comes to himself at the beginning, the middle or the end of his counting, his knowledge that he is the tenth is never in doubt.

JBS: His recognition "I am the tenth" born of the sentence ("you are the tenth") is not negatived at all. There is no more any doubt that there were only nine before (the teaching) or during (the teaching) or after (the teaching).

sad evety ādi vākyena brahmasattvaṃ parokṣataḥ
gṛhītvā tat tvam asy ādivākyād vyaktiṃ samullikhet ||61||

sat eva iti ādi vākyena brahma sattvam parokṣataḥ |
gṛhītvā tad tvam asi ādi vākyāt vyaktim samullikhet ||

SS: The Vedic texts, such as 'Before the creation Brahman alone existed', give indirect knowledge of Brahman; but the text 'That thou art' gives direct knowledge.

JBS: After knowing indirectly the existence of Brahman from the sentence "The existent alone" and others, he gets knowledge of the speciality from the sentence "Thou art That" and others.

ādimadhyāvasāneṣu svasya brahmatvadhīr iyam
naiva vyabhicaret tasmād āparokṣyaṃ pratiṣṭhitam ||62||

ādi madhya avasāneṣu svasya brahmatva dhīḥ iyam |
na eva vyabhicaret tasmāt āparokṣyam pratiṣṭhitam ||

SS: When a man knows himself to be Brahman, his knowledge does not vary whether in the beginning, middle or end. This is direct knowledge.

JBS: This recognition of Brahmanhood of himself will not vary at all in the beginning, middle or end. Therefore, its being direct knowledge is established.

janmādikāraṇatvākhyalakṣaṇena bhṛguḥ purā
pārokṣyeṇa gṛhītvātha vicārād vyaktim aikṣata ||63||

janma ādi kāraṇatva ākhya lakṣaṇena bhṛguḥ purā |
pārokṣyeṇa gṛhītvā atha vicārāt vyaktim aikṣata ||

SS: The sage Bhṛgu, in ancient times, acquired indirect knowledge of Brahman by reflecting on Brahman as the cause of the origin, sustenance and dissolution of the universe. He acquired direct knowledge by differentiating the Self from the five sheaths.

JBS: Bhṛgu at first learning indirectly about Brahman from the characteristics, namely, the nature of being the cause of the origin etc. (of all beings) then knows it particularly (as his own Self) from enquiry.

yady api tvamasīty atra vākyaṃ noce bhṛgoḥ pitā
tathāpy annaṃ prāṇam iti vicārya sthalamuktavān ||64||

yadi api tvam asi iti atra vākyam na uce bhṛgoḥ pitā |
tathāpi annam prāṇam iti vicārya sthalamuktavān ||

SS: Though Varuṇa, father of Bhṛgu, did not teach him by means of the text 'That thou art', he taught him the doctrine of the five sheaths, and left him to his discriminative enquiry.

JBS: Though Bhṛgu's father did not say here any sentence "you are (Brahman)", still he mentioned the place of enquiry in saying "Food (the gross physical body), Life‐breath (etc)."

annaprāṇādikośeṣu suvicārya punaḥ punaḥ
ānandavyaktim īkṣitvā brahmalakṣmāpy ayūyujat ||65||

anna prāṇa ādi kośeṣu suvicārya punaḥ punaḥ |
ānanda vyaktim īkṣitvā brahma lakṣma api ayūyujat ||

SS: Bhṛgu considered carefully the nature of the food‐sheath, the vital‐sheath, and so forth. He saw in the bliss sheath the indications of Brahman and concluded: 'I am Brahman'.

JBS: By deeply enquiring into the sheaths, Annamaya, Prāṇamaya and others repeatedly, (Bhṛgu) recognised the particularity of Bliss and connected it with the characteristics of Brahman (taught by his father).

satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ cety evaṃ brahmasvalakṣaṇam
uktvā guhāhitatvena kośeṣv etat pradarśitam ||66||

satyam jñānam anantam ca iti evam brahma svalakṣaṇam |
uktvā guhāhitatvena kośeṣu etad pradarśitam ||

SS: The Śruti first speaks of the nature of Brahman as truth, knowledge and infinity. It then describes the Self hidden in the five sheaths.

JBS: After mentioning the peculiar characteristics of Brahman thus "The Existent, the Conscious, the Limitless", it is pointed out to be in the Kośas as "stationed in the cave".

pārokṣyeṇa vibudhyendro ya ātmety ādi lakṣaṇāt
aparokṣī kartum icchaṃścaturvāraṃ guruṃ yayau ||67||

pārokṣyeṇa vibudhya indraḥ ya ātmā iti ādi lakṣaṇāt |
aparokṣī kartum icchan caturvāram gurum yayau ||

SS: Indra acquired indirect knowledge of Brahman by studying Its attributes. He then went to his teacher four times with a view to gaining direct knowledge of the Self.

JBS: Indra, learning indirectly from the characterisation "That Ātmā which is (free from sin etc.)" and desiring to know it directly, approached his Guru four times.

ātmā vā idam ity ādau parokṣam brahma lakṣitam
adhyāropāpavādābhyāṃ prajñānaṃ brahma darśitam ||68||

ātmā idam iti ādau parokṣam brahma lakṣitam |
adhyāropa apavādābhyām prajñānam brahma darśitam ||

SS: In the Aitareya Upaniṣad an indirect knowledge of Brahman is imparted by such texts as 'There was only Ātman before creation'. The Upaniṣad then describes the process of superimposition, and negating it shows that consciousness is Brahman.

JBS: In "This is verily the Self" and so on, Brahman is defined indirectly. Then by imposition and negation, it is shown that Brahman is the Conscious Self.

avāntareṇa vākyena parokṣā brahmadhīr bhavet
sarvatraiva mahāvākyavicārād aparokṣadhīḥ ||69||

avāntareṇa vākyena parokṣā brahmadhīḥ bhavet |
sarvatra eva mahāvākya vicārāt aparokṣadhīḥ ||

SS: An indirect knowledge of Brahman by the intellect can be gained from other Śruti passages also; but direct knowledge is achieved by meditating on the great Sayings of the Śruti.

JBS: Everywhere also, indirect knowledge of Brahman arises from the subsidiary passages and direct knowledge from enquiry into the great passages (which declare the identity of Brahman with the Self as explained in chap. V).

brahmāparokṣyasiddhy arthaṃ mahāvākyam itīritam
vākyavṛttāv ato brahmāparokṣye vimatir na hi ||70||

brahma aparokṣya siddhi artham mahāvākyam iti īritam |
vākyavṛttau ataḥ brahma aparokṣye vimatiḥ na hi ||

SS: In Vākyavṛtti it is said that the great Sayings are intended to give direct knowledge of Brahman. There is no doubt about this fact.

JBS: It is said in the "Vākya Vṛitti" that the Mahāvākyas are intended for attaining direct knowledge of Brahman. There is therefore no difference of opinion in the matter of the direct knowledge of Brahman.

ālambanatayā bhāti yo 'smat pratyayaśabdayoḥ
antaḥkaraṇasaṃbhinnabodhaḥ sa tvaṃpadābidhaḥ ||71||

ālambanatayā bhāti yaḥ asmad pratyaya śabdayoḥ |
antaḥkaraṇa saṃbhinna bodhaḥ sa tvam pada abidhaḥ ||

SS: "In 'That thou art' 'thou' denotes the consciousness which is limited or circumscribed by the adjunct [of] the inner organ and which is the object of the idea and word 'I'."

JBS: That consciousness which is mixed up with the Inner Instrument and seems to be at the base of the conception and the expression as "I" is the direct denotation of the word 'Thou'. (Vākyavṛtti 44)

māyopādhir jagadyoniḥ sarvajñatvādilakṣaṇaḥ
pārokṣyaśabalaḥ satyādy ātmakas tat padābhidhaḥ ||72||

māyā upādhiḥ jagat yoniḥ sarvajñatva ādi lakṣaṇaḥ |
pārokṣya śabalaḥ satya ādi ātmakas tad pada abhidhaḥ ||

SS: "The (absolute) consciousness conditioned by the primeval ignorance, Māyā, which is the cause of the universe, is all‐knowing etc., and can be known indirectly, and whose nature is truth, knowledge and infinity, is indicated by the word 'That'."

JBS: He who has Māyā as His attribute, is the cause of the universe, is characterised by omniscience etc. and is shrouded by indirectness and who is of the nature of the Existent etc. is the direct denotation of the word 'That'. (Vākyavṛtti 45)

pratyakparokṣataikasya sadvitīyatvapūrṇatā
virudhyete yatas tasmāllakṣaṇā saṃpravartate ||73||

pratyak parokṣatā ekasya sadvitīyatva pūrṇatā |
virudhyete yatas tasmāt lakṣaṇā saṃpravartate ||

SS: "The qualities of being mediately and immediately known, and those of existence with a second and absolute oneness are incompatible on the part of one and the same substance. An explanation by implication or what is called on indirectly expressed meaning has, therefore, to be resorted to."

JBS: Inmost‐ness and Externality, Being with a second and Being full – as these are inconsistent with each other in a single thing, Lakṣaṇa therefore applies here. (Vākyavṛtti 46)

tattvamasy ādi vākyeṣu lakṣaṇā bhāgalakṣaṇā
so 'yam ity ādi vākyasthapadayor iva nāparā ||74||

tad tvam asi ādi vākyeṣu lakṣaṇā bhāga lakṣaṇā |
saḥ ayam iti ādi vākya stha padayoḥ iva na aparā ||

SS: "In sentences like 'That thou art' only the logical rule of partial elimination is to be applied, as in the terms of 'that is this, not others'." (i.e., In 'This is Devadatta' we negate the attributes of time and place, both present and past, and take into account only the person himself. Similarly, in the text 'That thou art' we negate the conflicting attributes such as omniscience and the limited knowledge which characterize Īśvara and Jīva respectively, and take into account only the immutable consciousness.)

JBS: The Lakṣaṇa that has to be applied to the sentences 'That Thou Art' and others is the Partial Lakṣaṇa as between the two words in sentences 'That is He' and others and not any other kind of Lakṣaṇa. (Vākyavṛtti 48)

saṃsargo vā viśiṣṭo vā vākyārtho nātra sammataḥ
akhaṇḍaikarasatvena vākyārtho viduṣāṃ mataḥ ||75||

saṃsargaḥ viśiṣṭaḥ vākyārthaḥ na atra sammataḥ |
akhaṇḍa eka rasatvena vākyārthaḥ viduṣām mataḥ ||

SS: The relation between the two substantives ('thou' and 'that') should not be taken as that of one qualifying the other or of mutual qualification, but of complete identity, of absolute homogeneity. That is, the meaning of the expression, according to competent persons is "what is 'thou' is wholly and fully 'that' and that which is 'that' is wholly and fully 'thou'" – both the terms indicate absolute homogenous consciousness.

JBS: The meaning of a sentence derived from the syntax or by the qualification is not acceptable here. The meaning of the sentence as denoting a single integral object is what is accepted by the learned. (Vākyavṛtti 38)

pratyagbodho ya ābhāti so 'dvayānandalakṣaṇaḥ
advayānandarūpaśca pratyagbodhaikalakṣaṇaḥ ||76||

pratyagbodhaḥ ya ābhāti saḥ advaya ānanda lakṣaṇaḥ |
advaya ānanda rūpaḥ ca pratyagbodha eka lakṣaṇaḥ ||

SS: 'What appears to be the individual conscious Self is of the nature of non‐dual bliss; and non‐dual bliss is no other than the individual conscious Self (so Brahman is Self and Self is Brahman).'

JBS: That which seems to be the inmost consciousness has the characteristic of being the Secondless Bliss. And That which is the Secondless Bliss has the characteristic of being the same as the inmost consciousness. (Vākyavṛtti 39)

ittham anyonyatādātmyapratipattir yadā bhavet
abrahmatvaṃ tvamarthasya vyāvarteta tadaiva hi ||77||

ittham anyonya tādātmya pratipattiḥ yadā bhavet |
abrahmatvam tvam arthasya vyāvarteta tadā eva hi ||

SS: When by mutual identification, it has been irrefutably demonstrated that the consciousness within and Brahman are the same, then the notion that Jīva, who is denoted by the word 'thou', is different from Brahman, at once disappears.

JBS: If thus the sense of mutual identity arises, the idea of non‐Brahmanhood in the Thou‐concept will vanish then itself. (Vākyavṛtti 40)

tadarthasya ca pārokṣyaṃ yady evaṃ kiṃ tataḥ śṛṇu
pūrṇānandaikarūpeṇa pratyagbodho 'vatiṣṭhate ||78||

tad arthasya ca pārokṣyam yadi evam kim tataḥ śṛṇu |
pūrṇa ānanda eka rūpeṇa pratyagbodhaḥ avatiṣṭhate ||

SS: Then the indirectness in the knowledge of Brahman, implied by the word 'thou' in the text also vanishes; and there remains only the consciousness within in the form of absolute bliss.

JBS: The sense of externality in the That‐concept also (will disappear). Even if so, what follows from it? Listen. The inmost consciousness will remain in the form of the Full Bliss itself. (Vākyavṛtti 41)

evaṃ sati mahāvākyāt parokṣajñānam īryate
yais teṣāṃ śāstrasiddhāntavijñānaṃ śobhatetarām ||79||

evam sati mahāvākyāt parokṣajñānam īryate |
yais teṣām śāstra siddhānta vijñānam śobhatetarām ||

SS: Such being the case, those who suppose that the great Sayings can only give an indirect knowledge of Brahman, furnish brilliantly shallow understanding of the scriptural conclusions.

JBS: While the matter stands thus, the knowledge of the conclusions of the Śāstras of those by whom indirect perception (alone) is alleged as the result of the Mahāvākya is certainly very wonderful.

āstāṃ śāstrasya siddhānto yuktyā vākyāt parokṣadhīḥ
svargādivākyavannaivaṃ daśame vyabhicārataḥ ||80||

āstām śāstrasya siddhāntaḥ yuktyā vākyāt parokṣa dhīḥ |
svarga ādi vākyavat na evam daśame vyabhicārataḥ ||

SS: (Doubt:) Let alone the conclusion of the scriptures, the knowledge which the scriptural statements give of Brahman can only be indirect, like that which they give of heaven and so forth. (Reply:) This is not invariably so, for the statement 'Thou art the tenth' leads to direct knowledge.

JBS: "Let the conclusion of the Śāstra be (anything). By reasoning, (only) indirect knowledge can arise from a sentence as in the sentences relating to heaven, etc." Not so, for it ( the reasoning) fails in the case of the tenth man.

svato 'parokṣajīvasya brahmatvam abhivāñchataḥ
naśyet siddhāparokṣatvam iti yuktir mahaty aho ||81||

svataḥ aparokṣa jīvasya brahmatvam abhivāñchataḥ |
naśyet siddha aparokṣatvam iti yuktiḥ mahati aho ||

SS: Everyman’s knowledge of himself is a direct experience. It is indeed a remarkable argument to suggest that in our attempt at identification of ourselves with Brahman this direct knowledge, already present, will be destroyed!

JBS: The settled patentness of the Jīva who is by himself patent goes away when he aspires for the nature of Brahman – such a reasoning is indeed wonderful.

vṛddhim iṣṭavato mūlam api naṣṭam itīdṛśam
laukikaṃ vacanaṃ sārthaṃ sampannaṃ tvatprasādataḥ ||82||

vṛddhim iṣṭavataḥ mūlam api naṣṭam iti īdṛśam |
laukikam vacanam sārtham sampannam tvad prasādataḥ ||

SS: You are gracious enough to afford us an example of the well‐known proverb: In going for the interest the capital is lost.

JBS: The popular saying like "To one who wished for an increase, the capital itself was lost" become meaningful by your grace.

antaḥkaraṇasaṃbhinnabodho jīvo 'parokṣatām
arhaty upādhisadbhāvān na tu brahmānupādhitaḥ ||83||

antaḥkaraṇa saṃbhinna bodhaḥ jīvaḥ aparokṣatām |
arhati upādhi sadbhāvān na tu brahma anupādhitaḥ ||

SS: (Doubt:) Jīva, who is conditioned by the inner organ, can be an object of direct knowledge with the aid of this conditioning adjunct; but as Brahman has no real adjunct, a direct knowledge of It is impossible.

JBS: The Jīva who is consciousness mixed with the Inner Instrument is capable of being directly perceived as there is the attribute (namely, the Inner Instrument), but not Brahman as it has no other attributes.

naivaṃ brahmatvabodhasya sopādhiviṣayatvataḥ
yāvad videhakaivalyam upādher anivāraṇāt ||84||

na evam brahmatva bodhasya sopādhi viṣayatvataḥ |
yāvat videha kaivalyam upādheḥ anivāraṇāt ||

SS: (Reply:) Our knowledge of Brahman is not altogether unconditioned, as long as our own bodies, the conditioning adjuncts, persist. That is, adjuncts that condition us positively condition Brahman negatively.

JBS: It is not so, as the perception of Brahman‐hood is (also) of the nature of an objective (perception) of an entity having attributes, as the attribute does not go away till the bodiless singleness is got.

antaḥkaraṇasāhityarāhityābhyāṃ viśiṣyate
upādhir jīvabhāvasya brahmatāyāśca nānyathā ||85||

antaḥkaraṇa sāhitya rāhityābhyām viśiṣyate |
upādhiḥ jīva bhāvasya brahmatāyāḥ ca na anyathā ||

SS: The difference between Jīva and Brahman is due to the presence or absence of the conditioning medium of Antaḥkaraṇa; otherwise they are identical. There is no other difference.

JBS: The attribute for Jīva‐hood and Brahman‐hood is distinct by reason of the accompaniment and the non‐accompaniment of the Inner Instrument, not otherwise.

yathā vidhir upādhiḥ syāt pratiṣedhas tathā na kim
suvarṇalohabhedena śṛṅkhalātvaṃ na bhidyate ||86||

yathā vidhiḥ upādhiḥ syāt pratiṣedhas tathā na kim |
suvarṇa loha bhedena śṛṅkhalātvam na bhidyate ||

SS: If the presence of something (here the internal organ in the Jīva) is a conditioning adjunct, why not its absence (here of the internal organ in Brahman)? Chains whether of gold or iron are equally binding.

JBS: Just as a (positive) injunction is an attribute, why not a (negative) prohibition also (be an attribute)? By reason of the difference between gold and iron, the chain‐ness (of a gold chain and an iron chain) does not become different.

atad vyāvṛttirūpeṇa sākṣādvidhimukhena ca
vedāntānaṃ pravṛttiḥ syād dvidhety ācāryabhāṣitam ||87||

atad vyāvṛtti rūpeṇa sākṣāt vidhimukhena ca |
vedāntānam pravṛttiḥ syāt dvidhā iti ācārya bhāṣitam ||

SS: The teachers affirm that the Upaniṣads speak of Brahman both by negating what is not Brahman and by affirming positive characteristics.

JBS: The method of exposition by the Upaniṣads is two‐fold – in the form of exclusion of what is not that and in the shape of positive definition – such is the statement of the Ācārya.

ahamarthaparityāgād ahaṃ brahmeti dhīḥ kutaḥ
naivam aṃśasya hi tyāgo bhāgalakṣaṇayoditaḥ ||88||

aham artha parityāgāt aham brahma iti dhīḥ kutaḥ |
na evam aṃśasya hi tyāgaḥ bhāga lakṣaṇayā uditaḥ ||

SS: (Doubt:) If the idea of 'I' is given up, how is the knowledge 'I am Brahman' possible? (Reply:) It is the false parts of 'I' which are to be given up and the true part retained, following the logical rule of partial elimination.

JBS: When the significance of "I" is given up, how can there be any knowledge that "I" am Brahman? Not so, for in the method of partial Lakṣaṇa (mentioned above) the abandonment of a portion only is prescribed (and not the entire significance).

antaḥkaraṇasantyāgād avaśiṣṭe cidātmani
ahaṃ brahmeti vākyena brahmatvaṃ sākṣiṇīkṣyate ||89||

antaḥkaraṇa santyāgāt avaśiṣṭe cidātmani |
aham brahma iti vākyena brahmatvam sākṣiṇi īkṣyate ||

SS: When the internal organ is [negated] what remains is the mere inner consciousness, the witness. In it one recognizes Brahman in accordance with the text 'I am Brahman'.

JBS: When the Inner Instrument is given up, as there is the conscious Self that remains, Brahman‐hood is perceived in that witness by the sentence "I am Brahman".

svaprakāśo 'pi sākṣy eva dhīvṛttyā vyāpyate 'nyavat
phalavyāpyatvam evāsya śāstrakṛdbhir nivāritam ||90||

svaprakāśaḥ api sākṣi eva dhīvṛttyā vyāpyate anyavat |
phala vyāpyatvam eva asya śāstra kṛdbhiḥ nivāritam ||

SS: The inner consciousness, though self‐luminous, can be covered by the modifications of the intellect just as other objects of knowledge are. The teachers of scriptures have denied the perception of Kūṭastha by Cidābhāsa, or consciousness reflected on the intellects.

JBS: The witness itself, though self‐luminous, is enveloped by the mind activity just like any other thing. Its being enveloped by the reflection alone is denied by the authors of the Śāstras.

buddhitatasthacidābhāsau dvāv api vyāpnuto ghaṭam
tatrājñānaṃ dhiyā naśyed ābhāsena ghaṭaḥ sphuret ||91||

buddhi tatastha cidābhāsau dvau api vyāpnutaḥ ghaṭam |
tatra ajñānam dhiyā naśyet ābhāsena ghaṭaḥ sphuret ||

SS: In the perception of a jar the intellect and Cidābhāsa are both concerned. There the nescience is negated by the intellect and the pot is revealed by Cidābhāsa.

JBS: The mind and the reflected consciousness in it -- both together envelop the pot. Between them, the ignorance is destroyed by the mind and the pot shines because of the reflected Self.

brahmaṇy ajñānanāśāya vṛttivyāptir apekṣitā
svayaṃ sphuraṇarūpatvān nābhāsa upayujyate ||92||

brahmaṇi ajñāna nāśāya vṛtti vyāptiḥ apekṣitā |
svayam sphuraṇa rūpatvān na ābhāsa upayujyate ||

SS: In the cognition of Brahman the modification of the intellect is necessary to remove ignorance; but, as Brahman is self‐revealing the help of Cidābhāsa is not needed to reveal It.

JBS: In the case of Brahman, the enveloping by mental activity is required for the destruction of ignorance. The reflected Self is not required for the destruction of ignorance. The reflected Self is not required as Brahman is in itself luminous.

cakṣur dīpāv apekṣyete ghaṭāder darśane yathā
na dīpadarśane kintu cakṣur ekam apekṣyate ||93||

cakṣuḥ dīpau apekṣyete ghaṭa ādeḥ darśane yathā |
na dīpa darśane kintu cakṣuḥ ekam apekṣyate ||

SS: To perceive a pot two factors are necessary, the eye and the light of the lamp; but to perceive the light of the lamp only the eye is necessary.

JBS: In seeing a pot, etc, the eye and a light are (both) required; it is not so when the light has to be seen; on the other hand, only one, namely the eye, is required.

sthito 'py asau cidābhāso brahmaṇy ekībhavet param
na tu brahmaṇy atiśayaṃ phalaṃ kuryād ghaṭādivat ||94||

sthitaḥ api asau cidābhāsaḥ brahmaṇi ekībhavet param |
na tu brahmaṇi atiśayam phalam kuryāt ghaṭa ādivat ||

SS: When the intellect functions, it does so only in the presence of Cidābhāsa, but in the cognition of Brahman Cidābhāsa is merged in Brahman. In external perception of a pot, Cidābhāsa reveals the pot by its light and yet remains distinct from it.

JBS: Though the reflected consciousness does subsist, it becomes one with Brahman. The Reflection does not however produce anything new in Brahman as it does in the case of the pot etc.

apremeyam anādiṃ cety atra śrutyedam īritam
manasaivam āptavyam iti dhīvyāpyatā śrutā ||95||

apremeyam anādim ca iti atra śrutyā idam īritam |
manasā evam āptavyam iti dhīvyāpyatā śrutā ||

SS: That Brahman cannot be cognized by Cidābhāsa is corroborated by the Śruti: 'Brahman is beginningless and beyond cognition'. But Its cognition by the intellects (in the sense of removing ignorance about It), is admitted by the Śruti 'Brahman can be cognized by the intellect'.

JBS: "It is immeasurable and beginningless" – this (the non‐perceivability by the Reflected Self) is mentioned here by the Veda. In the passage "It has to be reached only by the mind", its being capable of being enveloped by the mind is mentioned.

ātmānaṃ ced vijānīyād ayam asmīti vākyataḥ
brahmātmavyaktim ullikkhya yo bodhaḥ so 'bhidhīyate ||96||

ātmānam cet vijānīyāt ayam asmi iti vākyataḥ |
brahma ātma vyaktim ullikkhya yaḥ bodhaḥ saḥ abhidhīyate ||

SS: In the first Śruti verse of this chapter, 'When a man has realized the identity of his own Self with That (Paramātman) ...', it is the direct knowledge of Brahman (i.e., 'I am Brahman') that is meant.

JBS: That knowledge which grasps the particularity of Brahman as the Self is mentioned in the passage "If he knows himself as 'I am This' ".

astu bodho 'parokṣo 'tra mahāvākyāt tathāpy asau
na dṛḍhaḥ śravaṇādīnām ācāryaiḥ punar īraṇāt ||97||

astu bodhaḥ aparokṣaḥ atra mahāvākyāt tathāpi asau |
na dṛḍhaḥ śravaṇa ādīnām ācāryaiḥ punaḥ īraṇāt ||

SS: From the great Sayings a direct knowledge of Brahman is obtained, but it is not firmly established all at once. Therefore Śrī Śaṅkarācārya emphasizes the importance of repeated hearing, reflection and meditation.

JBS: From this Mahāvākya, direct perception may arise. Even so, it is not firm as Śravaṇa etc. (hearing, cogitation, concentration etc.) are again prescribed by the Ācārya.

ahaṃ brahmeti vākyārthabodho yāvad dṛḍhī bhavet
śamādisahitas tāvad abhyasecchrvaṇādikam ||98||

aham brahma iti vākya artha bodhaḥ yāvat dṛḍhī bhavet |
śama ādi sahitas tāvat abhyaset śrvaṇa ādikam ||

SS: "Until the right understanding of the meaning of the sentence 'I am Brahman' becomes quite firm, one should go on studying the Śruti and thinking deeply over its meaning as well as practicing the inner control and other virtues."

JBS: "Till the knowledge of the purport of the sentence 'I am Brahman' becomes firm, he, along with Śama (mental restrain) etc., should practice Śravaṇa (hearing) etc." (Vākyavṛtti 49)

bādhaṃ santi hy adārḍhyasya hetavaḥ śruty anekatā
asambhāvyatvam arthasya viparītā ca bhāvanā ||99||

bādham santi hi adārḍhyasya hetavaḥ śruti anekatā |
asambhāvyatvam arthasya viparītā ca bhāvanā ||

SS: The causes of the lack of firmness in the direct knowledge of Brahman are: the occurrence of apparently contradictory texts, the doubt about the possibility of such a knowledge and radically opposed ways of thinking leading to the idea of doership.

JBS: There are certainly causes for want of firmness – the multiplicity of Vedic passages, the improbability of the subject, and mistaken conception.

śākhābhedāt kāmabhedācchrutaṃ karmānyathānyathā
evam atrāpi mā śaṅkīty ataḥ śravaṇam ācaret ||100||

śākha abhedāt kāma bhedāt śrutam karma anyathā anyathā |
evam atra api śaṅkī iti ataḥ śravaṇam ācaret ||

SS: Owing to the existence of different systems, dispositions and desires, the Śruti enjoins different kinds of sacrifices etc., in the Karmakāṇḍa. But about the knowledge of Brahman preached in the Upaniṣads there is no scope for doubts; so practice repeated 'hearing' etc., about the truth (for firm conviction).

JBS: Karmas (religious rites) are variously prescribed by the Vedas on account of the difference in the several branches of the Veda and also in the desires (of the individuals performing them). It must not be thought that it is so here (in the enunciation of Brahman) also. Therefore (to prevent just an idea arising) he must practise Śravaṇa.

vedāntānam aśeṣāṇām ādimadhyāvasānataḥ
brahmātmany eva tātparyam iti dhīḥ śravaṇam bhavet ||101||

vedāntānam aśeṣāṇām ādi madhya avasānataḥ |
brahma ātmani eva tātparyam iti dhīḥ śravaṇam bhavet ||

SS: 'Hearing' is the process by which one becomes convinced that the Veda in their beginning, middle and end teach the identity of Jīva and Brahman, and this is the gist of Vedānta.

JBS: The idea that the purport of the Upanishads without exception, in the beginning, middle and end, is only (the identity of) Brahman‐Self is Śravaṇa.

samanvayādhyāya etat sūktaṃ dhīsvāsthyakāribhiḥ
tarkaiḥ sambhāvanārthasya dvitīyādhyāya īritā ||102||

samanvaya adhyāya etad sūktam dhīsvāsthya kāribhiḥ |
tarkaiḥ sambhāvanā arthasya dvitīya adhyāya īritā ||

SS: This subject is well explained by Ācārya Vyāsa and Śaṅkara in the Brahma Sūtras in the section treating of the correct view of the Vedic texts. The second chapter of the same classic treats of 'reflecting' by which one is enabled to establish the doctrine of non‐duality by reasoning which satisfies the intellect and refutes all possible objections.

JBS: This (hearing, that is, getting the conviction that he Upanishads do not differ but are uniform in declaring the nature of Brahman) is well elaborated in the chapter on Samanvaya (concordance, Chapter 1 of Sage Bādarāyana's Brahma Sūtras). In the second chapter the probability (absence of improbability) of the subject is shown by reasonings calculated to bring satisfaction to the intellect.

bahujanmadṛḍhābhyāsād dehādiṣv ātmadhīḥ kṣaṇāt
punaḥ punar udety evaṃ jagatsatyatvadhīr api ||103||

bahu janma dṛḍha abhyāsāt deha ādiṣu ātma dhīḥ kṣaṇāt |
punaḥ punaḥ udeti evam jagat satyatva dhīḥ api ||

SS: The Jīva as a result of the firm habit of many births repeatedly, moment by moment, thinks that the body is the Self and that the world is real.

JBS: By reason of strong habit during many births, the conception of the Self in the body etc. comes up in a moment again, and again, so also the conception of the reality of the universe.

viparītā bhāvaneyamaikāgryāt sā nivartate
tattvopadeśāt prāg eva bhavaty etad upāsanāt ||104||

viparītā bhāvanā iyam aikāgryāt nivartate |
tattva upadeśāt prāg eva bhavati etad upāsanāt ||

SS: This is called erroneous thinking. It is removed by the practice of one‐pointed meditation. This concentration arises out of worship of Īśvara, even before the initiation regarding attributeless Brahman.

JBS: This is the wrong conception. It is removed by concentration. This (concentration) arises from worship even before the truth is taught.

upāstayo 'ta evātra brahmaśāstre 'pi cintitāḥ
prāg anabhyāsinaḥ paścād brahmābhyāsena tad bhavet ||105||

upāstayaḥ ata eva atra brahma śāstre api cintitāḥ |
prāg anabhyāsinaḥ paścāt brahma abhyāsena tad bhavet ||

SS: Therefore in the books of Vedānta many types of worship of Īśvara have been discussed. Those who have not done worship before the initiation into Brahman will have to acquire the power of concentration by the practice of meditation on Brahman.

JBS: This is why Upāsanas (worships) are considered even in the Śāstras relating to Brahman (that is, the Upanishads). For him who has not practiced (this Upāsana and attained power of concentration) before, it (concentration) can be secured by practice in Brahman.

taccintanaṃ tatkathanam anyonyaṃ tatprabhodhanam
etad ekaparatvaṃ ca brahmābhyāsaṃ vidur budhāḥ ||106||

tad cintanam tad kathanam anyonyam tad prabhodhanam |
etad eka paratvam ca brahma abhyāsam viduḥ budhāḥ ||

SS: 'The practice of meditation on Brahman, the wise consider, means reflection on It, talking about It, mutually producing logical arguments about It — thus to be fully occupied with It alone.'

JBS: Thinking only of it, talking only about it, instructing one another about it alone, being bent only upon this – the learned know as the practice in Brahman. (Laghu Vākyavṛtti 17)

tam eva dhīro vijñāya prajñāṃ kurvīta brāhmaṇaḥ
nānudhyāyād bahūñchabdān vāco viglāpanaṃ hi tat ||107||

tam eva dhīraḥ vijñāya prajñām kurvīta brāhmaṇaḥ |
na anudhyāyāt bahūn śabdān vācaḥ viglāpanam hi tad ||

SS: 'The wise man, having known Brahman beyond doubt, ought to generate a flow of unbroken thought‐current on It. He should not engage in much discussion for that has but one effect – it tires the organ of speech.'

JBS: The intelligent man after knowing That alone should steady that knowledge, and must not contemplate on many words. (If he does so), it is only a wasting of speech. (Bṛhadāraṇyaka IV, 4‐21)

ananyāścintayanto māṃ ye janāḥ paryupāsate
teṣāṃ nityābhiyuktānāṃ yogakṣemaṃ vahamy aham ||108||

ananyāḥ cintayantaḥ mām ye janāḥ paryupāsate |
teṣām nitya abhiyuktānām yoga kṣemam vahami aham ||

SS: The Gītā says: 'Those who one‐pointedly concentrate their mind on Me and meditate on Me as their own Self, I give what those ever‐devoted ones need and protect what they have'.

JBS: I bear the burden of the welfare of those people who are ever centered (in Me) and concentrate thinking of Me (alone) without thought of anything else. (Gītā IX, 22)

iti śruty smṛtī nityam ātmany ekāgratāṃ dhiyaḥ
vidhatto viparītāyā bhāvanāyāḥ kṣayāya hi ||109||

iti śruti smṛtī nityam ātmani ekāgratām dhiyaḥ |
vidhattaḥ viparītāyā bhāvanāyāḥ kṣayāya hi ||

SS: Thus both Śruti and Smṛti enjoin constant concentration of the mind on the Self to remove the erroneous conviction concerning the Self and the world.

JBS: Thus the Veda and the Smṛti prescribe the concentration of the mind always in the Self, for the eradication of the wrong conception (mentioned in Stanza 103).

yad yathā vartate tasya tattvaṃ hitvānyathātvadhīḥ
viparītā bhāvanā syāt pitrādāv aridhīr yathā ||110||

yad yathā vartate tasya tattvam hitvā anyathātva dhīḥ |
viparītā bhāvanā syāt pitra ādau ari dhīḥ yathā ||

SS: An erroneous conviction is ignorance of the true nature of an object, and takes it as the opposite of what it really is. It is like a son treating his father as an enemy.

JBS: When a thing is in a particular way, forgetting it and thinking of it otherwise is wrong conception, just as the conception of being an enemy in ones father and others.

ātmā dehādibhinno 'yaṃ mithyā cedaṃ jagattayoḥ
dehādy ātmatvasatyatvadhīr viparyayabhāvanā ||111||

ātmā deha ādi bhinnaḥ ayam mithyā ca idam jagat tayoḥ |
dehādi ātmatva satyatva dhīḥ viparyaya bhāvanā ||

SS: The erroneous conviction consists in thinking the body to be the Self and the world to be real, whereas the truth is that the Self is different from the body and the world is unreal.

JBS: This Self is different from the body etc. This world is unreal. The conception as regards them that the body etc. are the Self and that the world is real is wrong conception.

tattvabhāvanayā naśyet sā 'to dehātiriktatām
ātmano bhāvayet tadvanmithyātvaṃ jagato 'niśam ||112||

tattva bhāvanayā naśyet ataḥ deha atiriktatām |
ātmanaḥ bhāvayet tadvat mithyātvam jagataḥ aniśam ||

SS: This conviction is destroyed by meditation on the real entity. An aspirant, therefore, meditates on the Self as different from the body and on the unreality of the world.

JBS: That (wrong conception) will be destroyed by contemplation of the truth. Therefore one should contemplate on the Self's being distinct from the body, similarly on the unreality of the world, constantly.

kiṃ mantrajapavanmūrtidhyānavad vātmabhedadhīḥ
jaganmithyātvadhīścātra vyāvartyā syād utānyathā ||113||

kim mantra japavat mūrti dhyānavat ātmabheda dhīḥ |
jagat mithyātva dhīḥ ca atra vyāvartyā syāt uta anyathā ||

SS: (Question:) Are the ideas of difference of the Self from the body and the unreality of the world to be repeated like the recitation of a holy formula or the meditation on the form of a deity or by some other method?

JBS: The thought of the distinctness of the Self and the thought of the unreality of the world – are they to be repeated (practised) like the Japa of Mantras or like the contemplation of images or are they to be done otherwise?

anyatheti vijānīhi dṛṣṭārthatvena bhuktivat
bubhukṣur japavad bhuṅkte na kaścinniyataḥ kvacit ||114||

anyathā iti vijānīhi dṛṣṭa arthatvena bhuktivat |
bubhukṣuḥ japavat bhuṅkte na kaścit niyataḥ kvacit ||

SS: (Reply:) No, there is no injunction, for the result of the process is directly perceived as every morsel of food going down the throat satisfies hunger to that extent. A hungry man cannot be subjected to any rules about the eating of food, as is done in ceremonial repetition.

JBS: Know that it is 'otherwise' as it aims at a perceptible benefit just as dining. Nobody anywhere who wants to eat eats bound by any rule.

aśnāti vā na vāśnāti bhuṅkte vā svecchayānyathā
yena kena prakareṇa kṣudhām apaninīṣati ||115||

aśnāti na aśnāti bhuṅkte svecchayā anyathā |
yena kena prakareṇa kṣudhām apaninīṣati ||

SS: A hungry man when he gets food, may eat it anyway he likes. And in the absence of food he may divert his mind to some absorbing work to allay the pain of hunger by whatever means available.

JBS: He may eat or may not eat or may eat otherwise just as he likes. He intends to appease the hunger anyhow.

niyamena japaṃ kuryād akṛtau pratyavāyataḥ
anyathākaraṇe 'narthaḥ svaravarṇaviparyayāt ||116||

niyamena japam kuryāt akṛtau pratyavāyataḥ |
anyathākaraṇe anarthaḥ svara varṇa viparyayāt ||

SS: On the other hand Japa should be done according to the prescribed rules, otherwise one will acquire demerit. There is a risk of running into distress if it is done irregularly by changing the letter or the pitch of tone.

JBS: One must do Japa (however) according to rule as there is harm if not so done. If it is done in a different manner, there will be positive harm by reason of the change in the accents and letters.

kṣudheva dṛṣṭabādhākṛdviparītā ca bhāvanā
jeyā kenāpy upāyena nāsty atrānuṣṭhiteḥ kramaḥ ||117||

kṣudhā iva dṛṣṭa bādha akṛt viparītā ca bhāvanā |
jeyā kena api upāyena na asti atra anuṣṭhiteḥ kramaḥ ||

SS: Now the erroneous conviction, like hunger, causes visible pain. It must be conquered by any means available. Here there is no order or rule regarding it.

JBS: The wrong conception, being the cause of perceptible suffering like hunger, must be overcome by some means or other. Here there is no rule for practising.

upāyaḥ pūrvam evoktas taccintā kathanādikaḥ
etad ekaparatve 'pi nirbandho dhyānavan na hi ||118||

upāyaḥ pūrvam eva uktas tad cintā kathana ādikaḥ |
etad eka paratve api nirbandhaḥ dhyānavan na hi ||

SS: The practice of thinking or talking of Brahman etc., which helps to remove the erroneous conviction has already been described. In one‐pointed devotion to the non‐dual Brahman there is no fixed rule, as in meditation on a form of God.

JBS: The means has been already mentioned (in stanza 106) as thinking about it, talking about it, etc. Even in being bent solely upon it (mentioned those), there is no restriction as in contemplation (of forms).

mūrtipratyayasāntatyam anyān antaritaṃ dhiyaḥ
dhyānaṃ tatrātinirbandho manasaścañcalātmanaḥ ||119||

mūrti pratyaya sāntatyam anyān antaritam dhiyaḥ |
dhyānam tatra atinirbandhaḥ manasaḥ cañcala ātmanaḥ ||

SS: Meditation means the constant thinking of the form of some deity without the intervention of any other thought. By such meditation the mind which is naturally fickle, must be fully controlled.

JBS: Continuity of the concept of a form uninterrupted by any other concept in the mind is contemplation. There much restriction is required for the mind whose nature is to be unsteady.

cañcalaṃ hi manaḥ kṛṣṇa pramāthi balavad dṛḍham
tasyāhaṃ nigrahaṃ manye vāyor iva suduṣkaram ||120||

cañcalam hi manaḥ kṛṣṇa pramāthi balavat dṛḍham |
tasya aham nigraham manye vāyoḥ iva suduṣkaram ||

SS: In the Gītā, Arjuna says: 'O Kṛṣṇa, the mind is fickle, impetuous, uncurable and strongly attached. I consider it as difficult to control as the wind.'

JBS: The mind O Krishna, is very wandering, powerful, strong and hard. I think that controlling it is as difficult as controlling the wind. (Gītā VI, 94)

apy abdhipānānmahataḥ sumerūnmūlanād api
api vahny aśanāt sādho viṣamaścittanigrahaḥ ||121||

api abdhi pānāt mahataḥ sumerū unmūlanāt api |
api vahni aśanāt sādhaḥ viṣamaḥ citta nigrahaḥ ||

SS: In the Yogavāsiṣṭha it is said: 'It is more difficult to curb the mind than to drink up the whole ocean or to dislodge Mount Meru or to eat fire.'

JBS: The control of the mind is more difficult that (the difficult task of) even the drinking up of the ocean, than even the uprooting of the Meru mountain, than even the eating of fire. (Yoga Vasiṣṭha)

kathanādau na nirbandhaḥ śṛṅkhalābaddhadehavat
kintv anantetihāsādyair vinodo nāṭyavad dhiyaḥ ||122||

kathana ādau na nirbandhaḥ śṛṅkhalā baddha dehavat |
kintu ananta itihāsa ādyaiḥ vinodaḥ nāṭyavat dhiyaḥ ||

SS: The mind cannot be chained like the body, so practice hearing about Brahman. The mind is entertained by many religious stories and other accounts, as by a dramatic performance.

JBS: For thinking about it etc, there is no restriction as there is for a body bound by chains. On the other hand, there is entertainment for the mind by countless Itihāsas etc. as in witnessing a dancing (or as in dancing).

cid evātmā jaganmithyety atra paryavasānataḥ
nididhyāsanavikṣepo netihāsādibhir bhavet ||123||

cit eva ātmā jagat mithyā iti atra paryavasānataḥ |
nididhyāsana vikṣepaḥ na itihāsa ādibhiḥ bhavet ||

SS: The purpose of such accounts is to realize that the nature of the Self is pure consciousness and that the universe is illusory. So they are not a hindrance to the one‐pointedness of meditation.

JBS: There will be no distraction of concentration by reason of the Itihāsas etc. as they all lead only to this that the Self is consciousness alone and that the world is unreal.

kṛṣivāṇijyasevādau kāvyatarkādikeṣu ca
vikṣipyate pravṛttyā dhīs tais tattvasmṛty asaṃbhavāt ||124||

kṛṣi vāṇijya sevā ādau kāvya tarka ādikeṣu ca |
vikṣipyate pravṛttyā dhīs tais tattva smṛti asaṃbhavāt ||

SS: Bur when one is engaged in agriculture, commerce, service of others, study of unspiritual literature, dialectics and other branches of learning, there is no dwelling of the mind on the real entity.

JBS: When (however) the mind is engaged in cultivation, trade or service, etc. or in poems, logic etc it is distracted by them, as it is not possible to remember the truth (when so engaged).

anusaṃdadhataivātra bhojanādau pravartitum
śakyate 'tyantavikṣepābhāvād āśu punaḥ smṛteḥ ||125||

anusaṃdadhatā eva atra bhojana ādau pravartitum |
śakyate atyanta vikṣepa abhāvāt āśu punaḥ smṛteḥ ||

SS: The aspirant, engaged in keeping his mind on truth, however, is not disturbed by taking food and so forth, as there is not much disturbance in continuing the meditation. And even if forgotten for a moment the truth can be easily revived.

JBS: For one who is concentrating on this, it is possible to engage himself in eating etc. as there is not much distraction and there is immediate recollection thereafter.

tattvavismṛtimātrān nānarthaḥ kintu viparyayāt
viparyetuṃ na kālo 'sti jhaṭiti smarataḥ kvacit ||126||

tattva vismṛti mātrān na anarthaḥ kintu viparyayāt |
viparyetum na kālaḥ asti jhaṭiti smarataḥ kvacit ||

SS: Merely momentary forgetfulness of the truth is not disastrous; but the erroneous conviction is. As (in the former case) the recollection immediately returns, there is no time for intensification of the erroneous conviction.

JBS: There is no harm in merely forgetting the truth; on the other hand, harm is only in the wrong conception. As he immediately recollects, there is not the time anywhere for wrong conceptions.

tattvasmṛter avasaro nāsty anyābhyāsaśālinaḥ
pratyutābhyāsaghātitvād balāt tattvam upekṣyate ||127||

tattva smṛteḥ avasaraḥ na asti anya abhyāsa śālinaḥ |
pratyuta abhyāsa ghātitvāt balāt tattvam upekṣyate ||

SS: A man who is excessively engaged in subjects other than Vedānta ceases to meditate on Brahman. Such an engagement compels him to neglect intense meditation on Brahman, and a break in the practice is a great obstacle.

JBS: To one bent upon other engagements, there is no opportunity to remember the truth. More than this, as such remembering will interfere with such engagements, the truth has perforce to be neglected.

tamevaikaṃ vijānītha hy anyā vāco vimuñcatha
iti śrutaṃ tathānyatra vāco viglāpanaṃ tv iti ||128||

tam eva ekam vijānītha hi anyā vācaḥ vimuñcatha |
iti śrutam tathā anyatra vācaḥ viglāpanam tu iti ||

SS: The Śruti says 'know that One alone and give up all vain talk', and again ‘Arguments and talks only fatigue the faculty of speech.'

JBS: "Know that one only. Give up all other talk" (Muṇḍ. Up.) is prescribed. Similarly it is said elsewhere "(Such talk) is only tiring (wasting) of speech". (Bṛhad. Up.)

āhārādi tyajan naiva jīvecchāstrāntaraṃ tyajan
kiṃ na jīvasi yenaivaṃ karoṣy atra durāgraham ||129||

āhāra ādi tyajan na eva jīvet śāstra antaram tyajan |
kim na jīvasi yena evam karoṣi atra durāgraham ||

SS: If you give up food, you will not live but will you not be alive if you give up studies (other than scriptures)? So why so much insistence on pursuing studies?

JBS: One who gives up dining etc. cannot live at all. Can you not live if you give up other Śāstras as you are so stubborn about them?

janakādeḥ kathaṃ rājyam iti ced dṛḍhabodhataḥ
tathā tavāpi cet tarkaṃ paṭha yadvā kṛṣiṃ kuru ||130||

janaka ādeḥ katham rājyam iti cet dṛḍha bodhataḥ |
tathā tava api cet tarkam paṭha yadvā kṛṣim kuru ||

SS: (Doubt:) How then [did] the ancient knowers like Janaka [administer] kingdoms? (Reply:) They were able because of their conviction about the truth. If you have that, then by all means engage yourself in logic or agriculture or do whatever you like.

JBS: If it is asked "How was kingship help by Janaka and others?" (the answer is) because of firm knowledge. If such knowledge is yours also, study logic. Even attend to cultivation.

mithyātvavāsanādārḍhye prārabdhakṣayakāṅkṣayā
akliśyantaḥ pravartante svasvakarmānusārataḥ ||131||

mithyātva vāsanā dārḍhye prārabdha kṣaya kāṅkṣayā |
akliśyantaḥ pravartante sva sva karma anusārataḥ ||

SS: Once he is convinced of the unreality of the world, a knower with the mind undisturbed allows his fructifying Karma to wear out, and engages himself in worldly affairs accordingly.

JBS: When firmness in the impression of the unreality (of the world) has been secured, they act in accordance with their respective Karmas without getting vexed and with the intention of exhausting their Prārabdha Karma.

atiprasaṅgo mā śaṅkyaḥ svakarmavaśavartinām
astu vā ko 'tra śakyeta karma vārayituṃ vada ||132||

atiprasaṅgaḥ śaṅkyaḥ svakarma vaśa vartinām |
astu kaḥ atra śakyeta karma vārayitum vada ||

SS: Do not fear irregularity when the wise engage themselves in actions according to their Karma. even if it happens, let it be; who can prevent the Karma?

JBS: Straying away (from right conduct) must not be thought of as regards those who are completely swayed by their Karma (without any volition on their part). Or, let that also be, for who can in this matter prevent that Karma? Tell me.

jñānino 'jñāninaścātra same prārabdhakarmaṇī
na kleśo jñānino dhairyānmūḍhaḥ kliśyaty adhairyataḥ ||133||

jñāninaḥ ajñāninaḥ ca atra same prārabdha karmaṇī |
na kleśaḥ jñāninaḥ dhairyāt mūḍhaḥ kliśyati adhairyataḥ ||

SS: In the experience of their fructifying Karma the enlightened and the unenlightened alike have no choice; but the knower is patient and undisturbed, whereas an ignorant man is impatient and suffers pain and grief.

JBS: Though Prārabdha Karma here is common to the knower and to the non‐knower, there is no suffering for the knower because of his courage; the ignorant one suffers for want of courage.

mārge gantror dvayoḥ śrāntau samāyām apy adūratām
jānan dhairyād drtaṃ gacched anyas tiṣṭhati dīnadhīḥ ||134||

mārge gantroḥ dvayoḥ śrāntau samāyām api adūratām |
jānan dhairyāt drtam gacchet anyas tiṣṭhati dīna dhīḥ ||

SS: Two travelers on a journey may be equally fatigued, but the one who knows that his destination is not far off foes on quicker with patience, whereas the ignorant one feels discouraged and stays on longer on the way.

JBS: Though the fatigue is common to two travellers on the road, one knowing (that the destination is ) not far off walks fast because of his courage; the other (though knowing the same) stands still, dejected in mind.

sākṣātkṛtātmadhīḥ samyagaviparyayabādhitaḥ
kim icchan kasya kāmāya śarīram anusaṃjvaret ||135||

sākṣāt kṛtātma dhīḥ samyak aviparyaya bādhitaḥ |
kim icchan kasya kāmāya śarīram anusaṃjvaret ||

SS: He who has properly realized Brahman and is not troubled by erroneous conviction, 'desiring what and to please whom will he suffer following the afflictions of his body and mind?'

JBS: The person whose mind has well directly perceived the Self and who is not troubled by any wrong perception – wishing what and for whose benefit is he to worry himself in sympathy with the body?

jaganmithyātvadhībhāvād ākṣiptau kāmyakāmukau
tayor abhāve santāpaḥ śāmyenniḥsnehadīpavat ||136||

jagat mithyātva dhībhāvāt ākṣiptau kāmya kāmukau |
tayoḥ abhāve santāpaḥ śāmyet niḥsneha dīpavat ||

SS: When the conviction of the unreality of the world has been reached, there is neither desire, nor the desirer. In their absence the pain caused by unfulfilled desires ceases like the flame of a lamp without oil.

JBS: By the knowledge of the unreality of the world, the desired and the desirer are both discarded. When they are no more, suffering will (automatically) subside like a lamp with no oil.

gandharvapattane kiñcinnaindrajālikanirmite
jānankāmyate kintu jihāsati hasannidam ||137||

gandharva pattane kiñcit na aindrajālika nirmite |
jānan kāmyate kintu jihāsati hasan idam ||

SS: When the visitor knows the magician’s city of Gandharvas and its objects as unreal, he desires nothing and laughs at its deceptive nature.

JBS: One will not desire for anything knowing that it is created by magic in an illusory city. On the other hand, he will smilingly want to give it up.

āpātaramaṇīyeṣu bhogeṣv evaṃ vicāravān
nānurajyati kintv etān doṣadṛṣṭyā jihāsati ||138||

āpāta ramaṇīyeṣu bhogeṣu evam vicāravān |
na anurajyati kintu etān doṣa dṛṣṭyā jihāsati ||

SS: Similarly a wise man does not seek enjoyments in the pleasing objects. He is convinced of their defects, their impermanence and illusoriness, and gives them up.

JBS: Thus one who makes an enquiry will have no attachment in enjoyments which are only seemingly attractive. On the other hand he will want to abandon them because of the perception of the fault in them.

arthānām ārjane kleśas tathaiva paripālane
nāśe duḥkhaṃ vyaye duḥkhaṃ dhigarthān kleśakāriṇaḥ ||139||

arthānām ārjane kleśas tathā eva paripālane |
nāśe duḥkham vyaye duḥkham dhik arthān kleśa kāriṇaḥ ||

SS: 'Wealth brings worry in earning, anxiety in maintenance, grief in loss and sorrow in spending. Woe unto this sorrow producing wealth.'

JBS: There is trouble in securing the objects; so also in safeguarding them. There is sorrow if they are lost; there is sorrow when they are spent. Fie on objects which bring only trouble!

māṃsapāñcālikāyās tu yantralole 'ṅgapañjare
snāyv asthigranthiśālinyāḥ striyāḥ kim iva śobhanam ||140||

māṃsa pāñcāli kāyās tu yantra lole aṅga pañjare |
snāyu asthi granthi śālinyāḥ striyāḥ kim iva śobhanam ||

SS: What real beauty is there in women, who are but a conglomeration of fleshy muscles, bones and glands? They are a mass of flesh encaged in restless limbs.

JBS: What is there attractive in the cage‐like body, ever restless like a machine, of a woman who is but a doll made of flesh and consisting of nerves, bones and joints? (Yoga Vasiṣṭha)

evam ādiṣu śāstreṣu doṣāḥ samyakprapañcitāḥ
vimarśannaniśaṃ tāni kathaṃ duḥkheṣu majjati ||141||

evam ādiṣu śāstreṣu doṣāḥ samyak prapañcitāḥ |
vimarśan aniśam tāni katham duḥkheṣu majjati ||

SS: Such are the defects of worldly pleasures, elaborately pointed out by the scriptures. No wise man, aware of these defects, will allow himself to be drowned in afflictions caused by them.

JBS: In the Śāstras like this, the faults have been well elaborately described. How can he who thinks over them constantly drown himself in sorrows?

kṣudhayā pīḍyamāno 'pi na viṣaṃ hy attum icchati
miṣṭānnadhvastatṛḍ jānannāmūḍhas tajjighatsati ||142||

kṣudhayā pīḍyamānaḥ api na viṣam hi attum icchati |
miṣṭa annadhva statṛḍ jānan na amūḍhas tad jighatsati ||

SS: Even a man afflicted with great hunger does not wish to eat poison, much less the one who is already satisfied with sweetmeats.

JBS: Though suffering from hunger, one will not wish to eat poison. One whose hunger has gone by having a sumptuous meal and who knows (that it is poison) and who is not a fool will certainly not wish to eat it. (Upadeśa Sahasrī)

prārabdhakarmaprābalyād bhogeṣv icchā bhaved yadi
kliśyanneva tadāpy eṣa bhuṅkte viṣṭi gṛhītavat ||143||

prārabdha karma prābalyāt bhogeṣu icchā bhavet yadi |
kliśyan eva tadā api eṣa bhuṅkte viṣṭi gṛhītavat ||

SS: If by the force of his fructifying Karma a wise man is compelled to enjoy the fruits of desires, he does so with indifference and great reluctance, like a man who is impressed for labour.

JBS: If desire arises in objects of enjoyment on account of the force of Prārabdha Karma, he will even then enjoy them only with sorrow (reluctantly) just like a person caught up for forced labour.

bhuñjānā vā api budhāḥ śrddhāvantaḥ kuṭumbinaḥ
nādyāpi karmanaśchinnam iti kliśyanti santatam ||144||

bhuñjānā api budhāḥ śrddhāvantaḥ kuṭumbinaḥ |
na adya api karma naḥ chinnam iti kliśyanti santatam ||

SS: The wise, having spiritual faith, if forced by their fructifying Karma to live a family life, maintaining many relations, always sorrowfully think 'Ah, the bonds of Karma are not yet torn off'.

JBS: Even householders, who are wise and have faith, feel always sorry thus "Our Karma has not yet been cut down", though they are enjoying.

nāyaṃ kleśo 'tra saṃsāratāpaḥ kintu viraktatā
bhrāntijñānanidāno hi tāpaḥ sāṃsārikaḥ smṛtaḥ ||145||

na ayam kleśaḥ atra saṃsāra tāpaḥ kintu viraktatā |
bhrānti jñāna nidānaḥ hi tāpaḥ sāṃsārikaḥ smṛtaḥ ||

SS: This sorrow is not due to the afflictions of the world but a dislike for it, for the worldly afflictions are caused by erroneous conviction about its reality.

JBS: This sorrow here is not the sorrow of Saṃsāra; on the other hand it is dispassion. The sorrow of Saṃsāra is declared to have mistaken knowledge as its cause.

vivekena parikliśyannalpabhogena tṛpyati
anyathānantabhoge 'pi naiva tṛpyati karhicit ||146||

vivekena parikliśyan alpa bhogena tṛpyati |
anyathā ananta bhoge api na eva tṛpyati karhicit ||

SS: A man endowed with discrimination sees the defects of enjoyment and is satisfied even with a little, whereas he who is subject to illusion is not satisfied even with endless enjoyments.

JBS: He who is sorry on account of discrimination is satisfied with a slight enjoyment. Otherwise (if he has no discrimination and is sorry), he will not ever be satisfied even if he has limitless enjoyment.

na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānām upabhogena śāmyati
haviṣā kṛṣṇavartmeva bhūya evābhivardhate ||147||

na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānām upabhogena śāmyati |
haviṣā kṛṣṇa vartmā iva bhūya eva abhivardhate ||

SS: 'The desires are never quelled by enjoyment but increase more like the flame of a fire fed on clarified butter.'

JBS: "Desire never subsides by the enjoyment of the objects desired but only increases more and more just as fire (blazes more and more) by the oblations."

parijñāyopabhukto hi bhogo bhavati tuṣṭaye
vijñāya sevitaścoro maitrīm eti coratām ||148||

parijñāya upabhuktaḥ hi bhogaḥ bhavati tuṣṭaye |
vijñāya sevitaḥ coraḥ maitrīm eti coratām ||

SS: But when the impermanence of pleasure is known, the gratification of desires may bring the idea of 'enough of it'. It is like a thief, who having been knowingly employed in service does not behave like a thief but like a friend.

JBS: "An enjoyment enjoyed on knowing it well gives satisfaction. A thief who is approached by a person knowing him (to be a thief) becomes a friend and not a thief."

manaso nigṛhītasya līlābhogo 'lpako 'pi yaḥ
tam evālbdhavistāraṃ kliṣṭatvād bahu manyate ||149||

manasaḥ nigṛhītasya līla abhogaḥ alpakaḥ api yaḥ |
tam eva albdha vistāram kliṣṭatvāt bahu manyate ||

SS: A man who has conquered his mind is satisfied with even a little enjoyment of pleasure. He knows well that pleasures are impermanent and are followed by grief. To him even a little pleasure is more than enough.

JBS: "That which is a very slight diverting enjoyment for a controlled mind – he looks upon even that which is not extensive as very much, as he is sorry (even in enjoying it slightly)".

baddhamukto mahīpālo grāmamātreṇa tuṣyati
parair na baddho nākrānto na rāṣṭraṃ bahu manyate ||150||

baddha muktaḥ mahīpālaḥ grāma mātreṇa tuṣyati |
paraiḥ na baddhaḥ na ākrāntaḥ na rāṣṭram bahu manyate ||

SS: A king who has been freed from prison is content with sovereignty over a village, whereas when he had neither been imprisoned nor conquered he did not attach much value even to a kingdom.

JBS: "A king who is bound (by an enemy) and is released will be content with a single village (being given him). If he is neither bound nor encroached upon by others, he will not think even a kingdom as of much value.

viveke jāgrati sati doṣadarśanalakṣaṇe
katham ārabdhakarmāpi bhogecchāṃ janayiṣyati ||151||

viveke jāgrati sati doṣa darśana lakṣaṇe |
katham ārabdha karma api bhoga icchām janayiṣyati ||

SS: (Doubt:) When discrimination is ever awake regarding the defects of objects of enjoyment, how can the desire for enjoyment be forced upon him by his fructifying Karma?

JBS: When discrimination which is characterised by the recognition of faults (in the objects of enjoyment) is awake, how can even Prārabdha Karma generate the desire for enjoyment?

naiṣa doṣo yato 'nekavidhaṃ prārabdham īkṣyate
icchā 'nicchā parecchā ca prārabdhaṃ smṛtam ||152||

na eṣa doṣaḥ yataḥ aneka vidham prārabdham īkṣyate |
icchā anicchā parecchā ca prārabdham smṛtam ||

SS: (Reply:) There is no inconsistency here, for the fructifying Karma expends itself in various ways. There are three kinds of fructifying Karma 'producing enjoyments and desire,' 'in the absence of desire' and 'through the desire of another'.

JBS: This is not a defect, for Prārabdha is seen to be of various kinds. Prārabdha is considered as three‐fold – wishful, not wishful and wishful because of another.

apathyasevinaścorā rājadāraratā api
jānanta eva svānartham icchanty ārabdhakarmataḥ ||153||

apathya sevinaḥ corā rāja dāra ratā api |
jānanta eva sva anartham icchanti ārabdha karmataḥ ||

SS: The sick attached to harmful food, the thieves and those who have illicit relationships with the wives of a king know well the consequence likely to follow their actions, but in spite of this they are driven to do them by their fructifying Karma.

JBS: Those who resort to unhealthy things, robbers and also those who love the wives of kings wish (for them) on account of Prārabdha Karma, even knowing that they are harmful to themselves.

na cātraitad vārayitum īśvareṇāpi śakyate
yata īśvara evāha gītāyām arjunaṃ prati ||154||

na ca atra etad vārayitum īśvareṇa api śakyate |
yata īśvara eva āha gītāyām arjunam prati ||

SS: Even Īśvara cannot stop such desires. So Śrī Kṛṣṇa said to Arjuna in the Gītā:

JBS: This (wishful Prārabdha) is not possible to be prevented here even by God, for He Himself says to Arjuna in the Gītā –

sadṛśaṃ ceṣṭate svasyāḥ prakṛter jñānavān api
prakṛtiṃ yānti bhūtani nigrahaḥ kiṃ kariṣyati ||155||

sadṛśam ceṣṭate svasyāḥ prakṛteḥ jñānavān api |
prakṛtim yānti bhūtani nigrahaḥ kim kariṣyati ||

SS: 'Even wise men follow the dictates of their own nature. Beings are prompted by their own innate tendencies; what can restrictions do?'

JBS: "Even he who knows acts in conformity with his own nature. All beings follow their natures. What can prevention do?" (Gītā III, 33)

avaśyaṃ bhāvibhāvānāṃ pratīkāro bhaved yadi
tadā duḥkhair na lipyeran nalarāmayudhiṣṭirāḥ ||156||

avaśyam bhāvi bhāvānām pratīkāraḥ bhavet yadi |
tadā duḥkhaiḥ na lipyeran nala rāma yudhiṣṭirāḥ ||

SS: If it were possible to avert the consequences of fructifying Karma, Nala, Rāma and Yudhiṣṭhira would not have suffered the miseries to which they were subjected.

JBS: "If there were a remedy for happenings which must happen, Nala, Rāma and Yudhiṣṭhira will not have been then afflicted by sorrows".

na ceśvaratvam īśasya hīyate tāvatā yataḥ
avaśyaṃ bhāvitāpy eṣām īśvareṇaiva nirmitā ||157||

na ca īśvaratvam īśasya hīyate tāvatā yataḥ |
avaśyam bhāvitā api eṣām īśvareṇa eva nirmitā ||

SS: Īśvara Himself ordains that the fructifying Karma should be inexorable So the fact that He is unable to prevent such Karma from fructifying is not inconsistent with His omnipotence.

JBS: By this much (inability to prevent) the God‐hood of God is not lessened, as even the inevitability of the happenings is dictated by God Himself.

praśnottarābhyām evaitad gamyate 'rjunakṛṣṇayoḥ
anicchāpūrvakaṃ cāsti prārabdham iti tacchṛṇu ||158||

praśna uttarābhyām eva etad gamyate arjuna kṛṣṇayoḥ |
anicchā pūrvakam ca asti prārabdham iti tad śṛṇu ||

SS: Listen to the questions and answers between Arjuna and Śrī Kṛṣṇa from which we know that a man has to experience his fructifying is though he may have no desire to experience it.

JBS: That this Prārabdha preceded by non‐wishing does exist is learnt even from the question and answer of Arjuna and Krishna.

atha kena prayukto 'yaṃ pāpaṃ carati pūruṣaḥ
anicchannapi vārṣṇeya balād iva niyojitaḥ ||159||

atha kena prayuktaḥ ayam pāpam carati pūruṣaḥ |
anicchan api vārṣṇeya balāt iva niyojitaḥ ||

SS: 'O Kṛṣṇa, prompted by what does a man sin against his will, as if some force impels him to do so?'

JBS: "Ordered by what does this person commit sin then, O Krishna, even though he does not wish it, as if forcibly made to do?" (Gītā III, 36)

kāma eṣa krodha eṣa rajoguṇasamudbhavaḥ
mahāśano mahāpāpmā viddhy enam iha vairiṇam ||160||

kāma eṣa krodha eṣa rajoguṇa samudbhavaḥ |
mahāśanaḥ mahāpāpmā viddhi enam iha vairiṇam ||

SS: 'It is desire and (its brood) anger, born of the quality of Rajas. It is insatiable, the great source of all sins; know it to be your enemy.'

JBS: "This is Desire, this is Anger, born of Rajo Guṇa, who devours a great deal and is highly sinful. Know this as the enemy here". (Gītā III, 37)

svabhāvajena kaunteya nibaddhaḥ svena karmaṇā
kartum necchasi yanmohāt kariṣyasy avaśo 'pi tat ||161||

svabhāva jena kaunteya nibaddhaḥ svena karmaṇā |
kartum na icchasi yad mohāt kariṣyasi avaśaḥ api tad ||

SS: 'O Arjuna, your own Karma, produced by your own nature, compels you to do things, even though you may not want to do them.'

JBS: "Even that which on account of delusion you do not wish to do, you will do, involuntarily bound by your own Karma born of your nature, O Arjuna". (Gītā XVIII, 60)

nānicchanto na cecchantaḥ paradākṣiṇyasaṃyutāḥ
sukhaduḥkhe bhajanty etat parecchāpūrvakarma hi ||162||

na anicchantaḥ na ca icchantaḥ para dākṣiṇya saṃyutāḥ |
sukha duḥkhe bhajanti etad parecchā apūrva karma hi ||

SS: When a man is neither willing nor unwilling to do a thing but does it for the feelings of others and experiences pleasure and pain, it is the result of 'fructifying Karma through the desire of others'.

JBS: Neither not wishing nor wishing but in def/e/rence to others, they experience pleasure and pain – This is the Prārabdha Karma preceded by wish because of another.

kathaṃ tarhi kim icchannity evam icchā niṣidhyate
necchāniṣedhaḥ kintv icchābādho bharjitabījavat ||163||

katham tarhi kim icchan iti evam icchā niṣidhyate |
na icchā niṣedhaḥ kintu icchā bādhaḥ bharjita bījavat ||

SS: (Doubt:) Does it not contradict the text at the beginning of this chapter which describes the enlightened man as desireless? (Reply:) The text does not mean that desires are absent in the enlightened man, but that desires arising in him spontaneously without his will produce no pleasure or pain, just as the roasted grain has no potency.

JBS: If so, how is desire negatived thus in the passage 'desiring what?' The (absolute) negation of desire is not meant. But making it ineffective is meant, as a fried seed.

bharjitāni tu bījāni santy akāryakarāṇi ca
vidvadicchā tatheṣṭavyā 'sattvabodhānna kāryakṛt ||164||

bharjitāni tu bījāni santi akārya karāṇi ca |
vidvat icchā tathā iṣṭavyā asattvabodhāt na kāryakṛt ||

SS: Roasted grain though looking the same cannot germinate; similarly the desires of the knower, well aware of the unreality of objects of desire cannot produce merit and demerit.

JBS: Seeds which are fried do exist but cannot do their work (of sprouting). Similarly, the desire of the knower is not effective because of the knowledge of the unreality of the object of desire.

dagdhabījam arohe 'pi bhakṣaṇāyopyujyate
vidvadicchāpy alpabhogaṃ kuryānna vyasanaṃ bahu ||165||

dagdha bījam arohe api bhakṣaṇāya upyujyate |
vidvat icchā api alpa bhogam kuryāt na vyasanam bahu ||

SS: Though it does not germinate, the roasted grain can be used as food. In the same way the desires of the knower yield him only a little experience, but cannot lead to the varieties of enjoyment producing sorrow or abiding habits.

JBS: The fried seed though it may not sprout is used for eating. The desire of the knower also will produce just a slight enjoyment and not much trouble.

bhogena caritārthatvāt prārabdham karma hīyate
bhoktavyasatyatābhrāntyā vyasanaṃ tatra jāyate ||166||

bhogena carita arthatvāt prārabdham karma hīyate |
bhoktavya satyata abhrāntyā vyasanam tatra jāyate ||

SS: The fructifying Karma spends its force when its effects are experienced; it is only when, through ignorance, one believes its effects to be real that they cause lasting sorrow.

JBS: By carrying out its purpose through enjoyment, the Prārabdha Karma is exhausted. by the mistaken conception of reality in the objects of enjoyment, trouble is generated there.

mā vinaśyatv ayaṃ bhogo vardhatām ūttarottaram
mā vighnāḥ pratibadhnantu dhanyo 'smy asmād iti bhramaḥ ||167||

vinaśyatu ayam bhogaḥ vardhatām ūttarottaram |
vighnāḥ pratibadhnantu dhanyaḥ asmi asmāt iti bhramaḥ ||

SS: 'Let not my enjoyment be cut short, let it go on increasing, let not obstacles stop it, I am blessed because of it' – such is the nature of that delusion.

JBS: "Let not this enjoyment cease to be. Let it grow further and further. Let no impediments hinder it. I am fortunate because of this" – such is the mistaken conception.

yad abhāvi na tad bhāvi bhāvi cenna tad anyathā
iti cintāviṣaghno 'yaṃ bodho bhramanivartakaḥ ||168||

yad abhāvi na tad bhāvi bhāvi cet na tad anyathā |
iti cinta aviṣaghnaḥ ayam bodhaḥ bhrama nivartakaḥ ||

SS: That which is not destined to happen as a result of our past Karma will not happen; that which is to happen must happen. Such knowledge is a sure antidote to the poison of anxiety; it removes the delusion of grief.

JBS: "That which has not to happen will not happen; if it has to happen, it will not be otherwise." – this knowledge which is the antidote for the poison of anxiety is the remover of the mistaken conception.

same 'pi bhoge vyasanaṃ bhrānto gacchenna buddhavān
aśakyārthasya saṅkalpād bhrāntasya vyasanaṃ bahu ||169||

same api bhoge vyasanam bhrāntaḥ gacchet na buddhavān |
aśakya arthasya saṅkalpāt bhrāntasya vyasanam bahu ||

SS: Both the illumined and the deluded suffer from their fructifying Karma; the deluded are subject to misery, the wise are not. As the deluded are full of desires, of impracticable and unreal things, their sorrow is great.

JBS: Though the enjoyment is the same, the deluded gets trouble, not he who knows. The great trouble of the deluded is due to the anticipation of what is not possible.

māyāmayatvaṃ bhogasya buddhvāsthām upasaṃharan
bhuñjāno 'pi na saṅkalpaṃ kurute vyasanaṃ kutaḥ ||170||

māyāmayatvam bhogasya buddhvā āsthām upasaṃharan |
bhuñjānaḥ api na saṅkalpam kurute vyasanam kutaḥ ||

SS: The illumined man knows that the enjoyment of desires is unreal. He therefore controls his desires and prevents impossible or new ones from arising. Why should such a man be subject to misery?

JBS: He who restrains his attachment knowing the illusory nature of the enjoyment does not entertain any expectation though he may be enjoying. Wherefrom can there be any trouble (for him)?

svapnendrajālasadṛśam acintyaracanātmakam
dṛṣṭanaṣṭaṃ jagatpaśyan kathaṃ tatrānurajyati ||171||

svapna indrajāla sadṛśam acintya racanā ātmakam |
dṛṣṭa naṣṭam jagat paśyan katham tatra anurajyati ||

SS: The wise man is convinced that worldly desires are like dream objects or magical creations. He knows further that he nature of the world is incomprehensible, and that its objects are momentary. How can he then be attached to them?

JBS: He who sees the world like a dream or magic, of the nature of unimaginable formation, seeming and disappearing – how can he have any attachment in it?

svasvapnam āparokṣyeṇa dṛṣṭvā paśyan svajāgaram
cintayed apramattaḥ sannubhāv anudinaṃ muhuḥ ||172||

sva svapnam āparokṣyeṇa dṛṣṭvā paśyan sva jāgaram |
cintayet apramattaḥ san ubhau anudinam muhuḥ ||

SS: One should, when awake, first picture to himself vividly what he has seen in a dream and then carefully and constantly think over the conditions of dreaming and wakefulness.

JBS: After directly seeing his own dream and seeing his own waking state, he must without any remissness think about them both every day again and again.

ciraṃ tayoḥ sarvasāmyam anusandhāya jāgare
satyatvabuddhiṃ saṃtyajya nānurajyati pūrvavat ||173||

ciram tayoḥ sarva sāmyam anusandhāya jāgare |
satyatva buddhim saṃtyajya na anurajyati pūrvavat ||

SS: An aspirant must observe long and find out the essential similarity of the dream and waking worlds. He should then give up the notion of the reality of worldly objects and cease to be attached to them.

JBS: Contemplating for long the similarity between them (the dream and waking states) in all aspects and giving up the sense of reality in the waking state, he will not have attachment for it as before.

indrajālam idaṃ dvaitam acintyaracanātvataḥ
ity avismarato hāniḥ kā vā prārabdhabhogataḥ ||174||

indrajālam idam dvaitam acintya racanātvataḥ |
iti avismarataḥ hāniḥ prārabdha bhogataḥ ||

SS: This world of duality is like a magical creation, with its cause incomprehensible. What matters it to the wise man who does not forget this, if the past actions produce their results in him?

JBS: This duality is magic as its creation is inconceivable – to one who does not forget this, what harm can there be by enjoyment of Prārabdha Karma?

nirbandhas tattvavidyāyā indrajālatavasaṃsmṛtau
prārabdhasyāgraho bhoge jīvasya sukhaduḥkhayoḥ ||175||

nirbandhas tattva vidyāyā indrajālatava saṃsmṛtau |
prārabdhasya āgrahaḥ bhoge jīvasya sukha duḥkhayoḥ ||

SS: The function of knowledge is to show the illusory nature of the world and the function of fructifying Karma is to yield pleasure and pain to the Jīva.

JBS: The restriction (the prime objective) of the knowledge of truth is in the matter of remembering the magical nature (of the world). The objective of Prārabdha Karma is in the Jīva's enjoyment of pleasure and pain.

vidyārabdhe virudhyate na bhinnaviṣayatvataḥ
jānadbhir apy aindrajālavinodo dṛśyate khalu ||176||

vidyā ārabdhe virudhyate na bhinna viṣayatvataḥ |
jānadbhiḥ api aindrajāla vinodaḥ dṛśyate khalu ||

SS: Knowledge and fructifying Karma are not opposed to one another since they refer to different objects. The sight of a magical performance gives amusement to a spectator in spite of his knowledge of its unreality.

JBS: Knowledge and Prārabdha are not mutually incompatible as their provinces are different. Is not a magic entertainment witnessed even by those who know (its unreality)?

jagatsatyatvam āpādya prārabdhaṃ bhojayed yadi
tadā virodhi vidyāyā bhogamātrān na satyatā ||177||

jagat satyatvam āpādya prārabdham bhojayet yadi |
tadā virodhi vidyāyā bhoga mātrān na satyatā ||

SS: The fructification of Karma would be considered to be opposed to the knowledge of truth if it gave rise to the idea of the reality of the transitory world; but the mere enjoyment does not mean that the enjoyed thing is real.

JBS: If Prārabdha caused enjoyment only by giving reality to the world, it will then be incompatible with knowledge. Reality does not follow merely from the fact of enjoyment.

anūno jāyate bhogaḥ kalpitaiḥ svapnavastubhiḥ
jāgradvastubhir apy evam asatyair bhoga iṣyatām ||178||

anūnaḥ jāyate bhogaḥ kalpitaiḥ svapna vastubhiḥ |
jāgrat vastubhiḥ api evam asatyaiḥ bhoga iṣyatām ||

SS: Through the imaginary objects seen in a dream there is the experience of joy and sorrow to no small extent; therefore you can infer that through the objects of the waking state also there can be the same experience (without making them real).

JBS: No lesser enjoyment arises from the dream things which only seem to be. The enjoyment of unreal waking-state things may be considered in the same way.

yadi vidyāpahnuvīta jagatprārabdhaghātinī
tadā syān na tu māyātvabodhena tad apahnavaḥ ||179||

yadi vidyā apahnuvīta jagat prārabdha ghātinī |
tadā syān na tu māyātva bodhena tad apahnavaḥ ||

SS: If the knowledge of truth would obliterate the enjoyable world, then it would be a destroyer of the fructifying Karma. But it only teaches its unreality, and does not cause its disappearance.

JBS: If knowledge would hide the world, then it will be destructive of Prārabdha Karma; but no hiding of the world is done by the knowledge of its unreality.

anapahnutya lokās tad indrajālam idaṃ tv iti
jānanty evānapahnutya bhogaṃ māyātvadhīs tathā ||180||

anapahnutya lokās tad indrajālam idam tu iti |
jānanti eva anapahnutya bhogam māyātva dhīs tathā ||

SS: People know a magical show to be unreal, but this knowledge does not involve the destruction of the show. So it is possible to know the unreality of external objects without causing their disappearance or the cessation of enjoyment from them.

JBS: People do know 'This is but magic' without hiding it. Similarly, there is the knowledge of illusoriness without hiding (the world).

yatra tv asya jagatsvātmā paśyet ka tatra kena kam
kiṃ jighret kiṃ vaded veti śrutau tu bahu ghoṣitam ||181||

yatra tu asya jagat svātmā paśyet ka tatra kena kam |
kim jighret kim vadet veti śrutau tu bahu ghoṣitam ||

SS: (Doubt:) The Śruti passages say that he who perceives his own Self to be all, 'what can he hear or see, or smell or speak?'

JBS: Where to him the world is his own Self, who can see there what and with what? What can he smell? What can he talk about? -- thus is the varied declaration of the Veda. [Bṛhadāraṇyaka II, 4 (14)]

tena dvaitam apahnutya vidyodeti na cānyathā
tathā ca viduṣo bhogaḥ kathaṃ syād iti cecchṛṇu ||182||

tena dvaitam apahnutya vidyā udeti na ca anyathā |
tathā ca viduṣaḥ bhogaḥ katham syāt iti cet śṛṇu ||

SS: Therefore knowledge arises with the destruction of duality and in no other way. This being so, how can the knower of truth enjoy the objective world?

JBS: Therefore knowledge arises hiding duality and not otherwise. While so, how can there be enjoyment for the knower? – If it is so urged, listen.

suṣuptiviṣayā muktiviṣayā vā śrutis tv iti
uktaṃ svāpyayasampattyor iti sūtre hy atisphuṭam ||183||

suṣupti viṣayā mukti viṣayā śrutis tu iti |
uktam svāpyaya sampattyoḥ iti sūtre hi atisphuṭam ||

SS: (Reply:) The Śruti upon which this objection is based applies to the states of deep sleep and final liberation. This has been amply cleared in aphorism 4.4.16 in the Brahma‐Sūtras.

JBS: In the Brahma Sūtra "Svāpyaya Sampattyoḥ", it has been very clearly stated that the abovesaid Vedic passage relates to deep sleep or to the state of liberation.

anyathā yājñavalkyāderācāryatvaṃ na sambhavet
dvaitadṛṣṭāv avidvattā dvaitādṛṣṭāu na vāgvadet ||184||

anyathā yājñavalkya ādeḥ ācāryatvam na sambhavet |
dvaita dṛṣṭau avidvattā dvaita adṛṣṭāu na vāk vadet ||

SS: If this is not accepted, we cannot account for Yājñavalkya’s and other sages' efforts to teach. Without a recognition of duality they could not teach, and with it their knowledge is incomplete.

JBS: Otherwise (if it is not so interpreted) the teachership of Yājñavalkya and others is not possible. If there was a perception of duality, there cannot be knowership (in them) and if there was no perception of duality they cannot speak.

nirvikalpasamādhau tu dvaitādarśanahetutaḥ
saivāparokṣavidyeti cet suṣuptis tathā na kim ||185||

nirvikalpa samādhau tu dvaita adarśana hetutaḥ |
eva aparokṣa vidyā iti cet suṣuptis tathā na kim ||

SS: (Doubt:) Direct knowledge is achieved in subject‐objectless contemplation in which there is no duality. (Reply:) Then why not apply the same argument to the state of deep sleep?

JBS: If it is said that, as there is no perception of duality in Nirvikalpa Samādhi, that alone is direct knowledge, then why not deep sleep also (be direct knowledge as there is then no perception of duality)?

ātmatattvaṃ na jānāti supto yadi tadā tvayā
ātmadhīr eva vidyeti vācyaṃ na dvaitavismṛtiḥ ||186||

ātma tattvam na jānāti suptaḥ yadi tadā tvayā |
ātma dhīḥ eva vidyā iti vācyam na dvaita vismṛtiḥ ||

SS: (Doubt:) In the state of deep sleep there is no knowledge of the Self. (Reply:) Then you admit it is not mere absence of duality but the knowledge of the Self that really matters.

JBS: If in deep sleep he does not know the truth about the Self, then you must say that the perception of the Self alone is knowledge and not the forgetting of duality.

ubhayaṃ militaṃ vidyā yadi tarhi ghaṭādayaḥ
ardhavidyābhājinaḥ syuḥ sakaladvaitavismṛteḥ ||187||

ubhayam militam vidyā yadi tarhi ghaṭa ādayaḥ |
ardha vidyā bhājinaḥ syuḥ sakala dvaita vismṛteḥ ||

SS: (Doubt:) True knowledge combines in itself both the knowledge of Self and the absence of knowledge of duality. (Reply:) Then inanimate objects like pots in which the knowledge of duality is absent are already half enlightened!

JBS: If both (non‐perception of duality and perception of the Self) together make us knowledge, then the pot etc. must be credited with half‐knowledge as they have non‐perception of duality.

maśakadhvanimukhyānāṃ vikṣepāṇāṃ bahutvataḥ
tava vidyā tathā na syād ghaṭādināṃ yathā dṛḍhā ||188||

maśaka dhvani mukhyānām vikṣepāṇām bahutvataḥ |
tava vidyā tathā na syāt ghaṭa ādinām yathā dṛḍhā ||

SS: Then the pots are superior to you, for even the buzzing of mosquitoes often distracts your attention, and they have no such awareness of duality!

JBS: As there is a multitude of distraction due to mosquitoes, noise etc., your knowledge will not be as firm as that of the pot etc. (as they are not disturbed by them).

ātmadhīr eva vidyeti yadi tarhi sukhī bhava
duṣṭacittaṃ nirudhyāccennirunddhi tvaṃ yathā sukham ||189||

ātma dhīḥ eva vidyā iti yadi tarhi sukhī bhava |
duṣṭa cittam nirudhyāt cet nirunddhi tvam yathā sukham ||

SS: If, however, you admit, the knowledge of the Self alone constitutes realization you have accepted our position. Again if you say, to have realization the troubling mind is to be controlled, we bless you. Be happy, do control the mind.

JBS: If (you admit that) the perception of the Self alone is knowledge, in that case be quite happy (for you have come around to my standpoint). If one has to restrain the evil mind, restrain it as it pleases you.

tad iṣtam eṣṭavya māyāmayatvasya samīkṣaṇāt
icchannapy ajñavannecchet kim icchanniti hi śrutam ||190||

tad iṣtam eṣṭavya māyāmayatvasya samīkṣaṇāt |
icchan api ajñavat na icchet kim icchan iti hi śrutam ||

SS: We also like it, for the control of the mind is essential for the realization of the illusory character of the world. But although the wise man may have desires, they are not binding as are the desires of an ignorant man. This is the drift of the text 'Desiring what ...'.

JBS: That is agreeable (to me also) for thereby arises the perception of the illusory nature (of the world) which is desired even by me. Though desiring, he will not desire as the ignorant desire – this is conveyed by the phrase "wishing what".

rāgo liṅgam abodhasya santu rāgādayo budhe
iti śāstradvayaṃ sārtham evaṃ saty avirodhataḥ ||191||

rāgaḥ liṅgam abodhasya santu rāga ādayaḥ budhe |
iti śāstra dvayam sārtham evam sati avirodhataḥ ||

SS: There is therefore no contradiction between the two statements in the scriptures that 'desires are a sign of ignorance' and that 'the wise man may have desires', because the desires of a wise man are too weak to bind.

JBS: "Desire is the index of not knowing", "Let desire etc. remain in the knower" – these two Śāstras become meaningful if it is so (if the above explanation is accepted) as there is no inconsistency.

jaganmithyātvavat svātmāsaṅgatvasya samīkṣaṇāt
kasya kāmāyeti vaco bhoktrabhāvavivikṣayā ||192||

jagat mithyātvavat svātmā asaṅgatvasya samīkṣaṇāt |
kasya kāmāya iti vacaḥ bhoktṛ abhāva vivikṣayā ||

SS: Since he is convinced of the associationlessness of the Self like the illusoriness of the world, the knower has no idea of himself as a doer and enjoyer. The verse quoted at the beginning of this chapter, 'For whom should he desire?' applies to him.

JBS: As the perception of the un‐attached nature of the Self is seen just like the unreality of the world, there is the phrase "for whose desire" to convey the idea of the absence of a desirer.

patijāyādikaṃ sarvaṃ tattadbhogāya necchati
kintv ātmabhogārtham iti śrutāv udghoṣitam bahu ||193||

pati jāya ādikam sarvam tad tad bhogāya na icchati |
kintu ātma bhoga artham iti śrutau udghoṣitam bahu ||

SS: Many Śruti texts declare that a husband loves his wife not for her sake and the wife loves him not for his sake, but for their own sake.

JBS: One does not desire a husband, wide etc. for their enjoyment but only for one's own enjoyment – This is proclaimed in the Veda many a time.

kiṃ kūṭasthaścidābhāso 'thavā kiṃ vobhayātmakaḥ
bhoktā tatra na kūṭastho 'saṅgatvād bhoktṛtāṃ vrajet ||194||

kim kūṭasthaḥ cidābhāsaḥ athavā kim ubhayātmakaḥ |
bhoktā tatra na kūṭasthaḥ asaṅgatvāt bhoktṛtām vrajet ||

SS: Now who is the doer and enjoyer? Is it the immutable Kūṭastha or the reflected consciousness, Cidābhāsa, or a union of the two? Kūṭastha cannot be the enjoyer since it is associationless.

JBS: Is the 'Enjoyer' here the changeless Self or the reflected Self or is it a combination of both? The changeless Self can not get the nature of enjoyership as it is (completely) un‐attached.

sukhaduḥkhābhimānākhyo vikāro bhoga ucyate
kūṭasthaśca vikārī cety etanna vyāhataṃ katham ||195||

sukha duḥkha abhimāna ākhyaḥ vikāraḥ bhoga ucyate |
kūṭasthaḥ ca vikārī ca iti etad na vyāhatam katham ||

SS: Enjoyment signifies the change that results from identification with the sensations of pleasure and pain. If the immutable Kūṭastha is the enjoyer, it becomes mutable, then would it not be self‐contradictory?

JBS: The modification called the attachment to pleasure and pain is said to be enjoyment. to say that it is a changeless Self and also that it is subject to modification – how is this not mutually contradictory?

vikāribuddhy adhīnatvād ābhāso vikṛtāv api
niradhiṣṭhānavibhrāntiḥ kevalā na hi tiṣṭhati ||196||

vikāri buddhi adhīnatvāt ābhāsaḥ vikṛtau api |
niradhiṣṭhāna vibhrāntiḥ kevalā na hi tiṣṭhati ||

SS: Cidābhāsa is subject to the changing conditions of the intellect, and he undergoes modifications; but the Cidābhāsa being illusory exists only by virtue of his real substratum, and therefore he cannot by himself be the enjoyer.

JBS: Though the reflected Self is a modification because of its dependence upon the mind which is capable of modification, a mere seeming cannot stand without a (real) substratum. (Therefore the reflected Self also cannot be the Enjoyer).

ubhayātmaka evāto loke bhoktā nigadyate
tādṛg ātmānam ārabhya kūṭasthaḥ śeṣitaḥ śrutāu ||197||

ubhayātmaka eva ataḥ loke bhoktā nigadyate |
tādṛg ātmānam ārabhya kūṭasthaḥ śeṣitaḥ śrutāu ||

SS: In common parlance, therefore Cidābhāsa in conjunction with Kūṭastha is considered to be the enjoyer. But the Śruti begins with both types of Self and concludes that Kūṭastha alone remains.

JBS: Therefore it is that which is of the nature of both that is called the Enjoyer in the world. Beginning from such a (mixed) Self, the changeless Self is shown in the Veda as the final remnant.

ātmā katama ity ukte yājñavalkyo vibodhayan
vijñānamayam ārabhyāsaṅgaṃ taṃ paryaśeṣayat ||198||

ātmā katama iti ukte yājñavalkyaḥ vibodhayan |
vijñānamayam ārabhya asaṅgam tam paryaśeṣayat ||

SS: When King Janaka asked Yājñavalkya about the nature of the Self, the sage first told him of the sheath of intellect and then, pointing out its inadequacy (to be the Self), ended in teaching him of the immutable Kūṭastha.

JBS: When asked (by King Janaka) 'which is the Self?' the sage Yājñavalkya desiring to teach him shows that changeless Self at the end, beginning from the Vijñānamaya (the individual Soul). [Bṛhadāraṇyaka IV, 3 (7)]

ko 'yam ātmety evam ādau sarvatrātmavicārataḥ
ubhayātmakam ārabhya kūṭasthaḥ śeṣyate śrutāu ||199||

kaḥ ayam ātmā iti evam ādau sarvatra ātma vicārataḥ |
ubhayātmakam ārabhya kūṭasthaḥ śeṣyate śrutāu ||

SS: In fact, Aitareya and other Śruti texts, concerned with the consideration of the Self, begin with an enquiry into the nature of the enjoyer and end in a description of the immutable Kūṭastha.

JBS: In "Who is this Self?" and other passages wherever the Self is enquired into, the changeless Self is shown as the remnant of the Veda, beginning with the double‐nature Self.

kūṭasthasatyatāṃ svasminnadhyasyātmāvivekataḥ
tāttvikīṃ bhoktṛtāṃ matvā na kadācijjihāsati ||200||

kūṭastha satyatām svasmin adhyasya ātma avivekataḥ |
tāttvikīm bhoktṛtām matvā na kadācit jihāsati ||

SS: Owing to ignorance the enjoyer superimposes the reality of Kūṭastha on to himself. Consequently he considers his enjoyment to be real and does not want to give it up.

JBS: The Soul for want of discrimination mistakenly superimposing upon itself the reality of the changeless Self and thinking that its enjoyership is real does not ever wish to give it up.

bhoktā svasyaiva bhogāya patijāyādim icchati
eṣa laukikavṛttāntaḥ śrutyā samyaganūditaḥ ||201||

bhoktā svasyaiva bhogāya pati jāya ādim icchati |
eṣa laukika vṛttāntaḥ śrutyā samyak anūditaḥ ||

SS: The enjoyer desires to have a wife and so forth for his own pleasures. This popular notion has been well described in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.

JBS: The Enjoyer desires the husband, wife and others only for his enjoyment – this popular state of things is well recounted in the Veda.

bhogyānāṃ bhoktṛśeṣatvānmā bhogyeṣv anurajyatām
bhoktary eva pradhāne 'to 'nurāgaṃ taṃ vidhitsati ||202||

bhogyānām bhoktṛ śeṣatvāt bhogyeṣu anurajyatām |
bhoktari eva pradhāne ataḥ anurāgam tam vidhitsati ||

SS: The Śruti says that since the enjoyable objects are for the sake of the enjoyer, they should not be loved for their own sake. Since the enjoyer is the central factor, love should be given to him.

JBS: As objects of enjoyment are subservient to the enjoyer, attachment must not be placed in the objects of enjoyment. Therefore it (the Veda) directs the attention to be placed in the principal, the Enjoyer himself.

yā prītir avivekānāṃ viṣayeṣv anapāyinī
tvām anusmarataḥ sā me hṛdayānmāpasarpatu ||203||

prītiḥ avivekānām viṣayeṣu anapāyinī |
tvām anusmarataḥ me hṛdayāt apasarpatu ||

SS: Prahlāda prays in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa: Let he unending love which the undiscriminating have for transient objects, be not removed from me, O Lord but directed towards Thee so that I may have incessant flow of Thy remembrance.'

JBS: "That unending affection with which those wanting in discrimination have in objects of enjoyment – let such affection (affection of such intensity) never leave me who is thinking of you".

iti nyāyena sarvasmād bhogyajātād viraktadhīḥ
upasaṃhṛtya tāṃ prītiṃ bhoktary eva bubhutsate ||204||

iti nyāyena sarvasmāt bhogya jātāt virakta dhīḥ |
upasaṃhṛtya tām prītim bhoktari eva bubhutsate ||

SS: Following this method an aspirant should become indifferent to all enjoyable objects in the external realm, and direct the love he feels for them towards the Self and desire to know It.

JBS: One whose mind is dispassionate, withdrawing that affection from all groups of enjoyable objects and concentrating it in the Enjoyer, desires to know only him (the enjoyer).

srakcandanavadhūvastrasuvarṇādiṣu pāmaraḥ
apramatto yathā tadvanna pramādyati bhoktari ||205||

srak candana vadhu uvastra suvarṇa ādiṣu pāmaraḥ |
apramattaḥ yathā tadvat na pramādyati bhoktari ||

SS: As the fallen ones keep their minds ever concentrated on objects of enjoyment, such as garlands, sandal ointment, young women, clothes, gold and so forth, so an aspirant for liberation ought to keep his attention fixed on the Self and never falter.

JBS: As an ordinary man is not careless about his chain, sandal, wife, cloth, gold, etc., so is he (the seeker of knowledge) not careless in the matter of the enjoyer.

kāvyanāṭakatarkādim abhyasyati nirantaram
vijigīṣur yathā tadvanmumumkṣuḥ svaṃ vicārayet ||206||

kāvya nāṭaka tarka ādim abhyasyati nirantaram |
vijigīṣuḥ yathā tadvat mumumkṣuḥ svam vicārayet ||

SS: As a man desirous of establishing his superiority over his opponents engages himself in the study of literature, drama, logic and so forth, so an aspirant for liberation should discriminate about the nature of the Self.

JBS: As one who wants to win (in a literary contest) studies the poems, dramas, logic etc. incessantly, so should the aspirant for liberation enquire about himself.

japayāgopāsanādi kurute śraddhayā yathā
svargādivāñchayā tadvacchrddadhyāt sve mumukṣayā ||207||

japa yāga upāsana ādi kurute śraddhayā yathā |
svarga ādi vāñchayā tadvat śrddadhyāt sve mumukṣayā ||

SS: As a man desirous of heaven repeats the holy formula and performs sacrifices, worship and so forth with great faith, so should an aspirant for liberation put all his faith in the Self.

JBS: As one performs Japas, Yāgas, worship etc. with faith because of the desire for heaven etc. so should one by reason of the longing for release have faith in himself (one's Self as declared by the Veda).

cittaikāgryaṃ yathā yogī mahāyāsena sādhayet
aṇimādiprepsayaivaṃ vivicyāt svaṃ mumukṣayā ||208||

citta ekāgryam yathā yogī mahāyāsena sādhayet |
aṇimā ādi prepsayā evam vivicyāt svam mumukṣayā ||

SS: As a Yogi devotes himself with perseverance to obtaining concentration of the mind in order to acquire supernatural powers, like making oneself small or great, so should an aspirant for liberation (perseveringly) differentiate the body from the Self.

JBS: As a yogi by his desire to get Aṇimā and other Siddhis secures one‐pointed‐ness pf the mind with great trouble, so should one actuated by the desire for liberation enquire about himself (his Self).

kauśalāni vivardhante teṣām abhyāsapāṭavāt
yathā tadvad viveko 'syāpy abhyāsād viśadāyate ||209||

kauśalāni vivardhante teṣām abhyāsa pāṭavāt |
yathā tadvat vivekaḥ asya api abhyāsāt viśadāyate ||

SS: As these people through perseverance increase their efficiency in their fields, so for the aspirant for liberation through continuous practice the idea of separateness of the Self from the body becomes stronger.

JBS: As their (of those mentioned in the previous stanzas) proficiency increases because of the excellence of their practice, so does his sense of discrimination become very clear by practice.

viviñcatā bhoktṛtattvaṃ jāgradādiṣv asaṅgatā
anvayavyatirekābhyāṃ sākṣiṇy adhyavasīyate ||210||

viviñcatā bhoktṛ tattvam jāgrat ādiṣu asaṅgatā |
anvaya vyatirekābhyām sākṣiṇi adhyavasīyate ||

SS: The real nature of the enjoyer can be understood by applying the method of distinguishing between the variable and the invariable. In this way an aspirant comes to know that the witness of the three states is ever detached.

JBS: By one who analyzes the true nature of the enjoyer by the methods of concordance and discordance, the unattached‐ness to the waking state etc. is finally determined to be in the Witness Self.

yatra yad dṛśyate drṣṭrā jāgratsvapnasuṣuptiṣu
tatraiva tannetaratrety anubhūtir hi saṃmatā ||211||

yatra yad dṛśyate drṣṭrā jāgrat svapna suṣuptiṣu |
tatra eva tad na itaratra iti anubhūtiḥ hi saṃmatā ||

SS: It is common experience that the states of waking, dreaming and deep sleep are distinct from one another, but that the experiencing consciousness is the same.

JBS: In the waking, dream and deep sleep states, that which is experienced in one state is found 1. only in that state and 2. not in any other – this experience is certainly accepted (by all).

sa yattatrekṣate kiñcit tenānanvāgato bhavet
dṛṣṭvaiva puṇyaṃ pāpaṃ cety evaṃ śrutiṣu ḍiṇḍimaḥ ||212||

sa yad tatra īkṣate kiñcit tena ananvāgataḥ bhavet |
dṛṣṭvā eva puṇyam pāpam ca iti evam śrutiṣu ḍiṇḍimaḥ ||

SS: The Śruti trumpets that whatever objects are cognized by the Self in any state, whether meritorious or unmeritorious, producing pleasure or pain, are not carried over from one state to another.

JBS: He is not followed by anything which he sees there (in those states). "After experiencing virtue and sin (he returns into himself)" is the declaration of the Vedas.

jāgratsvapnasuṣupty ādiprapañcaṃ yatprakāśate
tad brahmāham iti jñātvā sarvabandhaiḥ pramucyate ||213||

jāgrat svapna suṣupti ādi prapañcam yad prakāśate |
tad brahma aham iti jñātvā sarva bandhaiḥ pramucyate ||

SS: 'When a man realizes his identity with that Brahman which illumines the worlds of the waking, dreaming and sleeping states, he is released from all bonds.'

JBS: "I am that Brahman that illumines the world of the waking state, dream, deep sleep etc." – so knowing he is released from all bonds.

eka evātmā mantavyo jāgratsvapnasuṣuptiṣu
sthānatrayavyatītasya punarjanma na vidyate ||214||

eka eva ātmā mantavyaḥ jāgrat svapna suṣuptiṣu |
sthāna traya vyatītasya punarjanma na vidyate ||

SS: 'One should consider the Self to be the same in the waking, dreaming and sleeping states. That Ātman which knows itself as beyond the three states is free from rebirth.'

JBS: It must be realised that the Self is only in the states of waking, dream and deep sleep. For that which transcends the three states, there is no birth again (at all).

triṣu dhāmasu yad bhogyaṃ bhoktā bhogaśca yad bhavet
tebhyo vilakṣaṇaḥ sākṣī cinmātro 'haṃ sadāśivaḥ ||215||

triṣu dhāmasu yad bhogyam bhoktā bhogaḥ ca yad bhavet |
tebhyaḥ vilakṣaṇaḥ sākṣī cinmātraḥ aham sadāśivaḥ ||

SS: 'That Self which is not subject to experience in any of the three states, which can be called pure consciousness, the witness, the ever blissful, and which is neither the enjoyer nor the enjoyment or the object of enjoyment, That I am.'

JBS: "That which is experienced, that which is the experiencer and that which is the experience – I am the Witness distinct from them, pure consciousness and ever auspicious."

evaṃ vivecite tattve vijñānamayaśabditaḥ
cidābhāso vikārī yo bhoktṛtvaṃ tasya śiṣyate ||216||

evam vivecite tattve vijñānamaya śabditaḥ |
cidābhāsaḥ vikārī yaḥ bhoktṛtvam tasya śiṣyate ||

SS: When the Self has been differentiated in this way, what remains as the enjoyer is Cidābhāsa or Jīva who is also known as the sheath of the intellect, and who is subject to change.

JBS: When the truth is thus enquired into, the enjoyer‐ship falls to the lot of that which is the reflected Self called Vijñānamaya and is capable of change.

māyiko 'yaṃ cidābhāsaḥ śruter anubhavād api
indrajālaṃ jagatproktaṃ tadantaḥpātyayaṃ yataḥ ||217||

māyikaḥ ayam cidābhāsaḥ śruteḥ anubhavāt api |
indrajālam jagat proktam tad antaḥpātī ayam yataḥ ||

SS: This Cidābhāsa is a product of Māyā. Śruti and experience both demonstrate this. The world is a magical show, and Cidābhāsa is included in it.

JBS: This reflected Self is illusory, as learnt from the Veda and also from experience, because the world is said to be like the creation of a magician and this (the reflected Self) falls within it.

vilayo 'py asya supty ādau sākṣiṇā hy anubhūyate
etādṛśaṃ svasvabhāvaṃ vivinakti punaḥ punaḥ ||218||

vilayaḥ api asya supti ādau sākṣiṇā hi anubhūyate |
etādṛśam sva sva bhāvam vivinakti punaḥ punaḥ ||

SS: In deep sleep the unchanging witness consciousness perceives the absorption of Cidābhāsa who is therefore unreal. By continually differentiating the Cidābhāsa one comes to understand his unreality and his separateness from Kūṭastha.

JBS: Even the merging of this (reflected Self) is experienced by the Witness in sleep etc. One analyses his own nature repeatedly as such.

vivicya nāśaṃ niścitya punarbhogaṃ na vāñchati
mumūrṣaḥ śāyito bhūmau vivāhaṃ ko 'bhivāñchati ||219||

vivicya nāśam niścitya punarbhogam na vāñchati |
mumūrṣaḥ śāyitaḥ bhūmau vivāham kaḥ abhivāñchati ||

SS: When Cidābhāsa or Jīva convinces himself that he is liable to destruction, he no longer has the desire for pleasure. Does a man lying on the ground in death‐bed, desire to marry?

JBS: When assured of extinction by enquiry, he will not wish for enjoyment any more. About to die and laid on the ground, who will wish to marry?

jihreti vyavahartuṃ ca bhoktāham iti pūrvavat
chinnanāsa iva hrītaḥ kliśayannārabdham aśnute ||220||

jihreti vyavahartum ca bhoktā aham iti pūrvavat |
chinna nāsa iva hrītaḥ kliśayan ārabdham aśnute ||

SS: He is ashamed to speak of himself as an enjoyer as before. He feels ashamed like one whose nose has been cut off, and just endures the experience of his fructifying Karma.

JBS: He will even be ashamed to say "I am an Enjoyer" as before. Like a man who has his nose cut off, he will, with shame, enjoy the Prārabdha Karma sorrowfully (reluctantly).

yadā svasyāpi bhoktṛtvaṃ mantuṃ jihrety ayaṃ tadā
sākṣiṇy āropayed etad iti kaiva kathā vṛthā ||221||

yadā svasya api bhoktṛtvam mantum jihreti ayam tadā |
sākṣiṇi āropayet etad iti eva kathā vṛthā ||

SS: When Cidābhāsa is ashamed to think of himself as the enjoyer, how meaningless is it to say that he will superimpose the idea of being the enjoyer on to Kūṭastha.

JBS: When he is ashamed to think of enjoyership even in himself (the Jīva) what is the vain talk that he may ascribe this (enjoyership) to the Witness?

ity abhipretya bhoktāramākṣipty aviśaṅkayā
kasya kāmāyeti tataḥ śarīrānujvaro nahi ||222||

iti abhipretya bhoktāram ākṣipti aviśaṅkayā |
kasya kāmāya iti tataḥ śarīra anujvaraḥ na hi ||

SS: Thus the words 'for whose gratification' in the first verse, are intended to denote that there is no enjoyer at all, and consequently, to the enlightened there are no bodily miseries.

JBS: Considering thus (with this idea) the passage "For whose desire?" negatives the enjoyer without any doubt. Therefore (as the enjoyership is negatived), there is surely no worrying about the body.

sthūlaṃ sūkṣmaṃ kāraṇaṃ ca śarīraṃ trividhaṃ smṛtam
avaśyaṃ trividho 'sty eva tatra tatrocito jvaraḥ ||223||

sthūlam sūkṣmam kāraṇam ca śarīram trividham smṛtam |
avaśyam trividhaḥ asti eva tatra tatra ucitaḥ jvaraḥ ||

SS: Bodies are known to be of three types, viz., gross, subtle and causal. And, of course, there are correspondingly three kinds of afflictions or affections.

JBS: The Body is said to be of three kinds, the gross, the subtle and the causal. Necessarily, the fever is also three‐fold appropriate to each of them.

vātapittaśleṣmajanyavyādhayaḥ koṭiśastanau
durgandhitvakurūpatvadāhabhaṅgādayas tathā ||224||

vāta pitta śleṣma janya vyādhayaḥ koṭiśaḥ tanau |
durgandhitva kurūpatva dāha bhaṅga ādayas tathā ||

SS: The physical body, composed of wind, fire and water (the three humours of the body), is subject to scores of diseases and also to many other troubles such as bad odour, deformity, inflammation and fracture.

JBS: In the gross body, there are crores of diseases due to the wind, bile and phlegm and also bad smell, ugliness, burns, fractures etc.

kāmakrodhādayaḥ śāntidānty ādyāḥ liṅgadehagāḥ
jvarā dvaye 'pi bādhante prāptyāprāptyā naraṃ kramāt ||225||

kāma krodha ādayaḥ śānti dānti ādyāḥ liṅga deha gāḥ |
jvarā dvaye api bādhante prāptyā aprāptyā naram kramāt ||

SS: The subtle body is affected on the one hand by desire, anger and so forth, and on the other by inner and outer control, peace of the mind and serenity of the senses. The presence of the former affections and the absence of the latter lead to misery.

JBS: Desire, anger etc. and mental peace, sense control etc. are the fevers of the subtle body. Both of them trouble the man by presence and absence respectively. Desire etc. trouble by coming up; mental peace etc. trouble by not coming.

svaṃ paraṃ ca na vetty ātmā vinaṣṭa iva kāraṇe
āgāmiduḥkhabījaṃ cety etadindreṇa darśitam ||226||

svam param ca na vetti ātmā vinaṣṭe iva kāraṇe |
āgāmi duḥkha bījam ca iti etad indreṇa darśitam ||

SS: In deep sleep, the state of the causal body, the Jīva knows neither himself nor others and appears as if dead. The causal body is the seed of future births and their miseries. So saw Indra, as declared in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad.

JBS: In the causal body, the Self as if lost does not know itself or anything else; further that body is the seed of future sorrow. This has been pointed out by Indra (Chhāndogya VII, II)

ete jvarāḥ śarīreṣu triṣu svābhāvikā matāḥ
viyoge tu jvarais tāni śarīrāny eva nāsate ||227||

ete jvarāḥ śarīreṣu triṣu svābhāvikā matāḥ |
viyoge tu jvarais tāni śarīrāni eva na āsate ||

SS: These affections are said to be natural to the three bodies. When the bodies become free from them, they cease to function.

JBS: These fevers in the three bodies are considered to be natural. If those bodies are free from those fevers, they themselves will not subsist.

tantorviyujyenna paṭo vālebhyaḥ kambalo yathā
mṛdo ghaṭas tathā deho jvarebhyo 'pīti dṛśyatāṃ ||228||

tantoḥ viyujyet na paṭaḥ vālebhyaḥ kambalaḥ yathā |
mṛdaḥ ghaṭas tathā dehaḥ jvarebhyaḥ api iti dṛśyatām ||

SS: As there is no piece of cloth without cotton threads, no blanket without wool and no pot without clay, so the three bodies cannot exist without these affections.

JBS: Just as if cloth is separated from the yarn, the blanket from wool and the pot from mud, know that the body also will be separated from the fevers.

cidābhāse svataḥ ko 'pi jvaro nāsti yataścitaḥ
prakāśaikasvabhāvatvam eva dṛṣṭaṃ na cetarat ||229||

cidābhāse svataḥ kaḥ api jvaraḥ na asti yataḥ citaḥ |
prakāśa eka svabhāvatvam eva dṛṣṭam na ca itarat ||

SS: Yet, as a matter of fact, these affections are not natural to Cidābhāsa. (They belong only to the bodies with which the Cidābhāsa is identified.) It is to be noted that the reflected consciousness is not different from pure consciousness, and both are self‐luminous by nature.

JBS: In the reflected Self, by himself, there is no kind of fever at all because the conscious Self is seen to be of the nature of luminosity (consciousness) alone and nothing else.

cidābhāse 'py asaṃbhāvyā jvarāḥ sākṣiṇi kā kathā
evam apy ekatāṃ mene cidābhāso hy avidyayā ||230||

cidābhāse api asaṃbhāvyā jvarāḥ sākṣiṇi kathā |
evam api ekatām mene cidābhāsaḥ hi avidyayā ||

SS: None of these affections are natural to Cidābhāsa. How then can they be attributed to Kūṭastha? The fact is that through the force of ignorance (Avidyā) Cidābhāsa imagines himself to be identified with the three bodies and is affected.

JBS: The fevers cannot be postulated even for the reflected Self. (While so) what needs to be said (that they are not) in the Witness? Even though it is so, the reflected Self on account of ignorance considers himself as one (with those bodies).

sākṣisatyatvamadhyasya svenopete vapus traye
tat sarvaṃ vāstavaṃ svasya svarūpam iti manyate ||231||

sākṣi satyatvam adhyasya svena upete vapus traye |
tad sarvam vāstavam svasya svarūpam iti manyate ||

SS: Cidābhāsa superimposes on the three bodies the reality of the Kūṭastha and imagines that these three bodies are his real Self.

JBS: By superimposing the reality of the Witness on the three bodies associated with himself, he thinks that all that is his own real nature.

etasmin bhrāntikāle 'yaṃ śarīreṣu jvaratsv atha
svayam eva jvarāmīti manyate hi kuṭumbivat ||232||

etasmin bhrānti kāle ayam śarīreṣu jvaratsu atha |
svayam eva jvarāmi iti manyate hi kuṭumbivat ||

SS: As long as the illusion lasts Cidābhāsa continues to take upon himself the states which the bodies undergo and is affected by them, as an infatuated man feels himself affected when something affects his family.

JBS: during this period of delusion, when the bodies are having fever, he thinks that he himself has the fever, just like a householder.

putradāreṣu tapyatsu tapāmīti vṛthā yathā
manyate puruṣas tadvad ābhāso 'py abhimanyate ||233||

putra dāreṣu tapyatsu tapāmi iti vṛthā yathā |
manyate puruṣas tadvat ābhāsaḥ api abhimanyate ||

SS: An ordinary man is afflicted when his son or wife suffers; similarly Cidābhāsa unreasonably thinks that he us afflicted by bodily ailments.

JBS: Just as a person vainly thinks that he himself is suffering when his son and wife suffer, so does the reflected Self also think (that he is suffering when the bodies suffer).

vivicya bhrāntim ujjhitvā svam apy agaṇayan sadā
cintayan sākṣiṇaṃ kasmāccharīram anusaṃjvaret ||234||

vivicya bhrāntim ujjhitvā svam api agaṇayan sadā |
cintayan sākṣiṇam kasmāt śarīram anusaṃjvaret ||

SS: By discrimination ridding himself of all illusion and without caring for himself the Cidābhāsa always thinks of the Kūṭastha. How can he still be subject to the afflictions pertaining to the bodies?

JBS: One who has analysed, given up delusion, disregarded even himself and is always thinking of the Witness – for what reason need he worry in sympathy with the body?

ayathāvastusarpādijñānaṃ hetuḥ palāyane
rajjujñāne 'hidhīvastau kṛtam apy anuśocati ||235||

ayatha avastu sarpa ādi jñānam hetuḥ palāyane |
rajju jñāne ahi dhīvastau kṛtam api anuśocati ||

SS: When a mane takes a rope for a serpent, he runs away from it. When the illusion is negated and the true nature of the rope is known, he realizes his error and is ashamed of it.

JBS: The perception of the unreal object, snake etc. is the cause of running away. When knowledge of the rope has arisen and the conception as snake dispersed, he is even sorry for what he did (the running away).

mithyābhiyogadoṣasya prāyaścittaprasiddhaye
kṣamāpayannivātmānaṃ sākṣiṇaṃ śaraṇaṃ gataḥ ||236||

mithyā abhiyoga doṣasya prāyaścitta prasiddhaye |
kṣamāpayan iva ātmānam sākṣiṇam śaraṇam gataḥ ||

SS: As a man who has injured another through ignorance humbly begs his forgiveness on realizing his error, so Cidābhāsa submits himself to Kūṭastha.

JBS: To operate as an expiation for the fault of the mistaken conception, he takes refuge in the Witness Self as if begging his pardon.

āvṛttapāpanutty arthaṃ snānādy āvartyate yathā
āvartayanniva dhyānaṃ sadā sākṣiparāyaṇaḥ ||237||

āvṛtta pāpa nutti artham snāna ādi āvartyate yathā |
āvartayan iva dhyānam sadā sākṣi parāyaṇaḥ ||

SS: As a man does repeated penance of bathing, etc., for repeated sins, so Cidābhāsa too, repeatedly meditates on Kūṭastha and submits to It as witness or substratum.

JBS: Just as bathing etc. is repeated for expiating a sin repeatedly committed, he is always centered on the Witness as if repeating the contemplation.

upasthakuṣṭinī veśyā vilāseṣu vilajjate
jānato 'gre tathābhāsaḥ svaprakhyātau vilajjate ||238||

upastha kuṣṭinī veśyā vilāseṣu vilajjate |
jānataḥ agre tathā ābhāsaḥ svaprakhyātau vilajjate ||

SS: As a courtesan suffering from a certain disease is ashamed to demonstrate her charms to a lover who is acquainted with her condition, so Cidābhāsa is ashamed to consider himself as the doer and enjoyer.

JBS: Just as a dancing girl leprous in her private parts will be ashamed to exhibit her charms before one who knows (about the disease), so does the reflected Self feel ashamed about his own fame (in the presence of the Witness who knows about the delusion).

gṛhīto brāhmaṇo mlecchaiḥ prayaścittaṃ caran punaḥ
mlecchaiḥ saṃkīryate naiva tathābhāsaḥ śarīrakaiḥ ||239||

gṛhītaḥ brāhmaṇaḥ mlecchaiḥ prayaścittam caran punaḥ |
mlecchaiḥ saṃkīryate na eva tathā ābhāsaḥ śarīrakaiḥ ||

SS: As a Brāhmaṇa defiled by contact with a vicious man of low caste undergoes penance, and subsequently avoids the risk of touching such a man, so Cidābhāsa, having known of his difference from the bodies, no longer identifies himself with them.

JBS: A Brāhmaṇa caught hold of by Mlecchas and performing the expiation rites therefore does not again mix with Mlecchas. Similarly the reflected Self (when it has realised its identity with the Pure Self will not mix) with the bodies.

yauvarājye sthito rājaputraḥ sāmrājyavāñchayā
rājānukārī bhavati tathā sākṣy anukāryayam ||240||

yauvarājye sthitaḥ rājaputraḥ sāmrājya vāñchayā |
rāja anukārī bhavati tathā sākṣi anukārī ayam ||

SS: An heir‐apparent imitates the life of his father, the king, in order to fit himself for accession to the throne. So Cidābhāsa continually imitates the witness Kūṭastha with a view to his being one with It.

JBS: A prince standing in the position of the heir ‐apparent follows (behaves like) the king with the desire of himself becoming a king. So will this (the reflected Self) be following the Witness.

yo brahma veda brahmaiva bhavaty eva iti śrutim
śrutvā tad ekacittaḥ san brahma vetti na cetarat ||241||

yaḥ brahma veda brahma eva bhavati eva iti śrutim |
śrutvā tad ekacittaḥ san brahma vetti na ca itarat ||

SS: He who has heard the declaration of Śruti: 'The knower of Brahman becomes Brahman', fixes his whole mind on Brahman and ultimately knows himself to be Brahman.

JBS: Hearing the Vedic passage "He who knows Brahman becomes verily Brahman itself", he has his mind on it (Brahman) alone and knows Brahman and nothing else.

devatvakāmā hy agny ādau praviśanti yathā tathā
sākṣitvenāvaśeṣāya svavināśaṃ sa vāñchati ||242||

devatva kāmā hi agni ādau praviśanti yathā tathā |
sākṣitvena avaśeṣāya svavināśam sa vāñchati ||

SS: As people desirous of acquiring the state of the deities immolate themselves in the fire, so Cidābhāsa renounces his identity in order to be absorbed in Kūṭastha.

JBS: Just as those desirous of becoming Devas enter fire (and thereby destroy the physical body), so does he (the reflected Self) desire his own destruction so that he may remain as the Witness.

yāvat svadehadāhaṃ sa naratvaṃ naiva muñcati
yāvad ārabdhadehaṃ syānnābhāsatva vimocanam ||243||

yāvat svadeha dāham sa naratvam na eva muñcati |
yāvat ārabdha deham syāt na ābhāsatva vimocanam ||

SS: In the course of self‐immolation a man retains his manhood until his body is completely consumed. So the idea of Cidābhāsa continues as long as the body, the result of fructifying Karma, continues.

JBS: Till his own body is burnt, he does not give up his being a man. (Similarly) as long as the body that has begun to be (the present body) is, till then there will be no release of the nature of being the reflected Self.

rajjujñāne 'pi kampādiḥ śanair evopaśāmyati
punar mandāndhakāre sā rajjuḥ kṣiptoragī bhavet ||244||

rajju jñāne api kampa ādiḥ śanaiḥ eva upaśāmyati |
punaḥ manda andhakāre rajjuḥ kṣiptā uragī bhavet ||

SS: After a man has realized the nature of the rope, the trembling caused by the erroneous idea of the snake disappears gradually only and the idea of the snake still sometimes haunts him when he sees a rope in darkness.

JBS: Even when the knowledge of the rope has arisen, the trepidation etc. (caused by the previous illusory conception as a snake) will only gradually subside. The same rope thrown again in semi‐darkness may become (seen as) a snake.

evam ārabdhabhogo 'pi śanaiḥ śāmyati no haṭhāt
bhogakāle kadācit tu martyo 'ham iti bhāsate ||245||

evam ārabdha bhogaḥ api śanaiḥ śāmyati na u haṭhāt |
bhoga kāle kadācit tu martyaḥ aham iti bhāsate ||

SS: Similarly the fructifying Karma does not end abruptly but dies down slowly. In the course of the enjoyments of its fruits, the knower is occasionally visited by such thoughts as Í am a mortal'.

JBS: In the same manner, the enjoyment that has begun (in this body) will also subside only slowly and not by force. Sometimes during the period of any enjoyment, the idea "I am a mortal" may also seem to be.

naitāvatāparādhena tattvajñānaṃ vinaśyati
jīvanmuktivrataṃ nedaṃ kintu vastusthitiḥ khalu ||246||

na etāvata aparādhena tattva jñānam vinaśyati |
jīvan mukti vratam na idam kintu vastu sthitiḥ khalu ||

SS: Lapses like this do not nullify the realization of truth. Jīvanmukti (liberation in life) is not a vow, but the establishment of the soul in the knowledge of Brahman.

JBS: By this much defect the knowledge of truth will not be destroyed. This is not any vow of Jīvanmukti (living on liberated) but that is how the matter stands (a statement of the actual fact) in truth.

daśamo 'pi śirastāṃḍa rudan buddhvā na roditi
śiro vraṇas tu māsena śanaiḥ śāmyati no tadā ||247||

daśamaḥ api śiraḥ tāṃḍa rudan buddhvā na roditi |
śiraḥ vraṇas tu māsena śanaiḥ śāmyati na u tadā ||

SS: In the example already cited, the tenth man, who may have been crying and beating his head in sorrow, stops lamenting on realizing that the tenth is not dead; but the wounds caused by beating his head take a month gradually to heal.

JBS: The tenth man though he was weeping knocking his head ceases to weep after knowing (that he himself is the tenth man taken to have been lost) but the wound on his head will heal only in the course of a month and not immediately then itself.

daśamāmṛtilābhena jāto harṣo vraṇavyathām
tirodhatte muktilābhas tathā prārabdhaduḥkhitām ||248||

daśama amṛti lābhena jātaḥ harṣaḥ vraṇa vyathām |
tirodhatte mukti lābhas tathā prārabdha duḥkhitām ||

SS: On realizing that the tenth is alive, he rejoices and forgets the pain of his wounds. In the same way liberation in life makes one forget any misery resulting from the fructifying Karma.

JBS: The joy born of getting the non‐dying of the tenth man (the conviction that he is not dead) overcomes the pain of the wound. Similarly, the attainment of release overcomes the sense of having the sorrows of Prārabdha Karma.

vratābhāvādyadādhyāsas tadā bhūyo vivicyatām
rasasevī dine bhuṅkte bhūyo bhūyo yathā tathā ||249||

vrata abhāvāt yadā adhyāsas tadā bhūyaḥ vivicyatām |
rasa sevī dine bhuṅkte bhūyaḥ bhūyaḥ yathā tathā ||

SS: As it is not a vow and a break does not matter, one should reflect on the truth again and again to remove the delusion whenever it recurs, just as a man who takes mercury to cure a certain disease eats again and again during the day to satisfy the hunger caused by the mercury.

JBS: Just as one who is taking a mercurial medicine eats frequently in the same day, so should the Self be enquired into whenever there is a mistaken conception as this is not a vow (as already stated in stanza 246).

śamayaty auṣadhenāyaṃ daśamaḥ svaṃ vraṇaṃ yathā
bhogena śamayitvaitat prārabdhaṃ mucyate tathā ||250||

śamayati auṣadhena ayam daśamaḥ svam vraṇam yathā |
bhogena śamayitvā etad prārabdham mucyate tathā ||

SS: As the tenth man cures his wounds by applying medicines, so the knower wears out his fructifying Karma by enjoyment and is ultimately liberated.

JBS: Just as this tenth man makes his wounds subside by (the application of proper) medicine; similarly the knower, exhausting this Prārabdha Karma by enjoyment, becomes free.

kim icchanniti vākyoktaḥ śokamokṣa udīritaḥ
ābhāsasya hy avasthaiṣā ṣaṣṭī tṛptis tu saptamī ||251||

kim icchan iti vākya uktaḥ śoka mokṣa udīritaḥ |
ābhāsasya hi avasthā eṣā ṣaṣṭī tṛptis tu saptamī ||

SS: In the first verse, the expression 'Desiring what?' indicates the release from suffering. This is the sixth state of Cidābhāsa. The seventh state, which is now described, is the achievement of perfect satisfaction.

JBS: The release from sorrow mentioned in the phrase 'Desiring what?' has been explained. This is the sixth state of the reflected Self (6th in the list given in stanza 33). Satisfaction is the 7th.

sāṅkuṣā viṣayais tṛptir iyaṃ tṛptir niraṅkuśā
kṛtaṃ kṛtyaṃ prāpaṇīyaṃ prāptam ity eva tṛpyati ||252||

sāṅkuṣā viṣayais tṛptiḥ iyam tṛptiḥ niraṅkuśā |
kṛtam kṛtyam prāpaṇīyam prāptam iti eva tṛpyati ||

SS: The satisfaction by external objects is limited, but the satisfaction of liberation in life is unlimited. The satisfaction of direct knowledge engenders the feeling that all that was to be achieved has been achieved, and all that was to be enjoyed has been enjoyed.

JBS: The satisfaction obtained from objects is beset with impediments. This satisfaction (obtained from the realisation of the pure Self) is unimpeded. "What has to be done has been done. What has to be obtained has been obtained" – even thus he is satisfied.

aihikāmuṣmikavrātasiddhayai mukteśca siddhaye
bahu kṛtyaṃ purāsyābhūttat sarvam adhunā kṛtam ||253||

aihika āmuṣmika vrāta siddhayai mukteḥ ca siddhaye |
bahu kṛtyam purā asya abhūt tad sarvam adhunā kṛtam ||

SS: Before realization one has many duties to perform in order to acquire worldly and celestial advantages and also as an aid to ultimate release; but with the rise of the knowledge of Brahman, they are as good as already done, for nothing further remains to be done.

JBS: Before (in the stage of ignorance), there was much for him to do to secure the crowds (of pleasures) obtainable here or in other worlds and for the attainment of release. Now all that is done.

tad etat kṛtakṛatyatvaṃ pratiyogipuraḥsaram
anusaṃdadhad evāyam evaṃ tṛpyati nityaśaḥ ||254||

tad etad kṛta kṛatyatvam pratiyogi puraḥsaram |
anusaṃdadhat eva ayam evam tṛpyati nityaśaḥ ||

SS: The Jīvanmukta always feels supreme self‐satisfaction by constantly keeping in view his former state and the present state of freedom from wants and duties.

JBS: He thinking over this "state of having done what has to be done" with a recollection of its opposite gets satisfied always in this manner.

duḥkhino 'jñāḥ saṃsarantu kāmaṃ putrādy apekṣayā
paramānandapūrṇo 'haṃ saṃsarāmi kim icchayā ||255||

duḥkhinaḥ ajñāḥ saṃsarantu kāmam putra ādi apekṣayā |
paramānanda pūrṇaḥ aham saṃsarāmi kim icchayā ||

SS: Let the ignorant people of the world perform worldly actions and desire to possess wives, children and wealth. I am full of supreme bliss. For what purpose should I engage myself in worldly concerns?

JBS: Let the miserable ignorant people wander as they like because of their desire for sons etc. I am full of the highest bliss. Desiring what, am I to wander?

anutiṣṭantu karmāṇi paralokayiyāsavaḥ
sarvalokātmakaḥ kasmād anutiṣṭāmi kiṃ katham ||256||

anutiṣṭantu karmāṇi paraloka yiyāsavaḥ |
sarvaloka ātmakaḥ kasmāt anutiṣṭāmi kim katham ||

SS: Let those desirous of joy in heaven perform the ordained rituals. I pervade all the worlds. How and wherefore should I undertake such actions?

JBS: Let those desirous of going to other worlds perform actions. What shall I, who am of the nature of all the worlds, perform, for what purpose and how?

vyācakṣatāṃ te śāstrāṇi vedān adhyāpayantu vā
ye 'trādhikāriṇo me tu nādhikāro 'kriyatvataḥ ||257||

vyācakṣatām te śāstrāṇi vedān adhyāpayantu |
ye atra adhikāriṇaḥ me tu na adhikāraḥ akriyatvataḥ ||

SS: Let those who are entitled to it, explain the scriptures or teach the Vedas. I am not so entitled because all my actions have ceased.

JBS: Let them (the teachers) expound the Śāstras or teach the Vedas to them who are competent (to be disciples) [/or/ let them who are competent expound the Śāstras and teach the Vedas] There is no competency in me however as I am action‐less.

nidrābhikṣe snānaśauce necchāmi na karomi ca
draṣṭāraścet kalpayanti kiṃ me syād anyakalpanāt ||258||

nidrā bhikṣe snāna śauce na icchāmi na karomi ca |
draṣṭāraḥ cet kalpayanti kim me syāt anya kalpanāt ||

SS: I have no desire to sleep or beg for alms, nor do I do so; nor do I perform the acts of bathing or ablution. The onlookers imagine these things in me. What have I to do with their imaginations?

JBS: I do not desire sleep or food, bathing or purification nor do I do them. If the on‐lookers ascribe (them to me), what is that to me from ascription by others?

guñjāpuñjādi dahyeta nānyāropitavahninā
nānyāropitasaṃsāradharmānevam ahaṃ bhaje ||259||

guñjā puñjā ādi dahyeta na anya āropita vahninā |
na anya āropita saṃsāra dharmān evam aham bhaje ||

SS: Seeing a bush of red guñjā berries from a distance one may suppose that there is a fire, but such an imaginary fire does not affect the bush. So the worldly duties and qualities attributed to me by others do not affect me.

JBS: A shrub of Guñjā flowers and the like will not be burnt by somebody mistaking it for fire. Similarly, I do not get the qualities of Saṃsāra ascribed to me by others.

śṛṇvantv ajñātatattvās te jānan kasmācchṛṇomy aham
manyantāṃ saṃśayāpannāḥ na manye 'ham asaṃśayaḥ ||260||

śṛṇvantu ajñāta tattvās te jānan kasmāt śṛṇomi aham |
manyantām saṃśaya āpannāḥ na manye aham asaṃśayaḥ ||

SS: Let those ignorant of the nature of Brahman listen to the teachings of the Vedānta philosophy. I have Self‐knowledge. Why again should I listen to them? Those who are in doubt reflect on the nature of Brahman. I have no doubts, so I do not do so.

JBS: Let those that do not know the truth hear (learn from a Guru); knowing as I do, why should I hear? Let those who have doubts cogitate. I who is free from doubt do not cogitate.

viparyasto nidhidhyāset kiṃ dhyānam aviparyayāt
dehātmatvaviparyāsaṃ na kadācid bhajāmy aham ||261||

viparyastaḥ nidhidhyāset kim dhyānam aviparyayāt |
dehātmatva viparyāsam na kadācit bhajāmi aham ||

SS: He who is subject to erroneous conviction may practice meditation. I do not confuse the Self for the body. So in the absence of such a delusion why should I meditate?

JBS: One who has false conception must concentrate. What is concentration (to me) as there is no false conception? I never have the false conception that the body is the Self.

ahaṃ manuṣya ity ādivyavahāro vināpy amum
viparyāsaṃ cirābhyastavāsanāto 'vakalpyate ||262||

aham manuṣya iti ādi vyavahāraḥ vinā api amum |
viparyāsam cira abhyasta vāsanātaḥ avakalpyate ||

SS: Even without being subject to this delusion, I behave like a human being through the impressions and habits gathered over a long period.

JBS: The dealing as 'I am a man' and so on is possible even without this false conception because of the habit practised for long.

prārabdhakarmaṇi kṣīṇe vyavahāro nivartate
karmākṣaye tv asau naiva śāmyed dhyānasahasrataḥ ||263||

prārabdha karmaṇi kṣīṇe vyavahāraḥ nivartate |
karma akṣaye tu asau na iva śāmyet dhyāna sahasrataḥ ||

SS: All worldly dealings will come to an end when the fructifying Karma wears out. If it does not wear out, thousands of meditational bouts will not stop the dealings.

JBS: When Prārabdha is exhausted, such a dealing will go away. When Karma is not exhausted, it will not vanish at all even by thousands of contemplation.

viralatvaṃ vyavahṛter iṣṭaṃ ced dhyānam astu te
ābādhikāṃ vyavahṛtiṃ paśyan dhyāyāmy ahaṃ kutaḥ ||264||

viralatvam vyavahṛteḥ iṣṭam cet dhyānam astu te |
ābādhikām vyavahṛtim paśyan dhyāyāmi aham kutaḥ ||

SS: to bring an end to your worldly dealings, you may practice contemplation as much as you like, but I know the worldly dealings to be perfectly harmless. Why should I then meditate?

JBS: If you want paucity of worldly dealings, let contemplation be for you. Why should I contemplate who sees such dealing as harmless?

vikṣepo nāsti yasmānme samādhis tato mama
vikṣepo vā samādhir vā manasaḥ syād vikāriṇaḥ ||265||

vikṣepaḥ na asti yasmāt me samādhis tataḥ mama |
vikṣepaḥ samādhiḥ manasaḥ syāt vikāriṇaḥ ||

SS: There is no distraction for me, so for me there is no need of Samādhi too. Both distraction and absorption are states of the changeable mind.

JBS: As there is no distraction for me, equipoise is not (necessary) for me. Distraction or equipoise is only for the mind which is subject to change.

nityānubhavarūpasya ko me vā 'nubhavaḥ pṛthak
kṛtaṃ kṛtyaṃ prāpaṇīyaṃ prāptam ity eva niścayaḥ ||266||

nitya anubhava rūpasya kaḥ me anubhavaḥ pṛthak |
kṛtam kṛtyam prāpaṇīyam prāptam iti eva niścayaḥ ||

SS: I am the sum of all the experiences in the universe; where is the separate experience for me? I have obtained all that was to be obtained and have done all that was to be done. This is my unshakable conviction.

JBS: What is the special experience for me whose nature is ever experience? The firm conclusion is even that what has to be done has been done and what has to be reached has been reached.

vyavahāro laukiko vā śāstrīyo vānyathāpi vā
mamākartur alepasya yathārabdhaṃ pravartatām ||267||

vyavahāraḥ laukikaḥ śāstrīyaḥ anyathā api |
mama akartuḥ alepasya yathā ārabdham pravartatām ||

SS: I am associationless, neither the doer nor the enjoyer. I am not concerned with what the past actions make me do, whether in accordance with or against the social or scriptural codes.

JBS: For one who is a non‐doer and is untaintable, let there be dealing, worldly, in consonance with the Śāstras, or otherwise as dictated by the Prārabdha Karma.

athavā kṛtakṛatyo 'pi lokānugrahakāmyayā
śāstrīyeṇaiva mārgeṇa varte 'haṃ kā mama kṣatiḥ ||268||

athavā kṛta kṛatyaḥ api loka anugraha kāmyayā |
śāstrīyeṇa eva mārgeṇa varte aham mama kṣatiḥ ||

SS: Or, there is no harm if I engage myself in doing good to the world following the scriptural injunctions even though I have obtained all that was to be obtained.

JBS: Or, though I am one who has done what has to be done, I shall behave in the manner prescribed by the Śāstra itself with intent to benefit the world. What is the harm to me?

devārcanasnānaśaucabhikṣādau vartatāṃ vapuḥ
tāraṃ japatu vāktadvat paṭhatv āmnāyamastakam ||269||

deva arcana snāna śauca bhikṣā ādau vartatām vapuḥ |
tāram japatu vāk tadvat paṭhatu āmnāya mastakam ||

SS: Let my body worship God, take bath, preserve cleanliness or beg for alms. Let my mind recite ‘Aum' or study the Upaniṣads.

JBS: Let the body engage itself in the worship of God, bathing, purifying, getting food etc. Similarly let the faculty of speech do Japa of Praṇava or read the Upanishads.

viṣṇuṃ dhyāyatu dhīryadvā brahmānande vilīyatām
sākṣy ahaṃ kiñcid apy atra na kurve nāpi kāraye ||270||

viṣṇum dhyāyatu dhīḥ yadvā brahma ānande vilīyatām |
sākṣi aham kiñcit api atra na kurve na api kāraye ||

SS: Let my intellect meditate on Viṣṇu or be merged in the bliss of Brahman, I am the witness of all. I do nothing nor cause anything to be done.

JBS: Let the mind contemplate Vishnu or merge in the Bliss of Brahman. I am the Witness and I do not do anything at all here nor cause anything to be done.

evaṃ ca kalahaḥ kutra saṃbhavet karmiṇo mama
vibhinnaviṣayatvena pūrvāparasamudravat ||271||

evam ca kalahaḥ kutra saṃbhavet karmiṇaḥ mama |
vibhinna viṣayatvena pūrva apara samudravat ||

SS: How can there be any conflict between the actor and myself? Our functions are as apart from each other as the eastern from the western ocean.

JBS: While so, wherefrom can arise any dispute between one doing action and myself, as our provinces are far different as the eastern and western oceans?

vapur vāgdhīṣu nirbandhaḥ karmiṇo na tu sākṣiṇi
jñāninaḥ sākṣy alepatve nirbandho netaratra hi ||271||

vapuḥ vāk dhīṣu nirbandhaḥ karmiṇaḥ na tu sākṣiṇi |
jñāninaḥ sākṣi alepatve nirbandhaḥ na itaratra hi ||

SS: How can there be any conflict between the actor and myself? Our functions are as apart from each other as the eastern from the western ocean.

JBS: While so, wherefrom can arise any dispute between one doing action and myself, as our provinces are far different as the eastern and western oceans?

evaṃ cānyonyavṛttāntānabhijñau badhirāv iva
vivadetāṃ buddhimanto hasanty eva vilokya tau ||273||

evam ca anyonya vṛttānta anabhijñau badhirau iva |
vivadetām buddhimantaḥ hasanti eva vilokya tau ||

SS: If the advocates of Karma and Jñāna, without understanding the difference of their topics, enter into a dispute, they are like two deaf persons quarrelling! The illumined ones only laugh at seeing them.

JBS: While so, without knowing the condition of each other, they two (one who attaches importance to action and the other who attaches importance to knowledge) quarrel with each other like two persons who are both deaf. Sensible people simply laugh on seeing them both.

yaṃ karmī na vijānāti sākṣiṇaṃ tasya tattvavit
brahmatvaṃ budhyatāṃ tatra karmaṇi kiṃ vihīyate ||274||

yam karmī na vijānāti sākṣiṇam tasya tattvavit |
brahmatvam budhyatām tatra karmaṇi kim vihīyate ||

SS: Let the knower of truth know the witness‐consciousness whom the Karmi does not recognize, as Brahman. What does the Karmi lose by this?

JBS: Let the knower of truth know the Brahman‐hood of the Witness whom the Karmī does not know. What is lost to the Karmī because of it?

dehavāgbuddhayas tyaktā jñāninānṛtabuddhitaḥ
karmī pravartayatvābhijñānino hīyate 'tra kim ||275||

deha vāk buddhayas tyaktā jñāninā anṛta buddhitaḥ |
karmī pravartayatvā abhijñāninaḥ hīyate atra kim ||

SS: The illumined man has rejected the body, speech and mind as unreal. What does he lose if [a] believer in action makes use of them?

JBS: The body, faculty of speech and mind have been abandoned by the knower on account of the knowledge that they are unreal. Let the Karmī be active with them. What is the loss to the knower by this?

pravṛttir nopayuktā cennivṛttiḥ kvopayujyate
bodhahetur nirvṛttiśced bubhutsāyāṃ tathetarā ||276||

pravṛttiḥ na upayuktā cet nivṛttiḥ kva upayujyate |
bodha hetuḥ nirvṛttiḥ cet bubhutsāyām tathā itarā ||

SS: (Doubt:) The knower of truth has no use for getting engaged in action. (Reply:) What use has actionlessness? (Doubt:) Absence of action is a help to the acquisition of knowledge. (Reply:) Action too is helpful in the search after knowledge.

JBS: If activity is not useful, where is cessation of activity useful? If cessation of activity is the cause of knowledge, the other (the activity) is similarly the cause of the desire to know.

buddhaścenna bubhutseta nāpy asau budhyate punaḥ
ābādhādanuvarteta bodho na tv anyasādhanāt ||277||

buddhaḥ cet na bubhutseta na api asau budhyate punaḥ |
ābādhāt anuvarteta bodhaḥ na tu anya sādhanāt ||

SS: (Doubt:) Once the truth is known, there is no further desire to know it (and so he has no need for action). (Reply:) He has not to know again (and so he has no need for inaction). The knowledge of truth remains unobstructed and needs nothing further to revive it.

JBS: If it is urged that a knower will not desire to know (as he has got the knowledge), he will neither know it again (for the same reason that he has the knowledge). The knowledge will continue as there is no impediment and not because of any other means.

nāvidyā nāpi tat kāryaṃ bodhaṃ bādhitum arhati
paraiva tattvabodhena bādhite te ubhe yataḥ ||278||

na avidyā na api tad kāryam bodham bādhitum arhati |
parā eva tattva bodhena bādhite te ubhe yataḥ ||

SS: Nescience (Avidyā) and its effects (the realm of duality) cannot negate the knowledge of truth. The dawn of truth has already destroyed them for ever in the case of the knower.

JBS: Neither ignorance nor its offshoots can injure the knowledge as they both have been negatived by the realisation of the truth even before.

bādhitaṃ dṛśyatāṃ akṣais tena bādho na dṛśyate
jīvannākhur na mārjāraṃ hanti hanyāt kathaṃ mṛtaḥ ||279||

bādhitam dṛśyatām akṣais tena bādhaḥ na dṛśyate |
jīvan ākhuḥ na mārjāram hanti hanyāt katham mṛtaḥ ||

SS: The realm of duality, destroyed by knowledge, may still be perceived by the senses, but such perception does not affect illumination. A living rat cannot kill a cat; then how can it do so when dead?

JBS: Let what has been negatived (that is, the offshoots of Ignorance, Name and Form) be seen by the senses. There will be no harm thereby (to knowledge). A live rat does not kill a cat; how will a dead one kill (it).

api pāśupatāstreṇa viddhaḥ cenna mamāra yaḥ
niṣphaleṣu vitunnāṅgo naṅkṣyatīty atra kā pramā ||280||

api pāśupata astreṇa viddhaḥ cet na mamāra yaḥ |
niṣphaleṣu vitunna aṅgaḥ naṅkṣyati iti atra pramā ||

SS: When a man is so invulnerable that even the mighty weapon Pāśupata cannot kill him, how can you say that he will be killed by an edgeless weapon.

JBS: What is the proof here that a man whose body has been struck by a worthless arrow will die – he who did not die even when pierced by the Pāśupata Astra?

ādāv avidyayā citraiḥ svakāryair jṛmbhamāṇayā
yuddhvā bodho 'jayat so 'dya sudṛḍho bādhyatāṃ katham ||281||

ādau avidyayā citraiḥ svakāryaiḥ jṛmbhamāṇayā |
yuddhvā bodhaḥ ajayat saḥ adya sudṛḍhaḥ bādhyatām katham ||

SS: The knowledge of truth has fought and overcome ignorance even when it was at the height of its power being helped by a variety of wrong notions produced by it. How can that knowledge, firmer now, be obstructed?

JBS: Knowledge came out victorious after fighting with ignorance when in the beginning it was very powerful along with its several creations. How can that knowledge be injured now, well strengthened as it is?

tiṣṭhantv ajñānatatkāryaśavā bodhena māritāḥ
na bhītir bodhasamrājaḥ kīrtiḥ pratyuta tasya taiḥ ||282||

tiṣṭhantu ajñāna tad kārya śavā bodhena māritāḥ |
na bhītiḥ bodha samrājaḥ kīrtiḥ pratyuta tasya taiḥ ||

SS: Let the corpses of ignorance and its effects, destroyed by knowledge, remain; the Emperor the conqueror has no fear of them; on the contrary they only proclaim his glory.

JBS: Let the corpses of ignorance and its creations killed by knowledge remain. There is no fear for the king, knowledge. On the other hand, there is only fame for him because of them.

ya evam atiśūreṇa bodhena na viyujyate
pravṛttyā vā nivṛttyā vā dehādigatayāsya kim ||283||

ya evam atiśūreṇa bodhena na viyujyate |
pravṛttyā nivṛttyā deha ādi gatayā asya kim ||

SS: To one who is not separated from this all‐powerful knowledge, neither engagement in action nor actionlessness does any injury. They relate only to the body.

JBS: He who is not separated from such a very heroic knowledge – what can happen to him by activity or cessation of activity which are in the body etc?

pravṛttāv āgraho nyāyyo bodhahīnasya sarvathā
svargāya vā 'pavargāya yatitavyaṃ yato nṛbhiḥ ||284||

pravṛttau āgrahaḥ nyāyyaḥ bodha hīnasya sarvathā |
svargāya apavargāya yatitavyam yataḥ nṛbhiḥ ||

SS: He who is without knowledge of truth must always be enthusiastic about action, for it is the duty of men to make efforts for heaven or for liberation.

JBS: Attachment to activity in all ways is proper in the case of one who lacks knowledge, because it is necessary for men to exert themselves for the attainment of heaven or salvation.

vidvāṃścet tādṛśāṃ madhye tiṣṭhet tad anurodhataḥ
kāyena manasā vācā karoty evākhilāḥ kriyāḥ ||285||

vidvān cet tādṛśām madhye tiṣṭhet tad anurodhataḥ |
kāyena manasā vācā karoti eva akhilāḥ kriyāḥ ||

SS: If the knower of truth is among people who are performing actions, he too performs all actions required of him with his body, mind and speech, so as to be in accord with them.

JBS: If the knower happens to be in the midst of such people, he does do all actions with his body, mind and speech , in conformity with them.

eṣa madhye bubhutsūnāṃ yadā tiṣṭhet tadā punaḥ
bodhāyaiṣāṃ kriyāḥ sarvāḥ dūṣayaṃstyajatu svayam ||286||

eṣa madhye bubhutsūnām yadā tiṣṭhet tadā punaḥ |
bodhāya eṣām kriyāḥ sarvāḥ dūṣayan tyajatu svayam ||

SS: If on the other hand he happens to be among people who are aspirants to spiritual knowledge, he should show defects in all actions and himself give them up.

JBS: If however he is in the midst of those desiring to know (the truth), let him, with a view to their getting the knowledge, censure all actions and himself also give them up.

avidvadanusāreṇa vṛttir buddhasya yujyate
stanandhayānusāreṇa vartate tat pitā yataḥ ||287||

avidvat anusāreṇa vṛttiḥ buddhasya yujyate |
stanan dhaya anusāreṇa vartate tad pitā yataḥ ||

SS: It is proper that the wise man when with the ignorant should act in accord with their actions, just as a loving father acts according to the wishes of his little children.

JBS: The behaviour of the knower in conformity with the ignorant is quite proper, as the father of a babe in arms behaves in conformity with it.

adhikṣiptas tāḍito vā bālena svapitā tadā
na kliśnāti na kupyeta bālaṃ pratyuta lālayet ||288||

adhikṣiptas tāḍitaḥ bālena svapitā tadā |
na kliśnāti na kupyeta bālam pratyuta lālayet ||

SS: When his infant children show him disrespect or beat him, he neither gets angry with them nor feels sorry, but on the contrary, fondles them with affection.

JBS: Thrown down (or abused) or slapped by a child, the father does not then get vexed nor does he get angry; on the other hand, he fondles it.

ninditaḥ stūyamāno vā vidvān ajñair na nindati
na stauti kintu teṣāṃ syād yathā bodhas tathā caret ||289||

ninditaḥ stūyamānaḥ vidvān ajñaiḥ na nindati |
na stauti kintu teṣām syāt yathā bodhas tathā caret ||

SS: The enlightened man when praised or blamed by the ignorant does not praise or blame them in return. He behaves in such a way as to awaken a knowledge of the real entity in them.

JBS: A knower abused or praised by the ignorant does not abuse or praise, but must behave in such a way that knowledge may arise in them.

yenāyaṃ naṭanenātra budhyate kāryam eva tat
ajñaprabodhānnaivānyat kāryam asty atra tadvidaḥ ||290||

yena ayam naṭanena atra budhyate kāryam eva tad |
ajña prabodhāt na eva anyad kāryam asti atra tadvidaḥ ||

SS: With the ignorant a wise man should behave in such a way as will enable them to have realization. In this world he has no other duty except awakening the ignorant.

JBS: That acting must certainly be done by which this (ignorant man) here will get knowledge [/or/ by which this (the Self) here will be realised]. Here for the knower of that (the Self), there is nothing else to do at all other than the teaching (the waking up) of the ignorant.

kṛtakṛatyatayā tṛptaḥ prāptaprāpyatayā punaḥ
tṛptyannevaṃ svamanasā manyate 'sau nirantaram ||291||

kṛta kṛatyatayā tṛptaḥ prāpta prāpyatayā punaḥ |
tṛptyan evam svamanasā manyate asau nirantaram ||

SS: As he has achieved all that was to be achieved, and nothing else remains for him to do, he feels satisfied and always thinks thus:

JBS: He gets satisfied by reason of having done what all has to be done and also by reason of attaining what has to be attained. So contented he incessantly thinks within his own mind thus :–

dhanyo 'haṃ dhanyo 'haṃ nityaṃ svātmānam añjasā vedmi
dhanyo 'haṃ dhanyo 'haṃ brahmānando vibhāti me spaṣṭam ||292||

dhanyaḥ aham dhanyaḥ aham nityam svātmānam añjasā vedmi |
dhanyaḥ aham dhanyaḥ aham brahmānandaḥ vibhāti me spaṣṭam ||

SS: Blessed am I, blessed, for I have the constant vision of my Self! Blessed am I, blessed, for the bliss of Brahman shines clearly to me!

JBS: Fortunate am I, fortunate am I! I know directly my Self as eternal. Fortunate am I, fortunate am I! The Bliss of Brahman shines clearly to me.

dhanyo 'haṃ dhanyo 'haṃ duḥkhaṃ sāṃsārikaṃ na vīkṣe 'dya
dhanyo 'haṃ dhanyo 'haṃ svasyājñānaṃ palāyitaṃ kvāpi ||293||

dhanyaḥ aham dhanyaḥ aham duḥkham sāṃsārikam na vīkṣe adya |
dhanyaḥ aham dhanyaḥ aham svasya ajñānam palāyitam kva api ||

SS: Blessed am I, blessed, for I am free from the sufferings of the world. Blessed am I, blessed, for my ignorance has fled away, I know not where.

JBS: Fortunate am I, fortunate am I! I do not see now the misery of Saṃsāra. Fortunate am I, fortunate am I! My ignorant has run away somewhere.

dhanyo 'haṃ dhanyo 'haṃ kartavyaṃ me na vidyate kiñcit
dhanyo 'haṃ dhanyo 'haṃ prāptavyaṃ sarvam adya saṃpannam ||294||

dhanyaḥ aham dhanyaḥ aham kartavyam me na vidyate kiñcit |
dhanyaḥ aham dhanyaḥ aham prāptavyam sarvam adya saṃpannam ||

SS: Blessed am I, blessed, for I have no further duty to perform. Blessed am I, blessed, for I have now achieved the highest that one can aspire to.

JBS: Fortunate am I, fortunate am I! Nothing remains to be done by me. Fortunate am I, fortunate am I! All that need be obtained has now been got.

dhanyo 'haṃ dhanyo 'haṃ tṛpter me kopamā bhavelloke
dhanyo 'haṃ dhanyo 'haṃ dhanyo dhanyaḥ punaḥ punar dhanyaḥ ||295||

dhanyaḥ aham dhanyaḥ aham tṛpteḥ me upamā bhavet loke |
dhanyaḥ aham dhanyaḥ aham dhanyaḥ dhanyaḥ punaḥ punaḥ dhanyaḥ ||

SS: Blessed am I, blessed, for there is nothing to compare with my great bliss! Blessed am I, blessed, blessed, blessed, again and again blessed!

JBS: Fortunate am I, fortunate am I! What is there equal to my satisfaction in the world? Fortunate am I, fortunate am I, fortunate, fortunate, fortunate again and again!

aho puṇyam aho puṇyam phalitaṃ phalitaṃ dṛḍham
asya puṇyasya saṃpatter aho vayam aho vayam ||296||

ahaḥ puṇyam aho puṇyam phalitam phalitam dṛḍham |
asya puṇyasya saṃpatteḥ aho vayam aho vayam ||

SS: O my merits, my merits, how enduringly they have born fruit! Wonderful are we, the possessors of this great merit, wonderful!

JBS: Wonderful is my virtue! Wonderful is my virtue! It has fructified, fructified firmly. By the acquisition of such virtue, wonderful are we, wonderful are we!

aho śāstram aho śāstram aho gurur aho guruḥ
aho jñānam aho jñānam aho sukham aho sukham ||297||

ahaḥ śāstram aho śāstram aho guruḥ aho guruḥ |
ahaḥ jñānam aho jñānam aho sukham aho sukham ||

SS: O how grand and true are the scriptures, the scriptures, O how grand and great is my teacher, my teacher! O how grand is this illumination, this illumination, O how grand is this bliss, this bliss!

JBS: Wonderful is the Śāstra, wonderful is the Śāstra! Wonderful is the Guru, wonderful is the Guru! Wonderful is the knowledge, wonderful is the knowledge! Wonderful is the Bliss, wonderful is the Bliss!

tṛptidīpam imaṃ nityaṃ ye 'nusaṃdadhate budhāḥ
brahmānande nimajjantas te tṛpyanti nirantaram ||298||

tṛptidīpam imam nityam ye anusaṃdadhate budhāḥ |
brahmānande nimajjantas te tṛpyanti nirantaram ||

SS: The wise who study repeatedly this chapter called the 'Lamp of perfect Satisfaction' will dive in the bliss of Brahman and remain in perfect bliss.

JBS: Those wise people who constantly think over this chapter Tṛpti Dīpa (Light of Satisfaction) are ever satisfied without any break, diving (merging) in the Bliss of Brahman.