Arabic Learning


Philosophers (synthesis, reconciliaton of Aritotelian & Platonic philosophy):

The East

(Baghdad-Abbasid Empire- began systematic translation of thousands of texts preserved by Nestoniands in Syriac translations. Initially medicine (Galen); 780-850 al-Juarizmi, alegra, arabic nums. (mathematical sciences)

  1. Arabs:
    1. al-Kindi (Arab d.873). De intellectu (based on Alejandro de Afrodisia's De Animae.
    2. al-Farabi (Persian m.950). Translates Porfirio & Aristotle's Organon. Compilation: De intellectu et intellecto*
    3. Avicena (Persian 980-1037). Canon. Folosofía oriental. La Curación (suma filos. 18 vols.)*
  2. Jews:
    1. Isaac Israeli (physician 865-955) The beginning of Jewish philosophical studies.
    2. Saadía ben Josef de Fayum (892-942) Combats neoplatonic doctrine (anti-Emanist)

In Spain:

  1. Arabs:
    1. Ibn Bayya (Avempache) (d.1139). treatises on logic, Sobre el alma, Guía del solitario, Sobre la unión del intelecto con el hombre
    2. Abu Baker ibn Tofail (1100-1185). His Hayy Ben Yaqdhan (nov.) not known in Eur. s.XIII.
    3. (Averroes) (1126-1198). Commentator par excellence of Aristotle**
  2. Jews:
    1. ? Hasdai ibn Shaprut c915-970 co-trans of Dioscorides (greek phys)
    2. Salomon ibn Gabirol (1021-1058). Early translations into Arabic. Fons Vitae.
    3. Ibn Pakuda
    4. Ibn Zadic (Córdoba 1080-1149)
    5. Judá Ha Levi (1085-)
    6. Ibn Daud (1110-1180)
    7. Moses ben Maimon (Córdoba 1135-1204) Guide to the Perplexed

Arabic science in Spain

Early flowering: IXth c.
822 Ziryab, musician
833-931 Ibn Masarra, mystic

Forerunners: Xth c.
Abul Qasim Maslama al Mayriti
(mathematician/astronomer [-1007]). His book gives a summary of equations of Planets - Like Al Battani's Tables. Followed the Indian system of Sind Hind (vs. Tolemaico) trepidation (movement) of the fixed stars
Azarquiel Tablas Toledanas with correction of exaggerated length of Med. in Tolomy's Alex. Tables

From the beginning:
Instruments (astronomy) form Xth c. (celestial map survives from 11th c.); experts in metal work; calculus, geometry; philosophy or cosmological; natural sciences; botany and pharmacology by end Xth c. Experimental botanical gardens in Toledo. (acclimatization etc.)

XIth c.
       -1064 Ibn Hazm
1007-1064 Abu-l Qasim al-Mayriti
1020-1058 Salomon b. Gabirol (Avicebron)
      -1040 Abu-l-Hasan `Ali-al-Riyal (Abenragel), mathematician
      -1080 Bahya b. Paquda
      -1087 al-Zarqali, astronomer
      -1104 al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis)
      -1125 Abu-l-`Ala`Zuhn, physician
      -1138 Ibn Bayya (Avempace)
1088-1141 Ibn al Arif, mystic
      -1151 Ibn Qasyi, mystic
      -1159 Ibn Quzman, poet
      -1162 Abd al Mahk b. Zuhr (Avenzoar)
      -1182 Ibn Tufayl, philosopher
1126-1198 Ibn Rusd (Averroes)
1135-1204 Maimon
      -1204 al-Bitruyi (Alpetraguiaas)

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