Definiciones de algunos tropos:

Metáfora (f.)                 Metaphor

Símil (m.)                     Simile

1. "METAPHOR and SIMILE are both comparisons between things essentially unlike. The only distinction is that in simile the comparison is expressed, by the use of some word or phrase such as like, as, than, similar to, or resembles. In metaphor the comparison is implied--that is, the figurative term is substituted for or identified with the literal term. . . . When Tennyson writes that the eagle 'clasps the crag with crooked hands' . . . , he is using a metaphor, for he substitutes crooked hands for claws. Later, when he says that the eagle falls 'like a thunderbolt,' he uses a simile." (Perrine, p. 64.)

2. Simile and Metaphor. "The first is usually defined as a stated comparison (generally announced by like or as); the second as an implied comparison (in which the two things compared are identified with each other). The following comparison is a simile:
        This city now doth like a garment wear
        The beauty of the morning . . .

The following comparison is a metaphor:
         So the soul, that drop, that ray
        Of the clear fountain of eternal day . . . (Brooks and Warren, p. 688.)

3. Metaphor; "An implied ANALOGY which imaginatively identifies one object with another and ascribes to the first one or more of the qualities of the second or invests the first with emotional or imaginative qualities associated with the second. It is one of the TROPES; that is, one of the principal devices by which poetic 'turns' on the meaning of words are achieved. . . . Metaphors may be simple, that is, may occur in the single isolated comparison, or a large metaphor may function as the CONTROLLING IMAGE of a whole work." (Thrall, Hibbard, Holman, pp. 281-2.)

4. Simile: "A figure of speech in which a similarity between two objects is directly expressed, as in Milton's

A dungeon horribe, on all sides round,
As one great furnace flamed;

Here the comparison between the dungeon (Hell) and the great furnace is directly expressed in the as which labels the comparison a simile. (Thrall, Hibbard, Holman, p. 460.)

Metonimia (f.) Metonymy

1. Metonymy: "A common FIGURE OF SPEECH which is characterized by the substitution of a term naming an object closely associated with the word in mind for the word itself. In this way we commonly speak of the king as 'the crown,' an object closely associated with kingship thus being made to stand for 'king.' So, too, in the book of Genesis we read, \In the sweat of thy face shall thou eat bread,' a figure of speech in which 'sweat' represents that with which it is closely associated, 'hard labor.'" (Thrall, Hibbard, Holman, p. 286.)

2. "Shakespeare uses metonymy when he says that the yellow cucoo-buds 'paint the meadows with delight' . . . , for he means with bright color, which produces delight. Robert Frost uses metonymy in \Out, Out--' . . . when he describes an injured boy holding up his cut hand \as if to keep / The life from spilling,' for literally he means to keep the blood from spilling." (Perrine, pp. 69-70)

3. Metonymy: "Use of one word for another that it suggests, as the effect for the cause, the cause for the effect, the sign for the thing signified, the container for the thing contained, etc. (a man keeps a good table, instead of good food)." (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary.)

4. "METONIMIA.--Tropo que responde a la fórmula pars por parte `una parte en lugar de otra parte'; consiste en designar una cosa con el nombre de otra, que con ella en una de las siguientes relaciones: causa a efecto: vive de su trabajo; continente a contenido: tomaron unas copas; lugar de procedencia a cosa que de allí procede: el Jerez; signo a cosa significada: traicionó su bandera, etcétera." (Lázaro Carreter, Correa Calderón, pp. 195-6.)

Sinécdoque (f.) Synecdoche

1. Synecdoche; "A form of METAPHOR which in mentioning a part signifies the whole or the whole signifies the part. In order to be clear, a good synecdoche must be based on an important part of the whole and not a minor part and, usually, the part selected to stand for the whole must be the part most directly associated with the subject under discussion. Thus under the first restriction we say motor for automobile (rather than tire), and under the second we speak of infantry on the march as foot rather than as hands just as we use hands rather than foot for men who are at work at manual labor." (Thrall, Hibbard, Holman, p. 481.)

2. "SYNECDOCHE (the use of the part for the whole) and METONYMY (the use of something closely related for the thing actually meant) are alike in that both substitute some significant detail or aspect of an experience for the experience itself. Thus, Shakespeare uses synecdoche when he says that the cuckoo's song is unpleasing to a 'married ear' . . . , for he means a married man. Robert Graves uses synecdoche in 'The Naked and the Nude'. T.S.Eliot uses it in 'The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock' when he refers to a crab or lobster as \a pair of ragged claws' . . . Many synecdoches and metonymies, of course, like many metaphors, have become so much a part of the language that they no longer strike us as figurative; such is the case with redskin for Indian, paleface for white man, and salt and tar for sailor." (Perrine, pp. 69-70.)

3. Synecdoche: "A figure of speech by which a part is put for the whole (fifty sail for fifty ships), the whole for a part (the smiling year for spring), the species for the genus (cutthroat for assassin), the genus for the species (a creature for a man), the name of the material for the thing made, etc." (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary.)

4."SINÉCDOQUE. --Tropo que responde a la fórmula lógica pars pro toto (`la parte por el todo') o totum pro parte (`el todo por la parte'). Así, hay siníecdoque cuando se emplea una palabra que designa el género para significar la especie, o viceversa: los mortales - 'los hombres'; cuando la palabra que alude al todo pasa a designar la parte, o viceversa: diez cabezas - `diez reses' ; la ciudad se ha amotinado - `los habitantes de la ciudad se han amotinado'; el español es sobrio - `los españoles son sobrios'." (Lázaro Carreter, Correa Calderón, pp. 202-3.)

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